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Full text of "Biennial report - State of Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction"

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'^cA/iecU oi 



A. J. CRAIG. 



/ 



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ANNUAL REPORT 



S TIP ERINTEN DENT 



PUBLIC INSTRUCTION 



OV THI 



STATE OF WISOONSm, % 



rf- 



TEAR ENDING AUGUST 81, 1868. 



A. J. CRAIG, 



SUPERINTBNDKNT OP PUBLIC INSTBUCTION. 



DEPftRTA\IirJ OF 
PUBL.I6 INGTHUGHON 



MADISON, WI8 | 

▲ffWOOD h RXmUEB, STATE PRtHTIB8| JOmUTAL OmOS. 

1868. ' 



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OlIIOl 01 THl SUPIBINTIVDINT 01 PuBLIO InBTBUOTION. 

Madison, December 10, 1868. 

To Hi$ JBxceUenejf, Lu^zvs Faibohili^ 

Oovemor of Wiicontin : 

Sib : — I haye the honor to traDsmit, through you, to the Legis- 
lature, the Annual Beport of the Department o£ PiibUo Instruction, 
for the year ending August 81, 1868. 

I am, sir, yery respectfully. 

Tour obedient seryant, 

A. J. OBAIO, 
SvperifUendent of Public In^ntetion, 



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MICHIGAN OEPT.OF 
PUBUC INSTRUCTION 

JUN 20 -ss 



ANNUAL REPORT 

or THE 

SUPEBBTTBUBBNT 



PUBLIC INS'J'RUCTION 



OfIIOB Of THB SUPEBINTBNDBNT OT PuBLIO InSTRUOTION. 

Madison, December 10, 1868. 

To the Legislature of Wisconsin : 

Obntlbmbk : — Section 67 of Chapter 10, of the Kevised 
Statutes requires the Superintendent of Pnblic Instruction to pre- 
pare an annual report, containing : 

1. An abstract of all the common school reports received by 
him from the several clerks of the county boards of supervisors 
{'County Superintendents). 

2. A statement of the condition of the common schools of this 
state. 

8. Estimates and accounts of expenditures of the school moneys. 

4, Plans for the improvement and management jof the common 
school ^nd, and for the better organization of the common schools ; 
and 

6. All such matter reUtiog to his office, and the common schools 
of the state, as he shall deem expedient. 

An abstract of the reports of the county superintendents will be 
jovldA in the appendix, in tables Nos. 2 to 9, which give in detail by 



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counties and towns full statistics on all important points or sub- 
jects embraced in our school system. 

The condition of the schools can be ascertained, however, by a 
consideration of the following summary of the general statistics, 
which is presented under appropriate heads. 

I. — SCHOOL DISTRICTS. 

Counting two and one quarter parts of districts as equivalent to 
one whole district, the whole number now organized is 4,728, again 
01 116 over the number reported last year. The increase does not 
correcily represent the number formed during the past year, as the 
process of consolidation has diminished the number existing at its 
commencement. The evils inherent in the district system are some- 
what mitigated by judicious consolidation but they cannot be per- 
manently remedied or removed, except by the adoption of the town- 
ship system. 

The number of districts reporting is 4,647, which is 81 less than 
the whole number organized, 

II.-- OHILDRBN OVER FOUR AND UNDBR TWBNTT TBARS OF AGB. 

The number of persons returned as over four and under twenty 
years of age is 8^6,630, a gain of 15,547 f^om last year. 

III. — NUMBBR OF CHILDRBN OF SCHOOL AQB IN DISTRICTS MAINTAIN- 
ING A SCHOOL FIVB OR MORB MONTHS. 

The number reported under this heading is 374,749. The num- 
ber given in the report for 1867 was 830,263, but, as then stated, 
the item was incorrect, and by application to the reporting offioei^ 
the number was bronght up to 861,759, before the annual appor- 
ment was made. 

It will be necissary to make some additions to the number re- 
ported this year. 

IT. — TOTAL NUMBBR OF PBRS0N8 ATTBNDINO THB PUBLIC SCHOOtS. 

The number given in the reports for the past year, i^ 246,440 ; 
but this is evidently incorrect, as the number who attended between 



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tlie ages of fonrand twenty years, is 246,105, to wbioh, if ve add 
1,194 the number who attended under four years of age, and 1,373, 
the number oyer twenty years of age, we shall have a sum of 
249.007. 

The average length of time schools were maintained throughout 
the State is 141 1-2 days, an increase of 4 1-2 days over 1867. 

The following table shows : (l)r, the total number of children in 
the state over four and under twenty years of age ; (2), the total 
number who have attended the public schools some portion of the 
year ; (3), the per cent, of attendance as compared with the whole 
number of school age ; and, (4), the average number of days schools 
have been taught for each year since the organization of the state. 



YEAR. 


Total number of chil- | 
dren in the state ■ 
over four and under 1 
twenty years of age. ^ 


1 

Total number who at- ' 
tended school some 
some portion of the 
year. 


Average number in 
school a portion of | 
the time, of each 
hundred of school 
age. 1 


Average number of 
da;ys schools were 


1849 


70,467 
92,047 
111,481 
124,783 
138,279 
166,126 
186,960 
213,886 
241,646 
264,077 
278,871 
. 288,984 
299,133 
308,066 
820,966 
829.906 
889,024 
862,004 
371 ,088 
886,630 


32,147 

61,507 

78,944 

88,042 

97,836 

103,933 

122,462 

134,353 

163,613 

171,886 

188,477 

194,367 

198,448 

191,366 

216,163 

211,119 

223,067 

284,266 

239,946 

249,007 


45 

66 

70 

71 

69 

66 

64 

64 

60 

63 

64 

67 

66 

62 

67 

66 

66 

66i 

66 

64 


71 


1860, 


74 


1861, 


74 


1852, .•^... 


76 


1853 


76 


1864 


77 


1856, 


84 


1856, 


99 


1857, 




186S, 


122 


1869, 


121 


•I860 


136 


1861,...*. 

1862, 


182 
109 


1863 


120 


1864, 


120i 


1866, 

1866, , 

1867, 


134i 

128 

187 


1868, 


14H 



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6 

To asoertain the whole number who have attended schools of all 
kinds during the year, wa add to the number attending the public 
schools the number reported bj other institutions, as follows : 

Number attending the public echoole 249,0-)7 

private schools 14 ,679 

academies' 981 

colleges and universities 2 ,1 13 

Soldiers' Orphans* Home... 800 

Number in Reform School, benevolent institutions, orphan asylums, 

etc, estimated 1 , 500 

Total 268,680 



After deducting from ^e whole number of persons over four and 
under twenty years of age, the number attending public schools, pri- 
yate schools, academies and colleges, and the number in the benevo- 
lent institutions ; and making liberal allowance for those living where 
no schools have been organized, and for those who, for various 
reasons, could not attend any school, there will remain about 50, 000 
youth who should have been in school, but who have not attended 
any part of the year. 

The number the public school houses will accommodate is 271,- 
009. Deducting from this. 249,007, the whole number who attend- 
ed, and there remain 22,002, for whom ample provision was made, 
but who neglected to avail themselves of the privileges furnished. 

All thoughtful men regard with serious concern the failure of our 
system to educate those most needing an education, and some advise 
a resort to legislation to compel the attendance at school of all 
children of certain specified ages. 

Believing that the State has the same right to the time of the 
child that it has to the money of the parent, and believing that the 
end sought through a system of public instruction — the preservation 
of our government and institutions — cannot be secured so long as a 
large percentage of our youth are growing up in ignorance, they call 
upon the representatives of the people to provide that those for 
whom free schools are maintained shall enjoy the benefits which the 
schools are designed to confer. It may be well, however, before 
resorting to compulsory legislation, to ascertain whether a largely 
increased attendance upon the public schools may not be secured 
through modifications of the school law, especially in reference to 



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Uie o^Eisation of distriots, the sapervision of aoboolSi and the 
apportiouaent of the inoome of Ae sohool fond. These topios will 
not be disonsaed here, bat will be treated of in another part of this 
report. 

OBADBD SOHOOLd. 

The number reported is 226, which is 131 less than was returned 
last year ; but this is manifestly incorrect, as there has been no such 
diminution of this class of schools. On the contray there is reason 
to believe that they have increased, and that there are a greater 
number in operation now than at any previous date. It is certain, 
however, that oucside of cities and villages but few such schools 
can be established under our present district system, and unless we 
can secure a change of organization the greater portion of our peo 
pie must be denied the advantages which such schools furnish. 

VI — TBAOHBRS AND TIACHBRS' WAGBS. 

The number of teachers required in all the schools 5,267, and the 
number actually employed for some portion of the year is 8,566. This 
difference between the number required and the number actuaUy em- 
ployed is partly accounted for by the fact that in a large number of 
districts female teachers are employed in the summer, and male tea- 
chers in the winter, and partly by the almost universal custom of 
changing teachers every term without re^^d to the sez of the per- 
son engaged. The disadvantages of this plan of changing teachers 
are so evident that all acknowledge them, yet there is little prospect 
that under our present system, a different practice will ever prevail. 
A change of system is the only sure remedy for this wide spread 
evil. 

The average wages of male teachers is $42,97, a gain of 92,21 
from last year ; and of female teachers $27,18, a gain of 84 cents. 



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The following table shows (1) the monthly wages of male 
teachers, (2) the monthly wages of female teaohers, and (3) the 
ratio of the wages of female to the wages of male teachers, for the 
past twenty years. 



Tear. 


Male. 


Female. 


Ratio 
per cent. 


1849 


$15 22 
17 14 

17 15 
15 88 

18 17 
18 75 
28 10 

25 88 
24 60 

27 02 
22 98 
24 20 

28 01 

26 82 

27 11 
82 89 
86 46 
88 68 
40 76 
42 97 


$6 92 
8 97 
8 86 

8 64 

9 94 

11 00 

12 08 

18 80 
16 16 
14 92 
14 29 
16 80 
14 62 
16 82 
16 81 

19 48 
22 24 
24 06 

26 84 

27 18 


45 


I860 


62 


1851 


48 


1862 


64 


1868 


60 


1864 


60 


1866 


62 


1866 


64 


1867 


62 


1858 


66 


1869 


68 


I860 


68 


1861 


68 


18C2 


61 


1868 


62 


1864 


60 


1 866 


61 


1866 


62 


1867 


64 


1868 


68 







While the average of wages increases but slowly, the demand for 
thoroughly qualified teachers is so great that good salaries are paid 
to principals of the best high and graded schools, and the induce- 
ments presented to teachers to fit themselves for the proper per- 
formance of their duties, ought in time to secure a full supply of 
competent instructors. A salary of fifteen hundred dollars is now 
quite common ; many small villages pay their principal teacher from 
eight to twelve hundred, and in the best country districts from 
forty to sixty dollars a month is received. 

The standard of qualifications is raised year by year, and teachers' 
wages keep pace, in a good degree, with their attainments. Arrange 
matters so that they shall have permanent employment, and in the 
value of the service rendered, our teachers will justify all the out- 
lay made in their behalf. 



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9 

The number of teaohers' certificates granted during the past year 
is shown by the following statement : 

iBtGr. 2dGr. 8d Gr. Total. 

Certificates of male teachers 66 109 1 ,478 1 , 668 

Certificates of female teachers 19 166 4, 861 4, 646 

Total 86 274 6.889 6,198 



Tn. — BOHOOL HOnSBS. 

The whole number of school houses reported is 4,646. This 
leaves eighty-two districts without houses. Some of them main- 
tained school in rented houses, so that there are not, probably, more 
than fifty or sixty districts in which school has not been kept. 
More than ten per cent, of the houses are built of stone or brick, 
the number being 487 ; an increase of thirty-six from last year. 
It is very gratifying to learn that there are 3,037 outhouses in good 
condition. Several fine buildings have been erected or completed 
during the past year. Oshkosh takes the lead with a high school 
building, which, with the grounds, is valued at 965,000. It is a 
fine specimen of architecture, an ornament to the city and a credit 
to the enterprise and intelligence of its citizens. 

Berlin comes next with a house costing (25,000, followed by Elk- 
horn with one at (20,000 ; Shullsburg one at (20.000 ; Lake Mills 
one at (15.000 ; Oreen Bay one at (12,000 ; Appleton one at 
(11,000 and Neoedah one at (8,000. Menomonie, Dunn Oounty, 
has a house nearly finished which will cost (15,000, and several 
other places have erected or are erecting substantial, commodious 
and tasteful structures. The high-school building at Fond du Lac, 
valued last year at (34,000, was burned last winter, but the peo- 
ple of that flourishing city will not long remain without a first class 
house. Below are given the cities and villages having houses val- 
ued at (10,000 or more. 

Oshkosh $66,000 

Jaoesville 46 ,000 

Milwaukee 86, 000 

Kenosha 28,000 

Berlin 26,000 

Geneva 20,000 

Madison 20 ,000 

Shnllsbarg 20,000 

Watertown 17,000 



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10 

Elkfaorn - 16,200 

Delavan 16,200 

Lake Mills 15,000 

Fort Atkinson 14,000 

Sheboygan 14,000 

LaOrosee 13,000 

Beloit 12,000 

Green Bay 12,000 

Appleton 11,000 

Platteville 11,000 

ChippewB FaUs 10,000 

Waukesha 10,000 

Waupaca 10,000 

The total valuation of all the school-hoaiieB in the state is 

$2,673,393.99. The valne of sites is $358,166.62, making an in- 
vestment of nearly three millions of dollars. 



YII — BKOKIPTS Airn AXPlirniTUBlS. 

The receipts and expenditures on account of public schools for 

the past year, as reported by the county superintendents, are as fol- 

lowi : 

Receipts. 

« Money on hand Augusi Slst, 1867 $294,688 08 

From taxes levied for building and repairing 405 ,774 71 

From taxes levied for teachers* wages 806, 826 38 

From taxes levied for apparatus and libraries 17,483 72 

From taxes levied at annual town meetings 112, 823 64 

From taxes levied by county supervisors 188 , 052 48 

From income of state school fund 165 ,418 61 

From all other morces 825 ,594 78 

Total receipts 12, 226. 560 85 

EapendUmres. 

For building and repairing |45?.,419 08 

For apparatus 9 , ;>89 , 66 

For teachers' wages 1,023,052,66 

For old indebtedness 78,948 76 

For furniture, registers and records 68 , 897 7S 

For all other purposes. 159 , 232 61 

ToUl expenditures $1,791,940 62 

Money on band August 81st, 1868 484,619 88 

$2,226,560 85 



The financial statistics in tables 5 and 6 of the appendix 
differ in some respects from the figures here given. The total re- 
ceipts are there stated to be ^2, 286,288, 82 ; the total expendi- 



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11 

tures $1,774,478.84 ; and the amonnt on hand Augast Slat, 1868, 
as 9863,276.48 ; bnt these figures are manifestly incorrect, as the 
totals onght to eqnal the sum of the items, and the money on hand 
the difference between receipts and expenditures. 

The amount expended for all purposes equals (4.64 for each per- 
son reported as between four and twenty years of age, and $7|19 
for each pupil registered as having attended school. The amount 
expended for tuition, for each pupil registered, is $4.18. 

For convenience of reference a tabular summary of the gen- 
eral statistics is here presented, and for the purpose of comparison, 
the returns for 1867 are given in connection with those for the past 
year. 

SUMMABT 07 GINIBAL STATISTICS.* 

1867. 1868. 

Wholfi number of districts in the State 8, 770 8, 881 

Number of districts reported 8,694 8,807 

Whole number of parts of districts 1 ,896 1 ,907 

Number of parts of districts reported 1 , 826 1 , 866 

Number of children over four And under twenty 

years of age in the State 371,088 886,680 

Number of children over four and under twenty 
years of age in districts maintaining school 
five or more months 861,759 874,749 

Number over four and under twenty years of age 

who hftve attended school 283,676 246,106 

Total number of different pupils who have attended 

the public schools during the year 239 , 946 249 , 007 

Average number of days school was maintained .. 137 141^ 

Number of dnys attendance of pupils over four 

and under twenty years of age 17,171,187 18,681,906 

Total number of days attendance of different pu- 
pils during the year 17,276,686 18,602,188 

Number of days schools have been taught by qual- 
ified teachers 692,226 746,816 

Number of pupils who have attended private 

gchools 18,408 14,679 

Number of schools with two departments 264 181 

Number of schools with three or more departments. 108 9S 

Number of teachers required to teach the schools . . 6 , 069 6 , 267 
Number of different persons employed as teachers 

daring the vear 8,867 8,666 

Average wages of male teachers $40 76 $42 97 

Average wages of female teachers $26 84 $27 18 

Number of schools visited by the County Super- 
intendent 4,228 4,177 

♦ A report from Ashland County was received too late to be incorporated, 
which adds 101 to the whole number of chijdren over four and under twenty 
years of age. 



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12 

Number of public schooI-houfleB in the State 4,666 4,646 

Number of pupils the school-houses will accom- 
modate 269,284 271,009 

Number of sites containing less than one acre. . . . 8, 621 8 ,616 

Number of sites well inclosed 908 984 

Number- of school-houses built of stone or brick. . 461 487 
Number of school-houses with out-houses in good 

condition 1,867 8,087 

Highest valuation of school-houses and site |60 000 66,000 00 

Total valuation of school-houses 2,140,857 98 2678,893 99 

Total valuation of sites 883,677 62 868,166 62 

Total value of apparatus 84,482 85 97,812 88 

Whole sum expended for building and repairing 

school houses.. 349,693 66 452,419 08 

Whole sum expended for apparatus 6,116 97 9,889 66 

Whole sum expended for teachers' wages 923,689 28 1023,052 66 

Whole sum expended for old indebtedness 68,640 48 78,948 76 

Whole sum expended for furniture, registers and 

records 22,127 66 68,897 76 

Whole sum expended for all other purposes 166,348 82 169,232 61 

Total amount expended 1620,411 76 1791,940 62 

Amount expended for each person of school age. 4 09 4 64 

Amount expended for each pupil registered 6 84 7 19 



IZ.-- SCHOOL FUND INOOHl. 

The amouDt apportioned , the past year is, ( 173, 644 32. The 
ratio of apportionment was 48 cents per scholar. 

A detailed statement, by counties and towns, will be found in 
table No. I. of the Appendix, 

The apportionments from 1850 to 1868, inoludve, are as follows : 



Years . 



No. of Children. Apportionment. 



I860,. 
1861,. 
1862, . 
1868,. 
1864,. 
1866, . 
1866,. 
1867,. 
1868, . 
1869,. 
I860,. 
1861 , . 
1862, . 
1868,. 
1864,. 
1866, . 
1866,. 
1867,. 
1868,. 



92,647 
111,481 
124,788 
188,279 
466,126 
186,960 
218,886 
241,646 
264,977 
278,871 
288,984 
299,782 
808,666 
820,966 
829,906 
839 ,024 
864,517 
871,088 
861,769 



8 8-10 cents per scholar. 

60 do 

48 do 

46 do 

72 do 

80 6-10.... do 

70 do 

66 do 

76 do 

64 do 

64 do 

82 do 

60 do 

44 do 

47 do 

46 do 

46 do 

47 do 

48 do 



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18 

The apportionment for each year is made upon the returns for 
the preceding year. The law requires that local officers apportion 
to those distiicts only which have maintained school for five months ; 
consequently an apportionment by the State Superintendent for the 
whole number of children returned from a town, in case one or 
more districts have not maintained a five months' school, gives to 
the other districts a greater amount than they are entitled to on the 
ratio per scholar. To correct this discrepency the town clerks were 
directed to report, in addition to the whole number of ehildren, the 
number in the districts maintaining school five or more months. 
This has been done for two or three years past, but the returns 
were so imperfect that they could not be acted on until the last ap- 
portionment, when the sum of $173,644,32 was distributed to 
361,769 children only, though the whole number reported for 1867 
was 371,083. The apportionments will hereafter be made on the 
same basis, so that the amounts apportioned to towns by the State 
Superintendent will be the exact sums to which the districts therein, 
that have maintained five months' school, are entitled. 

Z. — KDUOATIONAL VUNBS. 

By the courtesy of Gen, Allen, Secretary of State, I am permit- 
ted to copy from his annual report for 1868, the following exhibit 
of the condition of our educational trust funds : 

SCHOOL FUND. 

The school fund is composed of : 

1. Proceeds of lands granted by the United States for support of schools. 

2. All moneys at^cruing for forfeiture or escheat and trespass penalties on 
school land. 

8. All fines collected in the several counties for breach of t^e penal laws. 
4. All moneys paid as an exemption from military duty, and 
6, Five per cent of sale of government lands. 

The amount of the productive School Fund on the 30th day of 

September 1867 and 1868, was as follows : 

1867 1868 

Amount due on certificates of pales $535 ,015 66 |620, 557 62 

Amount due on mortgages 166,892 04 150,229 81 

GeHificates of indebtedness 1,894,900 00 1,584,700 00 

Total productive fund $2,096,807 60 $2,206, 486 83 



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14 

Skowbg an increase of the prodootive fdnd of (109, 179.28, 
during the past year. 

The changes in the first two items of the prodnetive fand, as sta- 
ted above, have been produeedss follows : 

Amount doe on certificates of sales, Sept 80. 1867 |585,016 66 

Decreased by forfeitares |10,66& 66 

Decreased by pajments 54,293 07 

70,948 68 

$464,067 08 
Inereased by new certificates of sales 66 ,490 49 

Amou nt due on certificates of sales Sept SO, 1868 | B80,667 62 

Amount due on mortgages Sept. 80, 1867 $166,892 04 

Decreased by forfeitures $8,050 00 

Decreased by payments 18,112 78 

16,162 78 



Amount doe on mortgages Sept. 80, 1868 $160,229 81 

The receipts and disbnrsements for the past year have been as 

foUows : 

Receipts. 

Sales of landss $38,688 81 

Dues on certificates 64,298 07 

Loans, payments on mortgages 18,112 78 

Penalties and forfeitures • 966 67 

Taxes 626 96 

Fines 1,076 78 

United States, 6 per cent on sales of public lands. 6 , 190 68 

Estates of persons deceased without heirs 420 46 



Total receipts $110,369 65 



DiMhuTMements. 

Invested in state bonds $189, 800 00 

Refunded for overpayments 1 ,020 68 



$110,869 66 $140,820 68 

Balance, September 80, 1867 81,866 26 

Balance, September 80, 1868 1,418 82 

$142,288 90 $142 288 90 



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15 

SCHOOL 1UXI> IVOOMS. 

latereat on principal due on lands |51 , 1 88 08 

Interest on certificates of indebtedness 107, 805 00 

Interest as per chapter 79, laws of 1866 7 ,088 36 

Twenly-fiTe per cent of Normal School fund in- 
come, chapter 26, laws 1866 11 , 926 28 

Sale of Webster's dictionaries 120 00 

Milwaukee county — refunded for over-payment of 

apportionment 55 68 



Total receipts $178,127 96 

Apportionment by state superintendent *|178, 710 47 

Websters's dictionaries 1 , 600 00 

Refunded on account of over payment of interest 965 67 



$178,127 95 $176,276 04 

Over payment, September 80, 1867 1 ,962 74 

Over payment, September 80, 1868 110 88 



$178,288 78 $178,288 78 



UNIYIBSITT VUND. 



This fund oonsistB of the proceeds of the saleb of lands granted 
by congress for the support of a university. 

The amount of this fund which was productive at the end of the 
fiscal year, ending September 80, 1867, and 1868, respectively, was 
as follows : 

1867. 1868. 

Amount due on certificates of sales $69,t92 88 $68,84114 

Amount due on mortgages 6,892 00 6,092 00 

Certificates of indebtedness 101 ,000 00 101 .000 00 

Dane county bonds. 16,800 00 24,000 00 

Total productive fund $198,884 88 $199,488 14 

Showing an increase in the productive fund during the last year 
of 95,548 26. 

•TUB amonot comprises tba sam of $00.71 appoxCloiied t« Bouglas County last year, 
Imt not paid till this, and does not embrace the sum of $34. 96, apportioned to Vernon 
Connty, alter Ist of October, the real sum apportioned for 1868, being $17S,644.8S. 



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The changes in the first two items of the prodactive fund, as 
stated above have been produced as follows : 

Amount due on certificates of sales, Sept. 80, 1867 |69, 192 88 

Decreased by forfeitures |1 ,868 74 

Decreased by payments. 4. ,969 00 

$6,827 74 



162,866 14 
Increased by new certificates of sales 6,976 00 



Amount due on certificates of sales, Sept. 30,1868 |68 ,841 14 

Amount due on mortgages, Sept. 80, 1867 |6 , 892 00 

Decreased by forfeitures $300 00 

Decreased by payments 600 00 

800 00 



Amount due on mortgages, Sept 80, 1868 t6,092 00 

The receipts and disbursements for the past year have been as 
follows : 

Eeceipts, 

Sales of land |2,061 18 

Dues on certificates 4,969 00 

Loans, payments on mortgages 600 00 

Penalties on forfeitures 46 86 

Taxes 22 76 



Total receipts 17,688 74 

Disbursements. 

Invested in Dane county bonds |7 ,200 00 

Refunded on account of over payments 72 16 

$7,688 74 $7,272 16 



Balance, September 80, 1867 1,18166 

Balance, September 80, 1868 1,498 14 

$8,770 80 $7,770 30 



UNIYIBSITT lUND INOOMl. 



The University Fund Income consists of the interest on the pro- 
ductive fund, and such donatioLS as may from time to time be made. 

The amount of receipts and disbursements during the last fiscal 
year was as follows : 



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17 

Beeetpts. 

Interest on principal due on lands 15,207 45 

Interest on certificates of indebtedness 7,070 00 

Interest, on Dane county bonds 1,680 00 

Students, for tuition and room rent 5,908 80 

Students, for fuel 458 87 

Boarding department 40 00 

Appr'n from general fund, chapter 22, laws of 1867 7, 808 76 

Total receipts $27,668 88 !!!!!!!!!! 

DUhvrtementi. 

Snlaries $22,098 88 

Espenses of regents 665 80 

Insurance 694 25 

Bepairs 8, 110 99 

Incidentals 2,85L 89 

Fuel 906 16 

Printing and advertising 405 95 

Library 862 69 

Furniture 89 70 

Boarding department 845 95 

Room Rent 44 88 

Philosophical apparatus 19 90 

Refunded for over-payment of Interest 144 01 

$27,658 88 $81,129 49 

Balance, September 80, 1867 5,619 54 

Balance, September 80, 1868 2,148 48 

$83,277 92 $83,277 92 



NORMAL 80H00L VUND. 

This fund ia composed of the prcoeeds of the sale of lands set 
apfc^Tt for the support of normal schools, by chapter 537, laws of 
1865. 

Twentj-five per cent, of the income of this fund is annually trans- 
ferred to the School Fund Income. 

The amount of productiye fund on the 30th day of Septembor, 
1867 and 1868, respeotiyely, was as follows : 

1867. 1868. 

Amount due on certificates of sale $110 ,022 42 $76 ,418 11 

Amount due on mortgages 1114,269 60 100,876 00 

Certificates of indebtedness 881,600 00 448,500 OO 

Total productive fund $602, 791 92 $625,294 11 

Showing an increase in the productiye fiind during the past year 

of 922,502 19. 

2~SiJF« Pub. Ivs. 



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18 

The changes in^the first two items of the productive fand, bb 
stated above, have been prodaoed as follows : 

Amount due on certificates of sale, Sept. 80, 1867 $110,022 42 

Decreased by forfeitures $7,82161 

Decreased by payments 29,288 70 

$36,610 81 

$78,412 11 
Increased by new certificates of sale 8,006 00 

Amount due on certificates of sale, Sept. 80, 1868 $76,418 11 

Amount due on mortgages, Sept. 80, 1867 $111 ,269 60 

Decreased by forfeitures $990 00 

Decreased by payments 9 ,908 50 

10,893 ftO 

Amount due on mortgages, Sept. 80, 1868 $100,376 00 

The receipts and disbursements for the last fiscal year have been 

as follows : 

Receiptt. 

Sales of lands $32, 860 88 

Dues on certificates. 29 ,288 70 

Loans, payments on mortgages 9,908 60 

Penalties on forfeitures 284 72 

Transfer from normal school fund income 2 ,888 28 



Total Receipts $74,666 08 

Disbvnementt. 

Invested in state bonds $67,000 00 

Transfer to drainage fund 9,409 79 

Befunded on account of OYerpayments 1 ,006 75 

$74,666 08 $77,416 64 

Balance, September 80, 1867 8,166 79 

Balance, September 80, 1868 6 ,416 28 

$82,882 82 $82,882 82 



MOBMAL SOHOOL VUND IKOOHK. 

Receipts, 

Interest on~principaf due on lands. $1 8 , 819 20 

Interest on certificates of indebtedness 88, 107 00 

Transfer from Whitewater nonnal school building 

fund 400 00 

Transfer from PlatteyUIe normal school building 

ftmd 450 00 

Total receipts. $47,776 SO 



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19 

Disbursements, 

Expense and mileage of regents ^48 88 

Flatteville normal school 8 , 786 47 

Whitewater normal school 6 ,061 87 

Institutes. 704 86 

Expenses 1,021 14 

Printing 16 00 

Transfei! to normal school fund 2, 838 28 

Transfer to Whitewater normal school building fund 10,000 00 

Transfer to Flatteville normal school building fund 6 ,000 00 

Transfer to school fund income 11 ,925 23 

Transfer to Whitewater normal school building fund 2,918 74 

Refunded on account of overpayment of interest 156 68 

$47,776 20 $49,827 54 

Balance, September 80, 1867 23,843 84 

Balance, September 80, 1868 21 ,792 50 

171,620 04 171 ,620 04 



AGRIOULTUBAL OOLLBGB FUND. 

This fund consists of tho proceeds of the sales of lands granted by 
congress to the state for the support of an institution of learning, 
in which shall be taught the principles of agriculture and the arts. 
The interest on the productive fund forms the income. 

The amount of productive fund, September 30, 1867 and 1868, 
respectively, was as follows : 

1867. 1868. 

Dues on certificates of sale |12 ,417 00 $14,488 40 

Dane county bonds 6,000 00 11,000 00 

$18,417 00 $25,488 40 



Showing an increase of the productive fund of $7,071 40. 

The change in the first item of the productive fund, as stated 
above, has been produced as follows : 

Amount due on certificates of sale, Sept. 80, 1867 $12, 174 00 

Decreased by forfeitures $2,884 60 

Decreased by payments 11100 »» 

2,995 60 

$9,421 40 
Increased by new certificates of sale 5,067 00 

Amount due on certificates of sale, Sept 80, 1868 $14,488 40 



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26 

The receipts and disburfiements of tbie fund for tbe last fiscal 
year, bave been as foUows : 

Beceipts. 

Sales of lands tS,592 90 

Due^ on certificates » 11100 

Penalties on forfeitures Y ft4 



Total receipts |8,7ll 44 

Disbursements, 

Invested in Bane county bonds $5,000 00 

Refunded, on account of over-payments 1800 

$3,711 44 1^5,018 00 

Balance, September 80, 1867 1,815 89 

Balance, September 80, 1868 618 83 



$5,626 83 $5,526 8:i 



AGRICULTURAL GOLLBGl FUMB IMCOMB. 

Receipts, 

Interest on principal due on lands $829 14 

Interest on Dane county bonds 988 75 

Total receipts $1,817 89 

Disbursements, 

First National bank, interest on Bane county 

bonds $42 88 

Refunded for over-payment of interest 65 



$1,817 89 $43 88 

Balance, September 80, 1867 1,090 08 

Balance, September 30, 1868 2, 864 59 

$2,907 97 $2,907 97 



EXPBRIHENTAL FARM FUND. 

Tbis fund is composed of tbe proceeds of tbe sale of Bane ooun- 
'ty bonds to tbe amount of furtj tbonsand dollars, wbiob, under 
tbe provisions of Gbapter 114, Laws of 1868, were to be placed in 
tbe bands of tbe Regents of tbe XJnirersity, for tbe purpose of pur- 
chasing a farm in connection witb tbe College of Agriculture. Tbese 
^bonds were all delivered, and all invested in tbe University and Ag- 
ricultural College funds, excepting five tbousand dollars, wbicb were 
redeemed by Bane county and tbe money paid into tbe fund. 



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The receipts and disburBements for the last fiscal year have beea 
as follows : 

Receiptz, 

Dane County — Dane county bonds 'redeemec| $5, 000 00 

Univeraity Fund—. . . .do inFestment . . . . 7, 200 00 

Agricultural OoUege Fund — Dane county bonds, 

investment 5,000 00 

Daniel Reed, rent of houso 190 00 

P. A. Ghadbourne, building sold 80 00 

N. B. Van Slyke, rent from professor of University 200 00 

lotsBoId 76 00 



ToUl receipts $17,695 00 

DishursemenU, 

Buildings and. farming utensils $3,473 18 

Labor and incidentals 1 , 840 28 

Dane county bonds hypothecated • 6,000 00 

$17,695 00 $11,818 41 

Over-payment, September 80, 1867 1 ,920 92 

Balance, September 80, 1868 4 ,460 67 

$17,695 00 $17,695 00 



TEXT BOOKS. 

The lav makes it the duty of the State Superintendent to " rec- 
ommend the introdnetion of the most approved text books^ and as 
far as practicable, to secure a uniformity in the use of text books 
in ibe common schools throughout the State." 

Per eleven years past no attempt has been made by the State Su- 
perintendent to secure a uniformity of text books, except by making 
an official recommendation of such works as seemed to be best 
adapted for use in the schools ; and for four years past this recom- 
mendation has covered, in the main branches of study pursued, the 
works of several authors. Section 53 of the school code provides 
that <* the board in each district shall have power, under the advice 
of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, to determine what 
school and text books shall be used in the several branches taught 
in the schools of such district.'^ 

This practically puts the whole matter into the hands of the di»* 
trtct boards, the State Superintenderxt having no power to enforee 
his recommendation ; and, as a consequence, uniformity is not se- 
cured. 



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Tbere is a good deal of complaint by parents on account of fre- 
quent changes of text books ; but there need be no cause for suck 
complaint if the district boards comply with the law. They are re. 
quired to make out and adopt lists of books to be used in the 
schools, and the law prescribes that when thus adopted they shall 
not be changed for the term of three years. In this age of im- 
provement three years is, probably as long a te^m as it is prudent to 
compel a district to use a specified list of books, and if parties in- 
terested will see that the law is enforced, uniformity may be secured 
for that length of time, so far as individual districts are concerned. 

The objection still remains that persons removing from one town 
or county to another, are generally obliged to purchase new sets of 
books for their children because of the lack of a State uniformity. 
Without stopping to discuss the question whether laws should be 
enacted for the benefit of so small a part of the people as is com- 
prised in the migratory class, it is believed that a remedy for the 
evil mentioned can be suggested, which will, at the same time, secure 
beneficial results in severa other directions. It is this — let each 
district purchase and own its text books. The district builds the 
school house, pays the teacher, furnishes fuel, blackboards, maps, 
charts, etc. Is there any good reason why it should not furnish the 
text books also ? Let a sufficient number of books be purchased 
and put in a suitable case in the school room. Let the teacher take 
charge of them, and at the commencement of each term distribute 
them to the pupils. 

The advantages of this plan are obvious. 

1. Every pupil attending school is supplied with just the books 
he needs on the first day of his attendance. There is no waiting ; no 
messages to parents ; no sending to the store to purchase books ; he 
is assigned to the proper classes, and commences his studies at 
once. 

2. The books being purchased by the quantity would be obtained 
at wholesale prices, and thus twenty-five per cent, of their cost at 
retail would be saved. 

3. Many parents in straitened circumstances find it very difficult 
tr supply their children with the needed text books, and as a conso- 



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qnenoe the range of study of those children is much circnmsoribed, 
or they are kept from school altogether. It is true the law makes 
provision for supplying the children of indigent parents with text 
books, but what parent is willing to be treated as a pauper, or to 
accept the help thus proffered 7 This plan meets the difficulty. 

4. Persons removing from one locality to another will not be 
obliged to purchase new text books for their children. 

The adoption of the township system of school government will, of 
itself, tend to produce a town uniformity of books, and the above 
described plan may be applied to a town as readily as to a district , 
thus securing nearly every end sought by those who desire relief 
from the burdens imposed by the present system. 

The principal text books used in the State, and the number of 
districts using them are given in the following table. For purpo- 
ses of comparison the statement covers the years 1866, 1867 
and 1868 : 





1866. 


1867. 


1868. 


No 


af Digits using Sanders* Spellers 


2,417 
1,298 


2,420 
1,144 


2,664 
996 




Mc6uffo7*8 Spellerd 




Parker & Watson's Spellers. . . 


305 


837 


879 




Wilson's Spellers 


14: 


69 


84 




Sanders' Readers 


2,166 

1,878 

472 


2,068 

1,169 

678 


2,188 




McGuffy's Readers 


986 




Parker k Watson's Readers. . . 


680 




Willson's Readers 


206 
1,880 
1,001 


282 
1,827 

872 


819 




Rav's Arithmetics 


1,889 




Thompson's Arithmetics 


780 




Davies' Arithmetics. .••••.... 


860 


986 


870 




Robinson's Arithmetics 


281 


868 


696 




Willard's Histor/of the U. S. . 


61 


88 


108 




Goodrich's History of the U. S. 


234 


666 


826 




Willson's History of the TJ. S. . 


88 


118 


806 




HcNally & M onteith's geogra. . 


2,088 


2,040 


1,884 




Cornell's Geographies 


1,128 


1,066 


892 




Mitchell's Geographies 


418 


666 


704 




Clark's Grammar 


1,807 


1,866 


1,682 




Finneo's Grammar » 


766 


862 


729 




Green's Grammar 


149 

128 

47 

111 


97 

122 

77 

92 


119 




Brown's Grammar 


160 




Kerl's Grammar 


296 




Cutter's PhvaiolosrY 


114 




Davies' Alffebra 


180 


210 


160 




Ray's Aleebra 


149 
102 


124 

214 


118 




Robinson's Algebra 


161 









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24 

Several other works are used, to a limited extent, throughout the 
State, and when making selections for their schools the district 
board should examine table No. 7, in the appendix, and adopt there- 
from such books as will produce absolute uniformity in each school, 
and, 80 far as concert of action can effect it, in each town or tract 
of coutttrj supplied from a common center. For reasons pre- 
viously given a specific list of books is not recommended. 

wibstib's biotionabt. 

There were eight copies of Webster's Dictionary on hand at the 
date of the last report, and two hundred additional copies were 
purchased in accordance with the provisions of chapter one of the 
general laws of 1868. 

These have all been distributed, and there are applications for 
about thirty copies on hand. A detailed account of the distribu- 
tion of the books will be found in the appendixi Two hundred and 
fifty copies will be needed to supply the demand for the ensuing 
year. 

TIAOHIBS' IXSTITUTBS. 

During the year ending August 81st, 186b, institutes were held 
in thirty-two counties, which were attended by about 1,600 teachers, 
A part of the institutes held since the 31st day of August were re- 
ported by the county superintendents, but they have been omitted 
and will be carried over to another year. The Board of Re- 
gents of normal schools, in pursuance of the plan'adopted last year, 
gave in charge to a committee the disposal of the sum of $2,000, 
in aid of the institutes, under rules and regulations prescribed by 
the board. An account of the expenditures made will be found in 
the report of the President of the Board, which, in accordance with 
the provisions of law is published as a part of the annual report of 
the State Superintendent. 

Though not coming within the year oovered by this report, it is 
thought proper to state that during the last fall Robert Graham, 
Esq., of Kenosha, was employed by the committee of the Board of 
Regents, and rendered effective service in conducting institutes in 
ten different counties. Commendations of his work have been r^ 



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25 

oeiyed from Tarions sources, and it is believed that graat good has 
been accomplished through his instrumentality. 

There is no agency in operation in our state which is in advance 
of the institute as a means of making teachers acquainted with im- 
proved methods of instruction and management, and of gpiving them 
enlarged views of their work and responsibility. 

The Normal Schools will soon begin to give us thoroughly pre* 
pared teachers, but they cannot meet the pressing demands of the 
present, and for years to come we must look mainly to teachers' in- 
stitutes and associations for the influences which shall invigorate 
and unify our methods of teaching, and give point and efficiency to 
the labors of our teachers. To secure the best results the insti- 
tutes must be organised and conducted on a definite plan, and be 
continued for a longer time than it is usual to hold them. There 
are many teachers who cannot take erven the one term course in th^ 
Normal Schools, and for their benefit institutes of from four to sii^ 
weeks in length, should be held in the spring and fall, at several 
accessible points in the central and northern parts of the State. 

OONVMTION OF OOUKTV AND OITT SUPSBINTBNDBNTS. 

A convention of county and city Superintendents of schools 
was held at Milwaukee, July 2l8t to 23d. About thirty Superin- 
tendents were in attendance, and the proceedings were spirited, 
harmonious and profitable. The following subjects were reported 
upon by committees having them in charge. 

1. Modification of the county superintendence. 

2. Township district system. 

3. Teachers' institutes and associations. 

4. Methods of examination of teachers. 

5. School supervision. 

6. Terms of school. 

7. School reports and teachers' certificates. 

The proceedings are given in full in the documents accompanying 
this report, and they are commended to the reader as embodying in 
% brief space much valuable information in reference to the defects 
sod needs of our school system. 



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STATE TSAOnSBS' ASSOOIATION. 

Tbe Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the Association was held at 
Milwaukee, July 21st to 28d. Thb attendance was very large, 
more than six hnndred teachers and school officers being present, 
and the exercises were varied and interesting. Addresses were 
given by the President, Prof. 0. B. Smith, of Janes ville ; Be v. G-. 
F. Magoun, D. D., President of Iowa College ; Hon. Anthony Van 
Wyok, of Kenosha ; Hon. J. L. Pickard, Superintendent of Schools, 
Chicago, and Hon. Newton Bateman, Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, for Illinois. 

Papers were read by T. C. Chamberlain, of Delavan ; Hon. T. 
H. Little, Superintendent of the Institute for the Blind, at Janes- 
ville ; Hon. W. C, Whitford, President of Milton College ; W, D. 
Parker of Geneva ; Bev. I. N. Oundall, Superintendent of Soldiers* 
Orphans' Home at Madison, and Mrs. Mary Howe Smith, of Oswego, 
KY. 

In so large a body it was impossible to have a full and complete 
discussion of the subjects presented for consideration, but the re- 
ports and resolutions adopted represent, in the main, the views and 
opinions of our best, and most enlightened educators, and are en- 
titled to a careful examination by all those who have at heart the 
cause of popular education. A full report of the proceedings of 
the~A6sociation is given in its appropriate place. 

OOUMTT SUPSBINTBNDENOT. 

This system has been in operation seven years, and its worth a^ 
an educational agency can be approximately ascertained by an 
examination of what it has accomplished. I can best state the 
results it has secured by quoting the language used by my prede- 
cessor, Hon. Jno. Ot, McMynn, in the annual report for 1867 : " Al- 
though there exists some dissatisfaction in connection with this 
office, in some parts of the State, we feel confident that the objects 
sought by its creation have been, in some good degree secured. 
These objects were : 

<* 1. A better supervision of the schools by an officer having the 
authority and ability to improve their condition. 



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" That this object has been secared, is generally acknowledged by 
those acquainted with the condition of the public schools six years 
ago, and familiar with their present condition. Improved methods 
of instruction have been introduced, and better order very generally 
prevails. Many of them have been well classified, and they have 
been graded, where circumstances permitted, so as to secure econo- 
my and efficiency in their management. Courses of study have 
been adopted and extended, and in many of the country towns 
there are facilities for acquiring an education, that could never have 
been secured without intelligent supervision. That there are towns 
where the schools are inferior to what they were before this system 
was adopted, is not only possible, but certain. Under the old system 
of town superintendency, there were some towns that secured a 
proper supervision of their schools, but these were the exceptions. 
And, that there are counties under the present system that have 
very inffieeient superintendents may be asserted, and perhaps 
proved ; but no person, who knows the work that has been done 
during the past year in our state by those officers, can doubt, that 
on the whole, all has been accomplished that could reasonably have 
been expected, and that we owe a debt of gratitude to our County 
Superintendents, for their patience, self-denial, energy, and industry, 
that we cannot pay, 

" The schools in our country towns cannot enjoy all the advanta- 
ges that favor the schools in our cities and villages, but they may 
be improved by the same means, and among them none is more im- 
portant than a searching, constant, and intelligent supervision. 

" 2. A careful and thorough examination of teachers. 

This has been secured so far as possible. The fact that so many 
of the teachers in our public schools are not qualified in respect to 
character, experience and attainments, is not the fault of the exam- 
ining officer. It has been absolutely necessary to license hundreds 
who are illy fitted for their important work, or to close many of our 
schools. The inducements to engage in other and more lucrative 
employments are so strong as to lead many of our best teachers to 
abandon a calling that barely affi)rds the means of living, and re- 
moves all hope of saving anything for the future. No other class of 



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persons is so poorly paid, and to no other are there offered so few in^ 
oentives to aim at ezcellenoe and aohieye snocess. 

*< County Superintendents can not raise the standard of attain- 
ments muoh above what the people demand. Those who do this are 
almost sure to excite an opposition that is too strong to be with- 
stood, A few disappointed teachers with their sympathizing friends 
can easily effect a change in officers, and thus a premium is offered 
to time-serving, incompetent men, who are always ready to avail 
themselves of every opportunity to secure by chicanery what they 
cannot obtain by merit. 

" But in spite of all adverse circumstances, the standard of at- 
tainments has been raised. Our teachers are better qualified than 
they were siz years ago. In some of the counties where county su- 
perintendents have been sustained by the people, the change for the 
better is too marked to be questioned. Salaries have been increased, 
schools have been taught a longer time during the year, and teachers 
have found permanent employment. Incompetent men and women 
have been refused certificates. Character has been made a prere- 
quirite to employment, and ability and acquirements have become 
the only means of retaining it." 

ihe experience of another year proves the truth of the foregoing 
statements, especially as applied to those counties in which the su- 
perintendent has faithfully discharged his duty. Still, it must be 
acknowledged that in the matter of direct supervision of the schools, 
the system has partially failed. This is not a fault of the system, 
but a consequence of expecting it to do more than it was capable of 
doing. It is utterly impossible for the most zealous and faithful 
superintendent to visit all the schools of a large county as often as 
they ought to be visited, and the districts must be made smaller, or 
some other means must bo devised to secure the performance of the 
important work of visitation and supervision. In New York there 
is a superintendent for each assembly district, but the sparseness 
of our population, and our limited resources, make such a system 
impracticable in this state, and on the whole there seems to be no 
other division of territory so convenient and manageable, for all 
purposes, as that bounded by county lines. It is true, that in four 



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29 

counties, Dane, Dodge, Rock and Milwaukee, tbero is a superin- 
tendent for each senate district, but if the whole state were thus 
districted we should have but thirty-three instead of sixtj-one su- 
perintendents, and the evil treated of would be magnified, not rem* 
edied. These four counties are large, or populous and wealthy, and 
they can well afford to support two superintendents apiece ; and the 
same may be said of three or four more of the larger counties, but 
the greater number are too weak to support two officers who shall 
devote all their time to the educational work. When the county 
superintendency was established its friends did not expect that it 
would furnish complete and effectual supervision of the schools by 
districts, and they are not surprised or disappointed at the results 
attained, or its failure to succeed in this direction. 

Five years ago there was presented in the annual report from 
this department a detailed and definite statement of the deficiencies 
of our system of public instruction, and a remedy for its defects was 
suggested. This remedy was found in what is known as the '< town- 
ship system of school government," and it was believed that the 
local supervision of the schools which the county superintendency 
failed to secure would be provided for by this new system, while at 
the same time it would be productive of great good in many other 
directions. Owing to various circumstances but little effort was 
made from 1863 to 1867 to call the attention of the people to the 
subject ; but in the annual report of the state superintendent for 
the latter year the system was fully presented, and its merits were 
ably argued. In nearly every lecture and address given by the 
superintendent before teachers institutes and associations during 
the past season the system has been explained, and its adaptation to 
our wants and circumstances pointed out. 

When fully understood it secures the approbation of a large ma« 
jontyof all classes of our citizens, and it is, believed that its early 
adoption will materially and rapidly advance the cause of education 
in our state. 

Por the benefit of those who are still unacquainted with the 
system, a brief exposition of its more prominent features is here 
giv«en. 



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80 

TOWHSHIP 8T8TBM. 

In order that the advantages of the township system may be 
clearly perceived, some of the disadvantages of the present'system 
will be portrayed. Each town is divided into school districts, vary- 
ing in nnmber from one to sixteen, and averaging about six or seven 
to the town for the whole state. Each of these districts is a separ- 
ate, independent republic, accountable to no higher authority, and 
dependent upon none, except in the matter of the examination of 
teachers, and the annual receipt and expenditure of a small amount 
of money. The first result of this isolated condition, and conse- 
quent separate action is 

TJNXQUAL TAXATION. 

Adjoining pieces of real estate, valued at the same rate by the 
assessor, are often taxed for school purposes in the ratio of three to 
one, simply because the size or character of the districts in which 
they lie is such that to support a school in one it is necessary to 
levy a tax, wi&h a percentage three times as great as in the other, 
state, county and town taxes are assessed upon all property in the 
town on the same ratio, or percentage, and thus the burden of sup- 
porting the government falls equally upon all who have taxes to 
pay ; but in the matter of education inequality is the law, no two 
school districts in any town having, as a rule, the same percentage. 

It is a foundation principle of our system that the public schools 
shall be free ; that the property of the state shall educate the 
children, but in carrying out this principle it is not necessary to 
violate another, which prescribes that taxation shall be uniform ; 
and it is hard to understand how our people have submitted for so 
many years to the evil of unequal taxation consequent upon dis- 
trict organization. Education is a matter of general interest, and 
it is not to benefit the parent as an individual, or even for the 
child's own sake that the state establishes free schools. It is be- 
cause education is necessary to the preservation of our government 
and institutions — ^necessary to society and the life of the state, that 
it claims and has the right to tax the people to support schools ; 
and the burden imposed should be distributed as equally as pos- 
sible. 



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81 

Eaoh town is divided into road-distriots, but we do not require 
the people residing in a particular district, through which a river 
runs, to build a bridge for the use of the town, county or state at 
large, as well as for themselves ; nor is there any justice in com- 
pelling the inhabitants of a petty, circumscribed school-district to 
build the house in which their children are to be educated, so long 
as education is a matter of public interest, and tbose children will, 
in after years, be scattered all over the state. 

The second evil inherent in the present system is : 

INSQUALITT 0¥ PBIVILEOES. 

In one district school will be maintained nine or ten months each 
year ; in an adjoining one only five or six months, and yet the per 
centage of taxation may be greater in the latter than in the former. 
In one school competent teachers may be employed, and the range 
of studies pursued be such as to afford the pupils an education al- 
most academic in its character ; while in another only a few primary 
branches are taught by an inexperienced and incapable instructor. 
Districts are often organized in such form that a person resides in 
one while the greater part of his property is situated in another ; 
and many live in close proximity to school-houses to which thoy 
would be glad to send their children, but oamiot because they are 
not in the same district, while the houses to which they are com- 
pelled to send them are remote and difficult of access. 

It often happens that a populous district possesses a small, badly 
arranged house, while an adjoining district, with few scholars, has 
a large and convenient one ; yet the children of the populous dis- 
trict cannot attend the school in the other without consent of the 
board and the payment of a tuition fee, and the populous district 
may have but a limited amount of assessable property, and not be 
able to erect a suitable school- house for a term of years. 

In the third place the present system is a fruitful source or 
cause of discord and contention. It is natural that a small and 
weak district should seek to obtain additions to its territory from 
neighboring districts larger and stronger than itself. Application 
is made to the town supervisors for a change in the boundaries of 
certain districts. When the changes asked for are granted, those 



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indiyiduals removed from old associations appeal to the state su- 
perintendent to set aside the action of the supervisors. When the 
supervisors refuse to make the changes desired, the parties petition- 
ing for sush changes take an appeal, and ask that the supervisors be 
ordered to grant the prayer of the petitioners. Each party uses all 
the means at command to secure the ends desired, ani personalities 
and vituperation often take the place of fact and argument. Thus 
neighborhoods and communities are violently agitated, and enmities 
are engendered which last for years, seriously crippling the schools, 
and impeding the progress of education. 

It is often very difficult to decide cases brought before the state 
superintendent on appeal, the facts and arguments on one side being 
about balanced by these on the other, and no matter what the de- 
cision may be, it fails to satisfy both sides. Between thirty and 
forty appeals have been decided since the first of January last, and 
a large majority of them relate to the organisation of districts, or a 
change in their boundaries. 

Again, the district system is ucecessarily expensive. There are 
nearly five thousand districts in the state, each of which must have 
a treasurer who is required to give a bond for the faithful discharge 
of the duties of his office. Besides the expense of the instrument 
itself, the trouble of getting sureties, etc, the bond must have a 
revenue stamp affixed of the value of one dollar. The treasurer is 
elected every three years, but on account of resignations, removals, 
etc, the office is really filled about once in two years. This makes 
an average annual expense of between two thousand and two thou- 
sand five hundred dollars ; an unnecessary expenditure, as every 
dollar of the money received and paid out by the district treasurers 
comes through the hands of the town treasurers, who have them- 
selves given bonds for the safe keeping of the funds entrusted to 
their oare, and who might as well pay them out in detail to teach- 
ers and others entitled to them. There are many other evils inci- 
dent to the district wyatem, as all who are familiar with its working 
are aware, but space will not be taken to enumerate them all. For 
most of them the township system furnishes a simple and ample 
remedy, as wiU be seen when its features are carefully examined. 

The fundamental prbciple of this system is that each town shall 



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Qonstitnte a district for purposes of taxation and general super- 
vision and management. This does away at once with unequal 
taxation. As all taxes for school purposes are levied upon the 
town as a whole, every man pays the same per centage on the as- 
sessed valuation of his property. 

The present districts would constitute sub districts, in each of 
which an officer should be elected annually, called a director, and 
all the directors in a town would constitute a board of directors 
which shodd have the entire control and management of the schools 
and school interests. The secretary of this board takes the place 
of the old town superintendent, visits and supervises the schools, 
grades them, and assists the teachers in classifying the pupils, etc., 
in a word is the efficient agent of the board and the connecting link 
between the county superintendent and the schools. 

The advantages of this system are many, and evident. 

1. Each parent would be permitted to send his children to the 
school which best accommodated them, and all the expense, trouble 
and ill-feeling consequent upon the frequent changes in the bounda- 
ries of districts would be avoided. 

2. School houses would be built when and where they are 
' needed. Many districts are now compelled to suffer, year after 

year, all the inconvenience and loss occasioned by the use of a 
small, badly constructed, ill-arranged house, because of difficulties 
concerning the site, or the indisposition of the voters to furnish 
the means to erect a new building. Under the township system 
these difficulties would bo avoided, as the board, composed of 
delegates from all parts of the town, would not be likely to be 
influenced by local disputes in reference to the site for a house, 
but would locate it at such point as would best accommodate 
those for whom it was selected; and as the funds for building 
the house would be drawn from the whole town, the tax upon each 
individual would be so small as not to be in the least burdensome, 
and there would be no necessity for delay. 

8. Schools can be graded more easily under the township than 
under the separate district system. The districts, as now organ- 
ised, as a general rule, are too feeble in numbers and wealth to 
S — Sup, Pub. Ihs, 



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84 

maintain more than one department, and the law of 1858, per- 
mitting districts to unite for high school purposes, has been entirely 
inoperative, no action having* been taken by any district in accor- 
dance with its provisions. The summer schools, in the country 
especially, are primary schools in most respects, while the winter 
schools embrace all grades of pupils from the primary to the gram- 
mar or high school. This condition of things necessitates the em- 
, ploy men t of bettor educated, more experienced teachers daring the 
winter term, at a cost for their services of about double the amount 
paid for the same length of time in the summer, while there is not 
on an average, more than a dozen children in each district whose 
capacity, advancement, or range of studies, demands a better or 
more costly teacher than the one employed during the summer ; and 
thus the education of these few costs the districts the difference 
between the wages paid in summer and winter, amounting, for a 
four months school, to from thirty to sixty dollars. Now if there 
were, within the roach of a larger class of pupils in three or four 
districts, a school of a higher grade, to which they could all have 
access, the winter school in their respective districts could be con- 
tinued as a primary or intermediate school, under the charge of the 
same teacher employed in the summer, and one higher grade teacher . 
would suffice for several districts. By this arrangement all the 
pupils in a town would be divided into two grades, at a cost for 
tuition not greater than that now incurred ; and the total additional 
expense would be measured by the cost of erecting a sufficient num« 
her of buildings to accommodate the higher grade of pupils. In 
many instances, by a proper arrangement of the terms of school, the 
houses already erected wonld serve for both grades of pupils. In 
some district, in which the house is so situated as to be easy of ac- 
cess to the larger scholars in several surrounding districts, let there 
be a term of school commencing so soon as the ground is settled and 
the weather is pleasant in spring, and continuing to the first of July ; 
and a fall term conunencing about the middle of August and oon« 
tinning till the middle of November ; thus affording the primary 
pupils six months or more of uninterrupted school during the most 
pleasant season of the year, which would be far more beneficial to 
them, intellectually and physically, than the usual summer and win- 



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85 

t 

ter terms, with the extremes of warm and oold weather, producing 
siokness, tardiness, and irregularity of attendance, and thus wasting 
a good share of the money expended. The winter term could then 
be devoted entirely to the grammar or higher grade scholars, who, 
under a competent instructor, whose whole time was given to them 
and their studies, would make as much progress in one term as they 
now do, in the mixed schools, in two or more. Again, whenever a 
new school house is to be built, its location^ size, and internal ar- 
rangements can all be adapted to the new order of things, so that, 
in process of time, without any violent changes, or any appreciable 
increase of expense, the facilities for maintaining graded schools can 
bo established throughout the state. 

4. Better supervision of the schools. The county superin- 
tendent, though exercising a general supervision over all the sohoola 
in his county, is entirely unable to give, to each school, that personal' 
attention necessary to obtain a complete knowledge of its condition 
amd wants ; and some of the most active and efficient superintendents 
have felt the need of a local officer, to co-operate with and aid them 
in effecting improvements in the management of the schools. As be- 
fore stated, the secretary of the town board will be the proper per- 
son to have the immediate supervision of the schools, and will have 
power, under the direction of the board, to grade and arrange them, 
suggest and enforce rules for their management and government, and 
advise with and assist the teachers in all cases in which advice and 
assistance are needed He should be appointed by the board, and 
he may be one of their number, or not, so that the best person to 
fill the place is selected. 

We should thus secure all the advantages of the town superin- 
tendent system, without losing any of the benefits resulting from 
the establishment of the county superintendency. 

6. Economy of administration. All the expenses now incurred 
in organizing new districts, and in changing the boundaries of old 
ones, would be saved. Each child being permitted to attend that 
school which best accommodated him, and the amount of tax which 
each person would pay being the same, no matter in what sub-dis- 
trict he resided, there would be no reason for altering districts ; 
consequently very few changes would be made, and those few woul 



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86 

be easily effected, and attended wfth little or no expense. Again, 
the liability to a loss of moneys is in proportion to the number of 
hands through which they pass, and it is no wonder that, with 
nearly five thousand disbursing officers, there is a good deal of 
waste of district funds every year. 

Under the township system the financial affairs of all the 
schools in a town being managed by the same board, one treasurer 
would be sufficient, and, in order not to multiply officers, the 
town treasurer, who now collects and receives all the school 
moneys belonging to his town, might be the treasurer of the board, 
and upon the order of its secretary, countersigned by the president, 
could pay out such moneys, when needed. Thus the number of 
disbursing officers would be reduced from nearly five thousand, to 
less than eight hundred, and besides the diminished liability to 
loss on account of the decrease in the number of disbursing officers, 
the expense incurred in executing nearly two thousand treasurers' 
bonds each year would be saved. 

6. There would be an equality of privileges in the different districts, 
as, the schools being supported by a general tax, justice would re* 
quire that they bo maintained an equal length of time throughout 
the town, and wo should not see, as we now do, so great a disparity 
in school privileges in adjoining districts. 

Free schools are founded upon the principle that it is the duty of 
the state to see that the children within its limits are educated. To 
this end a generous public fund is provided, and the people are yearly 
taxed to support the system ; yet the kind and amount of instruction 
given to the children of different districts depend entirely upon in- 
fluences which the law does not seek to guide or control. Now com- 
mon sense and justice demand, thit wherever children enough to or- 
ganize a school are found, one should be established, with all the 
means and appliances necessary t:> seoure the result desired ; the 
proper education of the children attending it. 

7. iilmployment of Teachers. It being the special duty of the 
secretary of the town board to visit the schools, become acquainted 
with their condition and wants, the capacity, tact, and success of 
the different teachers, he would be better qualified to select the per- 
son suited to each school than nine tenths of the district clerks 



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3T 

under the present system possibly can be ; thus better teachers 
would be employed — that is, teachers better adapted to their posi- 
tions — and they would not be changed each term, as they now are, 
but would remain in one school so long as they were successful in 
their work. Incompetent and unsuccessful teachers would be sifted 
out, the standard of attainments of all those employed would be 
gradually and surely raised, and the consequent progress of the 
schools would b3 certain and uninterrupted. 

The new system of examination by the county superintendent 
has done much to elevate the standard of attainments, and weed out 
unsuccessful teachers ; but,inasmuch as an examination in regard to 
scholarship is not al prays a true test of the qualifications of an ap- 
plicant, and it is not possible for the county superintendent to give 
that personal attention to each school necessary to enable him to 
judge correctly in regard to the skill and faithfulness of the teacher, 
many persons are still employed who have no real fitness for their 
position, and who are retained through favoritism or indifference on 
the part of those by whom they are engaged. Such persons would 
be quietly dropped from the list of teachers, and would engage in 
other pursuits, or, by the useof proper means, '^become fitted for their 
responsible positions as instructors of youth. 

I have thus presented some of the main points in which it is be- 
lieved that the township system is superior to the district system, 
and it only remains to notice some of the objections urged to it by 
those who object to change, or who are satisfied with the system as 
it is. 

The first objection is to the raising of taxes for the support of 
schools by the town at large. Looking at the matter from a per- 
sonal stand point, many think a general tax would be unjust to dif- 
ferent localities, for the reason that children of school age are not 
proportioned to the valuation of property, and thus a wealthy dis- 
trict, with few children would pay for the education of children 
residing in other districts. This objection is the same one so often 
urged against free schools by the childless capitalist, or the wealthy 
tax-payer whose children are already educated, <' I ought not to 
pay for educating my neighbor's children." As before stated, free 
schools are established on the assumption that ** the property of the 



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88 

state shall educate tho children of the state," and consistency re- 
quires that the details of I he system shall bo so arranged as to carry 
out this fundamental principle. What justice is there in requiring 
that a specified portion of territory shall furnish the means to edu- 
cate the children residing therein, so long as you withhold from the 
tax-payers the power to decide who shall iohabit that territory ? 

The fact is, that the fairest method of maintaing the schools 
would be by a tax upon the whole state, and the larger the district 
embraced in one organization, the more just and equal will be the 
taxation. 

The moneys apportioned yearly by the state superintendent, and 
those levied upon the towns by the county board of supervisors, 
are distributed to eash district in proportion to the number of chil- 
dren between the ages of four and twenty residing therein ; and as 
the latter moneys are raised by a tax upon each town as a whole, 
and not by separate districts, the plan advocated is, in fact, in ope- 
ration already, and only needs to be extended to the levy and collec- 
tion of all the funds needed to support the schools. 

In the second place, many will object to the raising of funds by 
the whole town, to build a school house in a particular district, who 
would be willing that the schools should be supported by a general 
tax, after the houses are built. This objection is removed by con- 
sidering the town as a single district, which needs several houses to 
accommodate its pupils. It is true, that, for convenience sake, the 
town is divided into sub-districts, yet, for genei al purposes it is a 
unit, and should be managed accordingly. Each town is divided in- 
to road districts, and when a new highway is to be laid out, the 
whole town is called upon to pay the expense incurred for right of 
way, etc, though but few of its tax-payers are personally benefited ; 
and when a bridge is to be built no one thinks of asking the citi- 
zens residing in the road district in which the bridge is needed, to 
furnish the funds to pay for erecting it ; and it cannot be that the 
education of the children of Wisconsin, is a matter of less interest 
to the people than the laying out of highways, and the erection of 
bridges. Returns made to the state superintendent show that, on 
an average, in the larger counties, not more than four school houses 
are built in each year ; and this would give to each town but one to 



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89 

build every] three years, and this harden, being borne by all the 
tax-payers would be so light, as soaroely to be felt. All the ohil- 
dred would thus be provided with school privileges, and the protrac- 
ted effort and struggle now necessary in most districts, in order to 
secure the erection of a school house, would be avoided. ' 

In order to avoid all seeming injustice, it might be provided, that 
those districts which had, within a certain limited time, erected good 
and subbtantial houses, should be exempted from the payment of the 
taxes raised for building school houses, for a number of years after 
the adoption of the township s^tem. 

All other inequalities and seeming irregularities can be as well 
provided for, and it is confidently believed, that a law can be fram- 
ed, preserving for our school system all its prominent vital and val- 
uable features, and engrafting thereon such additional ones as will 
give it harmony and CMmpleteness, make it a better exponent of our 
educational standing, more worthy of affection and generous support, 
and insure the successful accomplishment of its great design, the 
education and elevation of the whole people. 

STATS TEAOHSBS' OBBTIFIOATSS. 

A law was passed last winter authorizing the issuing of State 
Certificates to teachers of eminent qualifications. The following 
circular sets forth the preliminary proceedings had under this act : 

dxpartiiext of public instruction, 
Superintendent's Office, 

Madison, Jaly 16, 1868. 

Chapter 169 of the general laws of 1868 reads as follows: 

CHAPTER 169. 

XS ACT creatiug a State Board of Examiners to issue State Certificates 
of High Grade to teachers of emineDt qualifications. 

The People of (he State of Wueotmn, npresenied in SenaU and Auembly, do enact 
aafoliotoB: 

Section 1. The State Superintendent of Public Instruction is hereby au- 
thorized to grant State Certificates to teachers in the manner hereinafter 
proTided. 

Section 2. The State Superintendent shall, before each examination held 
under the provisions of this act, appoint three competent persons, residents 
of this State, who shall constitute a Board of Examiners, and who shall, under 
the rules and regulations to be prescribed by the said Superintendent, 
thoroughly examine all persons desiring State Certificates in the branches of 



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40 

Btudj in which applicants are now required to be examined by Goniitj Super- 
intendents for a first grade certificate, and in such other branches as the State 
Superintendent ar.d said Examiners may prescribe. 

Section 8. If the Examiners shall be satisfied that an applicant possesses 
the requisite scholarship in all the branches of study before mentioned, they 
shall certify the fact to the state superintendent, and if such applicant shall 
furnish evidence of good moral character, experience and success in teach- 
ing, satisfactory to said superintendent, he shall thereupon issue to such 
applicant a certificate, which shall be valid until revoked, and which shall 
qualify the holder to teach in any public school in any city, town or school 
district of this state, without any further examination by the city or county 
superintendent, or any other person or board whatsoever 

Section 4. Said certificate may be revoked by the state superintendent 
for incompetency or immoral conduct: mronnded^ that before any such 
revocation, the holder shall be served with a written statement of the 
charges against him, and shall have an opportunity for defense. 

Section 6. A meeting for the examination of applicants for State Cer- 
tficates shall be held at the Gaoitdl, in the city of Madison, on the second 
Wednesday of August in each year ; and additional meetings may be held at 
such times and places as the State Superintendent stall prescribe. 

Section 6. AH moneys actually and necessarily expended by each member 
ofthe Board of Examiners in attending meetings for the examination of 
teachers shall be refunded to him, and he shall also receive three dollrrs per 
day for all time actually and necessarily spent in holding said meetings, or 
going to or returning from the same. Accounts for such services and ex- 
penses shall be audited by the Secretary of State, and there is hereby 
appropriated out of any money in the state treasury not otherwise appro- 
priated, a sufficient sum to pay the amount thus audited. 

Section. 7. The State Superintendent shall record, in a book kept for 
that purpose, the date of each ertificate issued, and the nnmc, age and resi- 
dence of the person to whom it was granted, and he shall file in his office, 
for permanent preservation, all papers relating to the examination of appli- 
cants for state Certficates. 

In accordance with the provisions of section 2 of this act, the undersigned 
has appointed the following named gentlemen a board to conduct the first 
examination held under the law, namely: J. G. Pickard, late Principal ofthe 
East-Side High School, Beloit ; 0. R. Smith, Principal of Janesville High 
School ; and S. D. Gaylord, Principal of Milwaukee High School. 

The examination will be held at the office of the superintendent of public 
instruction, at Madison, on Wednesday, the 12th day of August next, com- 
mencing at 9 o* clock A. M. 

Applicants for state certificates will be required to comply with the fol- 
fowing 

TXBMB AND CONDITIONS: 

1. To furnish satisfactory evidence of good moral character. 

2. To furnish satisfactory evidence of having taught, with decided success, 
not less than three years, at least one of which shall have been in this state. 

To pass a ihorough examination in Orthography, Orthoepy, Reading, Pen- 
manship, Mental and Written Arithmetic, English Grammar, Modern Geo- 
graphy in all its departments, History ofthe United States, Algebra, Natural 
Philosophy, Geometry, and Theory and Practice of Teaching. 

To pass a MiufcLculry examination in the elementary principles of Physio- 
Ofry, Botany, Zoology, Ghemistry, Geology, Political Economy and Mental 
Philosophy. 

4. To pass a satisfactory examination in the constitution and organization 
of the government of the United States and of the State of Wisconsin, and 
in the school laws of this State, so far as they relate to the rights and duties 
of teachers. 



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41 

CBEDKNTIALS. 

When an applicant is personally known to the state saperintendent, or to 
either member of the board of examiners, as having a good moral character 
no specific testimony will be required ; but when not thus known, written 
teiJtimoniAls from one or more responsible persons acquainted with the appli- 
cant must be presented. 

In respect to the length of time that an applicant has taught, his own dec- 
laration giving the time, place and kind of school, will be sufficient. 

-The proof of success in teaching must be clear and explicit. Written tes- 
timonials from employers, or other responsible and competent persons, will be 
required. 

MODS OV EXAMINATION. 

The examination will be conducted by both oral and printed questions, in 
such a manner that exact justice will be done to each applicant. 

The necessary stationery, &c., will be furnished by the State Superin- 
tendent, and no fee will be charged for certificates. 

A state certificate entitles the holder to teach in any public school in the 
State, and it will be valid during life, unless revoked for incompetency or 
immorality. 

It is the object of the law to recognize and honor those experienced and 
successful teachers who have given character to their profession, and to 
furnish to young teachers a proper incentive to honorable exertion. 

It is hoped that through the hearty co-operation of all persons interested 
in the subject, the objects of law may be fully realized, and that the standard 
of teachers' qualifications may be essentially raised, and more clearly defined. 

A. J. ORAIG, 
Supenideindent Public InttrudUm. 

Examination questions were prepared by the examiners^ and the 
examination was held at the time appointed, and in the manner no- 
tified. It occupied three days, and was thorough and searching. 
But three applicants presented themselves, and upon the recomen- 
dation of the board of examiners certificates were issued to Charles 
Vm Viebahn of Sauk City, and Herman Studer of Milwaukee. 

Another examination will be held in this city on the 11th day 
of August next, under the conditions stated in the foregoing ciro^~ 
lar. In the mean time if not less than six teachers shall certify 
their desire to be examined at some other time and place, a meet- 
ing of the board of examiners will be appointed in accordance with 
their snggestions. 

NORMAL SOHOOLS. 

The school at Platteyille continues in successful operation and 
meets the expectations of its friends as to the number attending, 
and the quality of the instruction given therein. 

The total number enrolled in all the departments during the last 
year is 316. Of these 143 were in the normal department proper, 



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42 

and 178 in the aoademio and model departments. So great has 
been the demand for teachers however, that the average attendance 
in the normal department has been but 91 ; a large number remain- 
ing but one term, or during the recess of the public schools. The 
academic and model departments are mainly self-sustaining, and they 

add greatly to the power and efficiency of the school, as in addition 
to meeting a local demand for a higher education than the public 

schools afford, in the former the pupils are prepared for the normal 
department, and in the latter normal pupils are tacught how to teach 
others. A fine new building was completed in August last, and ex- 
tensive changes have been made in the old one, so that accommoda- 
tions can now be furnished for an increased number of pupils. The 
building was dedicated with appropriate ceremonies, at the com- 
mencement of the fall term of school on the the 9th of September 
last. A large number of people from Platteville and vicinity atten- 
ded the exercises, and additional interest was given to the occasion 
by the presence of our great military leader and future president, 
General Grant. 

In accordance with the provisions of section 10, of chapter lit), 
of the general laws of 1866, in May last a committee was appointed 
to examine into the condition, organization and management of 
the school at Platteville The committee consisted of the Superin- 
tendents of Schools for the counties of Crawford, Green and Sauk, 
Messrs. 0. W. Clinton, D. H. Morgan and E. B. Crandall. Mr. 
Morgan was unable to be present, but a very thorough examina- 
tion was made by the other gentlemen named, and their report is 
given herewith, to which those interested are referred for information 
in regard to what the school is accomplishing. 

The new Normal School building at Whitewater was dedicated on 
the 21st of April last, at which time the school was opened under 
the charge of Prof. Oliver Arey, a successful and experienced edu- 
cator, late of the Brockport Normal School and the State Normal 
School at Albany, N. Y. 

The dedicatory exercises were under the direction of Hon. Wm. 
Starr of Bipon, President of the Board of Begents of. Normal 
Schools, and comprised a history of the Normal School enterprise in 
this State by Mr. Starr, an address by the Principal showing what 



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48 

a Normal School ought to be aud do, and short addresses by Hon. 
J. L, Pickard, SuperintoDdent of Schools, Chicago ; Hon. Hanmer 
Bobbins, of Piatt eville. Vice President of the Board of Begents ; 
E, 0. Pomeroy, Esq., Superintendent of Schools, Milwaukee ; S. 
D. Gajlord, Esq., Principal of Milwaukee High School ; Bev. J. 
MoNamara, of Whitewater, the State Superintendent and others ; 
interspersed with rocal and instrumental music under the lead of 
Prof. Greenman, of Whitewater. President Starr's history of the 
Normal School work is given with the documents accompanying this 
report, as is also the report of Prof. Arey, the Principal, to which 
reference may he made for spe3ial information as to the condition 
and prospects of ^tbe school. The first term seems to have been a 
success, and the second term commenced under favorable auspices. 

STATB UMIVXaSITT. 

This Institution is in a flourishing condition, and there is a fair 
prospect that the anticipations of its friends in regard to its future 
growth and developemont, will be realized. The whole number of 
students in all the departments during the first term of the current 
•scholastic year is 318; a large increase upon the attendance for the 
same term in any previous year : and there is abundant evidence, 
in the life and activity prevailing in every department that the pro- 
fessors and teachers are devoted to their work, and that the univer- 
sity has a competent and efficient head. There is a better state of 
feeling in the state toward the university than formerly existed, and 
a disposition is manifested to encourage and sustain it in all proper 
and legitimate ways. Attention is called to the suggestions of Pres* 
ident Chadbourne which abcompaoy his statistical report, especially 
those which relate to the part our graded and high schools ought to 
take in preparing young men for the university course. It is a 
question worthy of the serious consideration of the legislature whether 
something connot be done to connect our high schools and academies 
with the university in such a way as to make them feeders to it, 
whUe at the same time they will be improved and strengthened. 
The statistics of the university are fully given in the repoit of Pres- 
ident Chadbourne, and the report of the president of the board of 
Begents, which will be found with << accompanying documents." 



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AOADBMIBS. 

Only seyen academies haye forwarded reports for tbe past year. 
The returns indicate that they are reasonably prosperous, as is 
shown by the following comparative statements for the years 1867 
and 1868 : 

1861, 1868. 

Number of ioBtitutioDB reporting 9 7 

Number of teachers employed 88 

Number graduated at last commencement 6 1 

Whole number of graduates 66 68 

Number of students in senior classes 9 16 

Number of students in junior classes 6 47 

Number of students in freshman classes 8 66 

Total number in academic studies 829 295 

Number in preparatory departments 1,186 858 

Total number in attendance 1,496 981 

Number of acres of land owned by the institutions 90 187 

Estimated cash value of lands $ 18,000 1 18,880 

Estimated cash value of buildings 114,800 100,000 

Amount of endowments 68,600 8,750 

Income from tuition..... .^ 16,282 18,617 

Income from other sources 1,687 6,980 

00LLBOB8. 

Eeports haye been received from the following institutions : 
Beloit College, Carroll College, Galesville University, Lawrence 
University, Milton College, Milwaukee Eemale College, Prairie du 
Chien College, Racine College, Eipon College and the Wisconsin' 
Female University. Two of these, Beloit and Eacine Colleges, are 
for gentlemen only ; two others, as their title indicate, are for 
ladies alone ; while the remaining six are open to both sexes* 

The following comparative summary presents the most import- 
ant statistics given in the reports : 

1867. 1868. 

No. of colleges reported (not including state universitj) 6 10 

Number of members of faculties 45 78 

Number graduated at last commencement 41 36 

Total number who have graduated 301 893 

Number of students in senior classes 29 42 

Number of students in junior classes 87 67 

Number of students in sophomore classes 74 115 

Number of students in freshman classes 187 167 

Number of students not in the regular classes 184 25 

Number of students in preparatory departments 682 1 , 546 

Total number in the institutions reported 1 ,143 1 ,961 

Number of acres of land owned by the institution 6 , 886 6 , 746 

Estimated cash value of lands |63, 800 |84, 600 

Estimated cash value of buildings $'Z78 , 000 $886 , 000 

Amount of endowment funds except real estate |184, 550 |195 ,000 

Amount of income from tuition $16,906 $35,495 

Amount of income from other sonroes $24,782 $23,461 



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The reports are published ia full elsewhere, and give. evidence of 
prosperity and steady advancement on the part of these higher in- 
stitutions which is gratifying to every true friend of education. 
Notwithstanding the multiplication of high schools and academies, 
and the establishment of normal schools, we must depend, in a good 
degree, upon colleges for that wide scholarship and thorough cul- 
ture which, combined with other qualifications, make the first class 
teacher. 

OPFIOB WORK, TRAVBL, STO. 

The work of the office increases from year to year in consequence 
of the growth and development of our school system, and there is no 
limit to the outside labor tLat ought to be done if time could be 
spared for its performance. Fortunate id securing a competent and 
faithful assistant, Eev. J. 6. Pratt, who has conducted the greater 
part of the correspondence, distributed dictionaries, attended to 
proof reading, and other detail work, I have still been obliged to 
spend eight months of the year in the office, in continuous, persistent 
labor. Between the 6th of Janurary last and the date of this re- 
port thirty-seven appeals have been decided, some of them being 
lengthy and complicated, and requiring a large amount of time for 
their consideration, 

A member of the board of regents of normal schools, and sec- 
tary of the board, a great deal of time has been spent in attending 
meetings of the board, and of committes, aranging for teachers in- 
stitutes, keeping records, drawing warrants, etc. 

Still the outside work has not been neglected. Section 62 of chap* 
tor 10 of the Revised statutes provides that the state superinten- 
dent << shall have a general supervision over the common schools in 
this state, and it shall be his duty, as far as practicable, to visit 
every county in the state, for the purpose of inspecting the schools, 
awakeoing an interest favorable to the cause of education, and dif- 
fusing as widely as possible, by public addresses and personal com- 
munication with school officers, teachers and parents, a knowledge 
of existing defects, and of desirable improvements in the govern- 
ment and the instruction of the schools. " In compliance with the 
requirements of the statute, and the general expectation and desire 



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of the people, I have spent about fonr months in outside work, have 
traveled nearly five thousand miles, have visited twenty-four coun- 
ties, and delivered twenty- seven public addresses and lectures. I 
have attended teachers' institutes or associations in the counties of 
Adams, Crawford, Door, Green, Jackson, Jefferson, Juneau, Ken- 
osha, Milwaukee, Monroe, Pepin, Polk, Eacine, Rock, St. Croix, 
Sauk, Sheboygan, Waukesha, Waupaca, Winnebago and Wood. 
In addition to this my assistant has attended institutes in the coun- 
ties of Dane, Iowa and Jefferson, and has delivered five public ad- 
dresses. 

No request for assistance, by whomsoever made, has been denied, 
unless previous engagements, or the pressure of office work made it 
absolutely impossible to grant it ; and every appointment made has 
been faithfully kept. Taking no time for recreation other than the 
usual holidays, losing only one half day by sickness, and giving but 
one day to private business, my whole time and strength have been 
devoted to my proper work. Commencing the year with poor health 
and an enfeebled constitution, I have great cause for gratitude to 
G-od that I have been enabled, however imperfectly, to discharge the 
duties devolving upon me, and that I have gained in strength not- 
withstanding necessary overwork and exposure. 

The cordial reception everywhere extended to me, and the earnest 
support and encouragement given me in every county that I have 
visited, assure me that labor in this direction is wisely expended, 
and I propose during the ensuing year to spend still more time in 
traveling than has been devoted to it in the past, and to visit seve- 
ral counties hitherto un visited by the state superintendent. 

NSBDIiD liVGISLATION. 

Township System. — Our first great want is the township system 
of school government. This subject has been quite fully discussed 
in the preceding pages of this report, and nothing further will be 
added here. In the proceedings of the State Teacbers' Association, 
and of the convention of city and county superintendents, and in 
the special reports of the latter officers will be found the expression 
of the matured opinions of our ablest educators upon this topic. The 
attention of the legislature is called to these documents. 



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County Svperinieiuiency, — Some modifications of the system of 
GoaDty saperinteDdency seem to be needed. L^iany thoughtfal men, 
who have closely watched the working of the system, recommend 
that the plan of electing the saperintendents be abandoned, and 
that they be appointed by the state superintendent, or by a board 
constituted for that purpnse. There is no doubt that in some 
cases better officers might be selected, but the objections to the 
appointment system are, first, that the people have no opportunity 
to express their wishes ; and, second, that the appointing power 
has no means of determining the qualifications of applicants. In 
Pennsylvania, where the township system of school government is 
in operation, the town boards of school directors nominate the 
county superintendent and he is commissioned by the state super- 
intendent. If a person known to be incapable or unworthy is 
nominated, the superintendent may refuse to commission him, and 
thus, while the people are represented, there is a check upon hasty 
and unwise action, if the township system were in operation in this 
state, a similar plan might be pursued, but under present arrange- 
ments it is questionable whether, on the whole, better officers would 
be secured by appointment than are now elected by the people. 

Complaints are made, in some counties, that persons accept; the 
office of county superintendent, and then, while receiving the full 
salary allowed by law, fail to dit-charge its duties. It is believed 
that to change the compensation of the superintendent from a fixed 
salary to a per diem, to be paid only upon the presentation of an 
Recount, verified by affidavit, specifying the exact number of days 
actually and necessarily spent in the performance of his 
duties, would measurably cure the evil referred to. A minimum 
per diem being established by statute, it may be left to the county 
board of supervisors to determine the exact sum which should be 
paid in each county ; and perhaps it may be wise to authorize the 
Bupervisors to determine for each county whether the compensation 
of the superintendent shall be a per diem or a salary. 

School Ifonth.^-Ii has been a common practice in this state for 
many years to reckon teachers' wages by the month, and custom, 
derived from New York and New England, has dedded that twenty- 
two days constitute a school month. This custom has been gradu- 



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ally changing for some years past; many districts paying tbeir 
teachers a month's salary for twenty days work ; and in some sec- 
tions the latter practice is now the rule. There being no statute 
law bearing upon the snbject, a district board may contract with a 
teacher to labor any given number of days for a month, and such 
contract can be enforced, but difficulty often arises when the specific 
number of days that shall constitute a month is not inserted in the 
contract, the board interpreting the agreement in accordance with 
one practice, and the teacher in accordance with the other. Under 
these circumstances it is recommended that a law be passed specify- 
ing the number of days that shall constitute a school month when 
the contract with a teacher is silent on the subject. 

AppoTtionmeiU of school moneys, — The law provides that the 
income of the school fund shall be distributed to all districts which 
have maintained a school for five months during the year preceding 
the, apportionment, in proportion to the number of children be- 
tween the ages of four and twenty years residing therein. The in- 
justice of this method of distribution is readily perceived. Here 
are two districts lying side by side, and having the same nnmber of 
children. In ono of them a commodious school-house has been 
erected and a good school is maintained eight months each year, with 
an average attendence of seventy-five per cent, of all the children 
of school age. In the other, in a miserable apology for a school- 
house, a school is maintained just the number of months prescribed 
by the statute, and but thirty per cent, of the children are in at- 
tence thereon. Yet each of these districts receives exactly the same 
sum annually from the school fund income that the other does. In- 
stead of being an incentive to action, and a reward for faithful ed. 
ucational work, the school moneys arc a premium upon ignorance 
and inefficiency, or, at least, have but a slight stimulating and ele- 
vating effect upon the districts. 

The subject has often been discussed in teachers' associations and 
conventions, and there is a general agreement of opinion among in- 
telligent men, who have carefully considered the matter, that the 
moneys should be distributed upon some other basis ; but all action 
looking to a change in the method of distribution, and in some in- 
stances discussion itself has been precluded by the idea that the 



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CoDBtitution of the state prescribed the method of apportionment 
embodied in the statutes. It is dicfficalt to discover the origin of 
this opinion in reference to the constitutional requirement, but it 
has been generally entertained, and it has goyemed the action and 
reoommondations of the state superintendent for some years past. 
A careful examination of the constitution, however, shows that this 
opinion has no foundation. The subject is treated of in Eection 5 
of article 10, which reads as follows : '' Provisioa shall be made by 
law for the distiibution of the income of the school fund among the 
several towns and cities of the state, for the support of common 
schools therein, in some just proportion to the number of children 
and youth resident therein between the ages of four and twenty 
years." It will be seen that the constitution provides for the dis- 
tribution of moneys to towns and cities only, and does not prescribe 
the method of distribution to districts at all. It would be, then, 
CO infringement of the constitution for the legislature to provide for 
a distribution to districts upon a basis entirely different from that 
on which it is distributed to towns and cities. 

Again, a careful examination of the language of the constitution 
shows that it was not intended to prescribe the method that has 
been adopted for distribution to towns and cities. The language is 
**in some jast proportion to the number of children and youth 
resident therein between the ages of four and twenty years." If it 
kad been the intention of the framers of the constitution to provide 
that the,income of the school fund should be distributed to towns and. 
cities in the exact ratio of the number of children between the ages 
of four and twenty years residing therein, such intention would 
have been expressed in unmistakable terms ; but the phrase, ''some 
just proportion^*' shows that it was intended to leave the specific 
ratio of distribution to the discretion of the legislature ; and the 
requirement of the constitution will be complied with if the school 
moneys are apportioned to all towns and cities on the same basis 
with reference to children of the specified ages. But, however this 
Hiay bo with respeot to towns and cities, it is evident that the 
legislature has full power to prescribe the basis of distribution to 
districts. The plan -pursued by Now York, Connecticut and some 
other stKtes, and which seems to be most equitable, everything con- 
4— Sup. Pud. Ivi. 



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sidered, is to give to each organized district tbat maintains a sobool 
the number of months required by law, an equal amount of the in- 
come, which should be cither a specified sum, or a certain proportion 
of the moneys distributed to the town ; the remainder to be appor- 
tioned to the same districts in accordance with the average atten- 
dance of pupils at school for the year preceding the apportionment. 
This plan recognizes the fact that up to a certain point the expenses 
incurred in different districts in supporting schools are about equal, 
and that weak districts should be aided and encouraged. It also 
rewards those districts which secure a large attendance, and thus 
accomplish the work for which they are organized. It is believed 
that the adoption of the above described plan of distribution of the 
school moneys, or of one similar to it, will largely augment the 
attendance of pupils, and thus materially increase the efficiency of 
otir schools. 

The management of the school fund. — The State Superinten- 
dent is required to suggest '* plans for the improvement and man- 
agement of the commoci school fund." Under this head is presen- 
ted the following statement of the condition of the cducationl trust 
funds and plans for their invesment, taken from the report of the 
secretary of state for 186b. 

IirTKSTMKNT OF TRUST FUNDS. 

** Until all the lands belonging to the School, XJnniversity, Normal School and 
Agricultural College fande, shall have been sold, and the omounts due on enid 
lands and on loans shall have been paid into the state treasury, a large sum 
of money will annually accrue to the credit of the several trust funds, sub- 
ject to investment in the manner provided by law. U der the provisions of 
the revised Statutes, all such moneys were to be. loaned to individuals upon 
real estate eecunty. These provisions have neveryet been repealed, although 
they have been temporarily suspendei or modified by subsequent legislation. 
Chapter 89 of the laws of 1862, and chapter 100 of the laws of 1863, authoriz- 
ed and directed the Commissioners of School and University lands to *' invest 
the principal of the school fund, in preference to all other loans and invest- 
ments in the bonds of the state of Wisconsin,'' at an annual interest of seven 
per cent, per annum. Chapter 26 of the laws of 1866, provided for the cancel- 
lation of the bonds which had been purchased by the trust funds, and for the 
issue of certificates of indebtedness in lien of the same. Under these sev- 
ral liiWB the bonds of the state have all been taken up and canceled, with 
the exception of $16'7,800. This amount of bonds; will undoubtedly be pur- 



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chased and canceled withia the next two years, if not during the next year. 
Two metliods of investment will will then be left open under the law, either 
of which may be adopted by the Commissioners of School and University 
lland', at their discretion. In anticipation of the final purchase and cnnceh 
ation of the outstandiing bonds of this state, chapter 111 of the laws of 1866 
was passed, " authorinng " said Commissioners to invest the principal of the 
several trust funds in '* bonds of the United States, and in bonds of the New 
England States, New Tork and Ohio " 

**It will be borue in mind that the latter means of investment is not man- 
datory on the Commissioners, but simply invests them with discretionary 
power. Now the provisions of the revised statutes, to wit: section 81 of 
chapter 28, not having been repealed, I see no reason why the Commissioners 
may not, if they choose, again fall back on the old system of loaning out the 
funds to individuals ; s nee all the laws requiring their investment in the 
bonds of the state will have lost all their force by the purchase and cancel- 
lation of said bonds. The provisions of chapter 111 of the laws of 1868, 
were intended to meet this question; and the method of investment therein 
authorized, would be far perferable to the old system, which has heretofore 
entailed so much loss and expense upon the several funds. 

*' Cut, still, there seem to be some objections to the latter of these systems, 
which were not anticipated, or which, perhaps, were not taken into consid- 
eration. In the first place, the people of this state have no surplus money to 
loan to citizens of other states, or to eastern holders of state and government 
bonds. All the money and capital arising from the sale of lands in charge 
of the state, can find ample sources of use and investment at home. Were 
this system finally adopted, we should be sending anmiaUif out of the state, 
from one hundred to two hundred thousand dollars to purchase bonds — not 
at their face, but at their par value, which now varies from five to seven per 
cent, premium. Again, no bonds are in circulation which draw a higher 
rate of interest than six per cent; and it is highly probable that the rate on 
gOTernmeut bonds will soon be reduced to from four to four and a half per 
cent. It is well known that money is in demand in this state at from seven 
to ten per cent. So that under this system we should loose, not only from 
one to three per cent, in interest, but also the expense of exchange between 
here and New York. Now, it having been the settled policy of the state so 
far, to protect the funds confided to its care for educational purposes, and 
to secure as large an income as possible from their investment, the question 
arises as to whether it would be wise to reverse this policy. Is there not 
some plan by the adoption of which these several funds may be made secure 
and an annual interest of seven per cent, be perpetually guaranteed to them 
beyond the possibility of failure ? If so, the magnitude of the trust accepted 
bj the state and the important results depending upon its proper manage- 
ment, imperatively demand its adoption. 



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** The fuods to be inveBted, as is well kDOwn, arise ffom the sale of fandfl, 
payments of balance doe on prevtoos sales, and amounts due on loans from 
these several funds. So fast as moneys come into the treasury from these 
sources, means of investment must be found. That these amounts will be 
large in the future, as they have been in the past, the following statements 
will show : 





Value of 
lands unsold. 


Am'tdue 

on previous 

sales. 


Am'tdue 
on loans. 


School fund 


1676,826 

81,886 

1,248,671 

274,671 


1620,668 
68,841 
76,418 
14,488 


$660,227 

22,892 

100,87ft 

6,000 


University fund ., 


Normal school fund 


Agricultural college fund 




Total . 


12,181,968 


$679,805 


$679,497 





"The whole amount, then, as appears from the above table, which will be 
subject to investment within the next few years, will be as follows: 

Principal of School Fund $1,647,618 OQf 

ITniveraity Fund 128,118 00 

Normal School Fund 1,426,866 00 

Agricultural College Fund 296, 16» 00 



Total . 



$8,491,266 00 



"In what manner shall this large amount be invested? The methods 
authorized under existing laws have been stated above, viz: 1st. In bonds 
of the state ; 2d. In bonds of the United States and of several other states; 
8d On real estate security to individuals. The objections to the first two 
methods have already been stated, and experience has demonstrated that the 
last does not afford sufficient security ; that it involves expense in clerk hire, 
books and blanks, and that it has been in the past, as it will be in the future, 
if adopted again, an instrument of political persuasion if not of political 
corruption. A few favored individuals would undoubtedly renp its benefits, 
but the great mass of people, for whose use these funds were created, would 
reap only its evils and losses. The people do not ask a return to this syS' 
tem ; but do desire an investment which shall insure a regular and perma- 
nent income. 

"The only plan which seems to embrace all the desired conditions of 
safety, of economy in management, of unchangeable value and of prompt 
payment of interest, is the continuance of the plan now in practice ; that is, 
to make the state its own banker, and all the people of the state and all the 
property of the state, security for these funds. Instead of loaning them to 
a few individuals, upon small individaal security, let them be loaned to the 



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whole people, upon the plighted honor of the state, secured by constitutional 
proyision. Since the constitution of this state prohibits the incurring of an 
indebtedness eiceeding one hundred thousand dollars, let an amendment be 
adopted and submitted to the people, similar to the following: 

AMENDMENT TO THE CONSTITUTION. 

** Section 11 of article 8 of the constitution of this stMe, is hereby 
auMuded so as to read as follows: 

*' The principal of the school fund, of the university fund, of the normal 
Bchool fund and of the agricultural college fund, shall hereafter be invested 
in the following manner, to wit : at the end of each financial quarter the 
commissioners of school and university lands shall ascertain the amount of 
principal of each of said funds remaining in the treasury subject to invest- 
ment, and shall cause certificates of indebtedness to be executed in duplicate 
for the amount of said funds, which certificates shall bear interest at the rate 
of seven per cent, per annum, payable on the Slst day of May, in each year, 
each of which certificates shall be made payable to the proper fund, and 
shall, by the temu thereof, be made not negotiable or transferable for any 
purpose whatever. Said certificates shall be signed by the governor, the 
ecretary of state and the state treasurer. Immediately upon the issue of 
the said certificates, a duplicate of each shall be deposited with the state 
treasurer, and the original with the secretary of state, and thereupon the 
several amounts for which said certificates were issued, shall be transferred 
to the general fund of the treasury.** 

The amendment might, if deemed advisable, be of this form: 

^* The Legislature of this State is hereby authorized and empowered, to 
cause to be issued certificates of indebtedness to the several Trust Funds in 
the treasury, for the amount of such^funds on hand at auy time subject to in- 
▼estment, and to transfer said funds to the General Fund of the State : pnh 
f/itUd, that an interest of seven per cent, on the same be provided, payable 
annually, to the ineome of said funds." 

Among the advantages clumed for this system are the following: 

" Ist Securitif andpermamency of woestmenL—AA compared with loans to 
individuals, there will be no loss of title papers, or through poor security and 
defective title papers. As compared with investment in State and Govern" 
ment bonds, there could be no loss ; while these bonds, purchased at market 
rates, at perhaps five to ten per cent, premium, would, at maturity, call only 
for their face, throwing upon our funds the entire loss of the premium paid. 
Moreover, these bonds are liable to be called In at any time, and exchanges 
could seldom be made without loss and expense. 

2d. Botmomjf of managemmiL-^'lhiB needs no elucidation, since there can 



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be no expense ezeepting the bare cost of the pi^per and printing ef the 
blanks to be nsed. 

" 8d. Ji tecwret a higher rate of interett to (he edueaHorud fundi, — This is clea r 
since, as before stated, no bonds in market bear more than six per cent, 
interest. 

"4tb. It retaitu our eapUal at home. — ^The purchase of foreign bonds would 
drain this state of IVom one to two hundred thousand dollars per year, upon 
which we should receive back only from four to six per cent. 

** 6th. It relienet the people from taxation, — For, whatever amount is in' 
vested in certificates of indebtedness, is at once placed to the credit of the 
General Fund. As a matter of course, the State tax for that year would be 
less by that amonnt, except so much as is paid as interest on the amount. 
Were this amount for one year $100,000, the interest would be $7,000, leav- 
ing in the treasury $93,000, reducing the State tax by that amount. Thus all 
the money paid into the treasury for lands, goes back to the people through 
the various channels by which our circulation is maintained, and thus the 
whole people, instead of a part, have the benefit of a loan at seven per cent, 
interest, equally distributing the burdens and the benefits of this system. 

" 6th. Ho lo9$ through neglect or fraud.—The certificates of indebtedness 
being in duplicate and not negotiable, oflfer no inducement to abstraction 
or alteration. Whereas bonds, amounting to perhaps millions of dollars, 
might appeal strongly to the cupidity of a corrupt public officer. This has 
happened in other portions of the country, and prudence would seem to de. 
mand that occasion for such temptation may be avoided. 

" It is raised by some as an objection to the plan proposed, that we shall 
have BO School Fund or any other fund— that we shall have only promises 
without any intention to pay. The same objectioo liee to every kind of In- 
vestment. The bonds of the Oovernment or of any State are only promises 
to pay. The same irt true of loans to individuals. Unless the fund consists 
entirely of money, locked up in the vaults of the treasury, we can have 
nothing but promiaes to pay. Every thing depends then on the security. 
That a State certificate of indebtedness is as good as a State bond, no one 
can doubt, and the objection is captious rather than legitimate or honest. 

'* But I do not deem it necessary to argue the question further ; but lest it 
may be supposed that the course proposed is without precedent, I will simply 
state that a plan somewhat similar has been in practice forsoose time inOhiot' 
Believing some legislation to be necessary, the above suggestions are respect- 
fully submitted * 

The argamentB presented by the seeretary in favor of the plan 
recommended by him are yery strong, bnt they do not seem to be 
conolnsiye. The qnestion has two aspeots ; one as viewed from the 



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■tond ^int of the "people, the other from the stand point of the 
fdnde. Bnpposiag that the funtls are the property of the people, is 
it wise, is it a good business transao(»on for them to use up their 
eapiial in Bdeetiag their yearly expenses ; especially as before it is 
thus used it produees an ineome, and afterwards represents a debt, 
on whieh interest must be paid? On the other hand, supposing that 
the fwids are not absolutdy the property of the people, but only a 
it««t to be managed for the benefit of certain specified objects, is it 
wise for the trustee to convert them to his own use for the sake of 
lightening present burdens, and of avoiding some care and risk in 
their investment and management ? It is said that in any case 
these funds will be invested in, and represented by *' promises to 
pay ;" that there are n'> actual moneys on hand, and that it is bet- 
ter to have the promise of all the people and property of our own 
■tate, as represented by a "certificate of indebtedness," than a 
state or United States bond, or the promises of individuals. But it 
must be remembered that a atate or United States bond Is a promise 
to pay into the peoples' pocket a certain sum annually, while a cer- 
tificate of indebtedness is only a means of transferring a cwtain sum 
from one pocket to another. 

The present indebtedness of the state to the trust funds is $2,084,- 
200. Adding to this the sum that must be invested within the next 
few years, $3,491,255, and we have a total of $5,575,^55, the in- 
terest on which at seven per cent, is $390,281.85, an amount ex- 
ceeding the ordinary current expenses for the past year. 

This method of investment is more objectionable when applied to 
the school fund, than it is in its application to the other funds. 
When the incomes of the university, agricultural college and nor- 
mal school funds reach the state treasury they remain there subject 
to the demands of the institutions supported by them ; but the in- 
oome of the school fund goes back to the people and is distributed 
all over the state. A given town has to raise $100.00 as its share 
of the interest due this fund. The money is collected by the town 
treasurer, by him paid to the county treasurer, who sends or carries 
it to 'Madison to the state treasurer. It is then apportioned by the 
state superintendent, an3 it returns to the people through the same 
obannels by which it found its way to the state treasury, except that 



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the town treasurer pays it to the Bcbool district treasurers, who paj 
it to the school teachers. Is not this rather a round about unbusi- 
ness like way of proriding funds to remunerate our teachers? But 
supposing that the moneys never leave the town treasury, that a 
system of credits is established ; the state treasurer crediting the 
county treasurer, upon the state tax due from his county, the 
amount to be returned as school moneys ; and the county treasurer 
crediting the town treasurer in like manner, it would then be simply 
a cumbersome method of levying a state tax for the support of 
schools ; a measure unobjectionable in itself, but which can be car- 
ried out in a much simpler way, and which can be reached without 
annihilating the school fund or creating a permanect state debt. 
The exigencies of the case justified the appropriation of these funds 
to meet the extraordinary expenses incurred by the state in assist- 
ing to put down rebellion and save the union, but it seems to be 
the wiser course, now that we **have peace'' to create a sinking 
fund to pay our debts, and to invest our trust funds in securities 
that will, in a few years, annually put three or four hundred thou, 
sand dollars into the state treasury fur the benefit of our public 
schools and other educational institutions. 

OOHOLUSIOH. 

Looking back over the past year it is not difficult to discover 
evidence of progress in the educational work, The facts and statis- 
tics presented in this report are, of themselves, sufficient to prove 
that our people are still active and lealous in their efforts to fur- 
nish facilities for the education of their children ; and my personal 
intercourse with teachers, school officers and parents corroborates 
the inferences drawn from the statistics, and intensifies the convic- 
tion that our course in the future is onward and upward. The 
necessity of education to the state and the individual is better un- 
derstood, and broad and comprehensive views as to what constitutes 
a true education are held by a greater number than over before. 
How best to develop the physical, mental and moral natures of those 
committed to their charge, is the problem which our earnest, devoted 
teachers are trying to solve ; and they look to you gentlemen of the 
egislature to aid them in their arduous and responsible work. This 



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you oan do by perfecting and Bustaining our system of pnblio instnio- 
tion. While not neglecting other important duties, let a good 
share of your time be devoted to the consideration of the means for 
developing and improving that system which the intelligence of the 
country recognizes as the best agency for educating the youth, and 
the most potent instrument for promoting general progress and en- 
lightenment. That your action may bo wise and salutary, and that 
your labors may be crowned with success is the earnest wish of all 
true friends of education in this State. 

Respectfully submitted, 

A. J. CRAIG, 

Superintendent qf Public Instruction. 



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DOCUMENTS 

ACCOMPANYING THE REPORT. 



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RRPORTS OF COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS- 



BROWN. 

080AB eBAT, BUPSBINTSNDXNT.. 

The people of this oonntj are taking qnite an intereat in the 
schools, and are generally liberal in their support. In some of the 
towns, where the conntj is compar ativelj new, school buildings and 
the schools are not what I conld wish ; indeed I might say the same 
of many of the older towns. I find it difficult to get teachers ex- 
perienced and qualified in their profession, there are so many other 
openings for the active and intelligent; still there is a healthy, encour- 
aging feeling, and a determination to have good schools, if popsible. 



BUFFALO. 

JAMXS IMRIB, SUPXBINTBMDXNT. 

Within the last three years there has been a marked improvement 
in the condition of our schools ; the live teachers are becoming 
more numerous in our ranks, diffusing a healthy invigorating influ- 
ence wherever they go. There ia a large and handsome building 
nearly completed at Fountain City, which, when finished, will cost 
about $7,000. It occupies a commanding position, and is truly an 
ornament to the city ; it is an edifice of which the inhabitants may 
well be proud. There are to be three departments. We expect to 
have another soon in Alma, with two or more departments. Our 
hills and valleys are exhibiting the interest of our people in the com- 
mon school, in the large oommodius school houses. In Oilman 
Yalleyf town of Oilmanton, a commodious frame school house is 
nearly completed. 



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I think that the plan of reporting monthly the condition of the 
schools is having a beneficial effect, creating emulation in school 
and a deeper interest at home ; and in publishing these reports, I 
can perceive the beneficial effects. 

On the 19, 20th and 21st of October we had an Institute at 
Alma, which was both a pleasant and profitable meeting. The 
teachers have resolved to establish it on a permanent basis. 

There is more uniformity in our text books this year, and the 
pupils are better supplied with them. 



BUBNETT. 

WM. H. PECK, SUPBBINTSNDENT 

Burnett Oounty being young, and as yet thinly settled, we are 
very far from arriving to what older counties usually attain, but 
still there is a general good feeling for making improvement as 
speedily as the means will permit. In District No. 1, the school 
house is in a very poor condition, but the school officers have prom- 
ised to have the necessary inside and outside fittings completed 
early next year. In District No. 2 a good and substantial school 
house is completed and well fitted. There is also a much greater 
interest among the parents for the education of their children, and 
the attendance at both schools has been considerably better than 
before ; and as the people get acquainted with the country (most of 
them are from Norway and Sweden), a still further progress and 
improvement will bo made, so that each annual report will be that 
of prosperity from this young county. 



CHIPPEWA. 

THSO* OOLBMAN, 8UPBBINTXNDXNT, 

This county contains 120 townships embracing 4,820 square miles 
of territory, a great part of which is thinly settled, the northern 
part being a region of pine forests and tamarack swamps There 
are thirty-six entire school districts in the coudty, and two parts of 



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distriots. Four new distrlots bare been organized sinoe January 
last, two of which are joint. 

BUILDINGS. 

The buildings are for the most part log stmctures, whioh answer 
the purpose for which they were built without being elegant. Those 
erected lately are frame, however, and are far better buildings. I 
have frequently and earnestly called the attention of district 
officers to the matter of putting their school houses in good repair, 
and there has been a little improvement in a few cases, which is, I 
think, the beginning of a general overhauling throughout the 
county. I have tried to impress upon officers the importance of 
having their school grounds well inclosed, out-houses built, the 
building tightly floored and well ventilated, &c. Their attention 
has been called also, to the advantage of having the school room 
hung with maps, and otherwise made attractive. 

VISITATIONS. 

Thirty-two of the schools have been visited by the Superinten- 
dent this year, some of them twice and others much oftener. In 
these visits (which have been quite informal), particular attention 
has been given to thoroughness in teaching, and I am happy in being 
able to report considerable improvement in this respect. Our 
teachers are, mainly, a class of young girls, many of them with but 
one or two terms experience in teaching, and a great amount of 
work is to be done in bringing them up to a fair standing in their 
profession. Their schools are not so far advanced as to require 
high scholarship for their successful instruction, but the necessity 
for thorough scholarship is none the less urgent, and the importance 
of continual study on the part of teachers is great. I have gen- 
erally consulted with the district officers, in these visits, in regard 
to the improvement of their school- houses and their adornment, the 
payment of good wages to teachers, the length of school terms, &c« As 
a general rule district officers are anxious to do whatever is best oal* 
ottlated to benefit the cause of education in their district ; but it is 
a fact patent to a common observer that greater intelligence must be 
brought to bear in the Administration of school affairs before a eon" 



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siderable number of oar distriots can make mncb beadway in edu- 
cating tbeir cbildren. 

TEXT BOOKP. 

Circular letters bave been addressed to scbool officers in regard to 
the evil of mixed text-books, of wbicb teachers have complained a 
great deal. We do not attempt to establish uniformity in books 
throughout the county, but only in each school. I can report the 
work of introducing one series of books as accomplished this sum- 
mer in several districts, and can speak encouragingly of the prospect 
in other districts. 

XXAMINATIONS AND OBKTIVIOATBS. 

Four examinations arc held each year in tbo county-^two in the 
spring and two in the fall. This year the fall examinations were 
held (by my predecessor in office) in November, and the spring ex- 
aminations in April. Besides the regular spring examinations, I 
have had thirteen special examinations since January, of teachers 
who, from various causes, were unable to attend in the spring. 
Thirty-nine third-grade certificates have been issued by me ; twenty- 
six at regular examinations, and thirteen at special examinations — 
nineteen of which were full one-year licenses, and twenty limited to 
particular districts and for a shorter time. No second or third grade 
certificates have been applied for 

IN CONCLUSION, 

It must be observed that very much is to be done in this county 
in order to bring our educational affairs out of darkness into light. 
We have been a lumbering people to the extent of bringing in as 
settlers many single men, whose interest in the cause of common 
education is necessarily less than that of heads of families. In 
Chippewa Falls, the county seat, splendid service has been rendered 
the cause by the erection of an (8,000 school house, of four de- 
partments, and the introduction thereinto of a good corps of teachers. 
Needing just such an institution to take the lead in all matters of 
reform in methods of teaching, &c., it cannot bat exert a benefioia 
infiuence upon all our schools. 

We do not yet participate in the almost universal effort which ia 



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being made to introduce into the art of teaching the Pestalozsian 
prinoiple ; jet we are aware that there is a necessity for attention 
being given to the subject, to the end that this grand method may 
work out its beneficial results here as elsewherei 



COLUMBIA. 

BBV. LEVI BATH, SUPBRINTBNDBNT. 

In bending you my report, permit me to say that I have made it 
as accurate as possible. Reports came in late, and some of them 
were very imperfect, with no possible means of correcting them. 
On all essential points I think you will find it correct. As to teach- 
ers and school visitation, my report extends only to January last, as 
at that tipie I first came upon the ground. There has been no '* In- 
stitute " as yet. I find it impossible to get the teachers together. 
Other things seem to engross the whole attention. I made an ap* 
pointmeut at Lodi, but no teachers were present. 

I have spent the past winter and summer in school visitation, 
deeming it of the first importance to become acquainted with the 
condition and wants of the schools, and to learn Irom personal ob- 
servation the manner in which the teachers were doing their work. 
I have found, for the most part, the schools in successful operation ; 
and the teachers, as a class, faithful in their work In some dis 
tricts, things were a little loose ; not having been visited by a su- 
f erintendeot for years ; in others, there was some restlessness occa- 
sioned by official pressure. These occasional indications of friction I 
have sought to obviate by a just regard to the local interests of the 
districts. Where any interference has seemed necessary, I have 
worked through the school board, and, in all cases, the intercourse 
has been friendly. I have labored to cultivate harmony in the dis- 
tricts, and have met with the most encouraging success. My inter* 
course with the teachers has been friendly and cordial, and my ear- 
nest wish has been to assist them in their work. In the examination 
of teachers I have used great care — having regard to ability and 
success in teaching, as well as to the simple item of intellectua 

qualification. I have consulted with practical teachers, and use 
5— ^up. Pub. Ins. 



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my best judgment, so as not to bring the standard too high, or toa 
low, believing the school-room the only practical test of a teacher'9 
ability. In my visitation of schools, while I have not lost sight of 
methods, I have given special attention to res^tB. If the pupils are 
orderly — if they give evidence that they are trained to habits of 
study — if by their recitations and reviews, they show that they are 
thoroughly instructed in the several branches of study pursued in 
the school, then I mark that teacher as a success ; and this fact will 
have its influence in future examinations Eight new school houses 
have been erected the past season,— some of them are fine specimens 
of architecture ; and all are well adapted to meet the wants of the 
districts in which they are situated. Old buildings have been re- 
paired and enlarged, and others are to be built the coming year. 

With all these indications of progress, there are yet many houses 
utterly unfit for school purposes. Time is needed to remove these 
obstructions, and clear the field for a full measure of success. In 
many of the districts the country is new, — the schools are amall and 
the people are poor. In not a few localities the people are indiffer- 
ent to the importance of common school instruction. Many districts 
are nearly all composed of foreign population. In a few years, these 
are to move on a line with our best citizens ; but at present, as a 
class, they are unacquainted with our school system. Time and pa~ 
tience are needed to direct this element, and make it available, and 
thus develop and mature this great work, which I think is now in 
sucsessful progress. 



DANE, Ut I)i8(. 

J. Q. EMSBT, SUPSBINTSNDSNT. 

Compliant wtth your request I send you the following special 
report : 

I — THX WORK DONB. 

1. Yisiiing SehooU. — Since the first of January I have made 
two hundred visits to schools through all the seventeen towns in 
this superintendent district. I have striven to make these visita 
a means of stirring teachers, scholars and parents to greater ao- 



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tivity in the work of education. 1 have endeavored to present 
some of the necessities, benefits, and beauties of education, and 
the best means of securing the same. District boards havo gener- 
ally been consulted and advised with in reference to the work. 

2. Town Teachers' Association. — Entering upon the duties of 
the office of county superintendent on the first of January last, 
attention was immediately given to the organization of town teach- 
ers' associations ; and during the winter term I succeeded in organ- 
izing associations in five different towns. During the summer they 
were quite successfully maintained in nearly every town in the dis- 
trict. Have met the teachers at the associations at least once, 
after visiting the schools in the town, and there pointed out in a 
general way the errors observed while visiting the schools, and sug- 
gested how these errors might bo corrected. Economy of time has 
thus been secured. Teachers have become interested in these 
associations as a means of scK-improvement, and good has come of 
them. The plan is liked and will bo continued with still greater 
-vigor. 

3. Examinations, — The examinations last fall were oon ducted by 
my predecessor. Rev. 0. 0. Stearns. The spring examinations were 
conducted in accordance with the idea that after the ability of the 
applicant is tested, the examination is to be a place for disseminat- 
ing new and more approved ideas and methods, a sort of radiating 
centre. The teachers were instructed how the superintendent 
wished the schools conducted, that the necessity of making sugges- 
tions personally at the time of visiting the school mighty so far as 
possible, be avoided. The results have proven all that could be ex* 
pected. About sixty per cent, of the applicants received certifi- 
cates. Having confidence in the public examination as an educator, 
private examinations have been almost wholly avoided by means of 
supplementary examinaiions. The loose and illegal practice of 
endorsing or transferring certificates is not countenanced in this 
district, 

4. Addresses, Lectures. — Addresses have been given evenings in 
yarious parts of the district by the superintendent, upon matters 
pertaining to the welfare and advancement of the common schools. 



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Evenings at tbe ezamioations were also devoted to lectures from 
prominent educators. Lectures have also Deen given in connction 
with the teachers' associations. In this matter Prof. A. R. Corn- 
wall, Principal of Albion Academy ; Prof. Edward Searing, of Mil- 
ton College ; Rev. J. J. Mclntjre, Principal of Marshall Academy, 
and Hon. A. J. Craig, Superintendent of Public Instruction, have 
given valuable aid. 

5. MofUhly Reports. — Teachers are required to submit monthly 
reports. Very nearly all liave complied. An abstract from these re- 
ports has been published each month. In these abstracts the follow- 
ing items were given : 

1. The names of the teachers and the town in which they teach, 

2. No. of Echool children in the district. 

3. No. enrolled this month. 

4. Largest daily attendance. 
Smallest. 

6. Average. 

No. of hours lost by tardiness. 
8. No. present every day and good behavior approved by the 
teacher. 

No. text books needed. 

These abstracts were made from the January, and Feburary, 
May and July reports. These abstract reports furnish opportunity 
for making needed remarks. In these remarks among others have : 

1 . Kept the district informed with reference to the more impor- 
tant of the superintendent's labors. 

2. Mentioned names of teachers deserving special com endation. 
8 Urged tbe organization of town teachers associations. 

4. Urged parents and district officers, to visit their schools, 

5. Called upon teachers to avail themselves of the advantages 
of the normal schools. 

6. Asked for improvements needed with reference to Bohool 
houses, school grounds, fences, shade trees, facilities, &c. 

7* Advised districts to procure the heit teachers, as being true 
economy. The results of this course induce a continuance of its 
practice. • 



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6. Imjyrovements. — To indace backward districts to make suit 
able provision in the matter of scbool houses, school grounds, 
fences, maps, charts, globes, seats ventilation, out buildings, has 
occupied much time and toil. Every available means has been em- 
ployed. 

7. Corespondence — The correspondence forms no small part of 
the superintendent's labors. In addition to a large number of cir- 
culars, notices and teachers monthly reports, (in all about nine hun- 
dred distinct mail packages) not loss than two hundred and fifty 
written communications have been sent out. 

8. State Teachers' Association and Convention of CowUy Super- 
intendents. — One week during the latter part of July was spent in 
attending the state teachers association and convention of county 
superintendents at Milwaukee. 

9. Circular to District Clerks. — To be read by District Clerks 
at the Annual School Meeting, Sept. 28, 1868. 

To the Electors assembled in Annual School Meeting : 

Gbntlsmbn : — By section 92 of the School Code, of 1867, it is 
made the duty, in part, of the county superintendents of schools 
to advise in the construction, warming and ventilation of school 
bouses, the improving and adorning the grounds connected there- 
with, to recomroefid the proper management of schools, and to direct 
the making of any alteration or repairs which shall, in his opinion, 
be necessary to the health, comfort, or progress of the pupils. 

I cannot here enter into as extended remarks as I would wish. 
Want of space necessitates brevity. But permit me, in conformity 
with the duties above expressed, to call your attention to the 
following : 

1. — .Election of Officers, — All vacancies in offices should now be 
filled. One officer is to be elected for three years. Very much of 
the success of the school for the ensuing three years depends on 
your choice of a man to fill the responsible, though many times thank- 
less and pecuniarily unrequited office of district clerk. To perform 
its duties successfully requires practical knowledge ; an interest in 
the cause of education ; force of character. Above all a man should 



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be oliosea who not only knows bis duties, but will perform them. 
AU tbings being equal, one is to be preferred wbo bas bad experi- 
ence. 

2. — Out Buildings. — The neglect in providing suitable out- 
buildings upon school grounds, is an alarming evil. .Two should in 
all cases be provided, one for the boys and one for the girls, under 
separate and distinct ruofs, located in the rear and opposite corners 
of the yard, with a tight, high board fence between, from the rear 
center of the school house to the fence in the rear of the yard. 
These out houses should be made spacious and should be thoroughly 
renovated at least before the opening of each term of school. Noth- 
ing less than this can be called decent. Let me ask yon, i: entle- 
men, to examine into the condition of the out buildings at this 
meeting, and as you value the purity of your sons and the chastity 
of your daughters, see to it that suitable provision be made in this 
matter. 

8. Seats and Desks. — The seats and desks in many school rooms, 
even where new school houses are not needed, are so illy con- 
structed and badly arranged, as to require in many instances a total 
tearing up and re-arranging. The seats should in all cases be with 
backs, and of varying height, so that the youngest and eldest scholar 
can be comfortably seated. In this mat ter there exists a great fault. 
Due regard is not had to the health and comfort of the small scholars. 
Take this home. How would it be in case you were required to 
sit upon a seat six hours each day for three consecutive months, 
from which you could not touch your feet to the floor, and perhaps 
with no support for the back. This is required of many children. 
But it is an evil and ought to be abolished, and with little effort the 
desirable change can be brought about. Let me ask you to cause 
your seats to be made what they ought to be. The arrangement 
6{ the seats and desks should be such as to allow of an aisle or 
free passage of at least two feet around the outside of the room, 
and between each range of seats for two scholars, and to bring each 
pupil under the supervision of the teacher. They should face the 
rear end of the room. The many advantages of such an arrange- 
ment overbalance the few objections which may be urged against it. 



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The stove should then be pkced between the two doors at the 
entrance. 

4. Haps, Globes, dhe. — By seotioh 18, of the sohool code, jou 
are empowered to raise any amount of money not to exceed seventy- 
five dollars, for the purchase of maps, globes and such apparatus as 
is necessary for the good of the school. No money can be more 
judiciously expended. These are indispensable requisites to a prop- 
erly conducted school. I trust this matter will receive your favora- 
ble consideration. Maps can be bought for from twenty to twenty- 
five dollars. No district can afford to be without these facilities. 

5. — Blackboards. — All admit the importance of sufficient black 
board surface. But in many school rooms the black board is en- 
tirely inadequate to the wants of the schoel. The supposition that 
a 5 feet by 3 black board stuck in behind the '* pulpit," or so-called 
*' teachers' desk," is sufficient for the accommodation of a school of 
twenty or thirty scholars, not to say fifty or sixty, stands opposed 
to common sense. The black board should extend at least across 
one entire end of the room, (the rear end is preferable and the seats 
should face it,) and should be about five feet in width and not more 
than two and a half feet from the floor. The best way for making 
this board is by spreadiniz *' liquid slating " on the wall, or what is 
better, on seasoned, matched, white pine boards. The* <' pulpit " or 
*' teacher's desk " should be torn out, for it is simply a hindrance, 
and in its stead there should be a small table and chair. Platforms 
are also hindrances unless they extend across the entire end of the 
room, JQst beneath the black board. 

6. — School Grounds, Fences, &c, — ^It is confidently hoped that 
at this meeting, in cases where it has not already been done, provi- 
sion will be made for enclosing the schoel grounds with a substan. 
tial and tasteful fence, also for making sone improvement by way 
of adorning the grounds. The expense of doing this must be com- 
paratively trifling. School rooms should not only be comfortable, 
but every thing connected therewith should be pleasing and attract- 
ive. In a word, every thing about the school premises is an educa- 
tor, and that either for good or for evil, and here your children 
spend the greatest part of their youth. 



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7. — Dtviiton of School Terms and Employment of Tetxehert, — 
A better arraDgement of school terms would be te have a Fall term 
of twelve weeks, commencing the last of September or the first of 
October, a Winter term commencing the first of January and a 
Spring term commencing the last of April, and closing before the 
Fourth of July. Thus there would be vacations during the holi- 
days, the muddy weather of April and the hot weather of July and 
August, during which months schools are of scarcely any benefit. 
By such an arrangement teachers could be employed by the year, a 
thing which of itself would justify such an arrangement, as the fre- 
quent change of teachers works great detriment to the schools. 

8. — Change of Annual School Meeting — Section 17 of the 
school code nuthorizes you to change the time of holding the annual 
school meeting from the last Monday of September to the last Mon- 
day of August. Such a change would greatly facilitate the carry- 
ing out of the above suggestions in regard to school terms. It is 
also desirable that this change should be made in order that the re- 
port of the treasurer and clerk may be laid before the people previ- 
ous to the time of making the annual reports to tha town clerk. ' 

9. ^Conclusion. — In concluhion permit me to say that you are 
met to deliberate and take action upon matters of vital importance 
to the children committed to your care, to our commonwealth and 
to the entire nation. ** True economy shuns both niggardliness and 
prodigality." To you it is committed to give your children the 
blessed boon of an education. To do this well fear no toil, no sac- 
rifice however great, and many hearts shall beat more joyous on ac- 
count of your having lived. May wisdom, liberality, peace and 
harmony characterize your meeting, 

II. NSW SCHOOL HOUSSS, 

Since the last report from this office there have been completed 
or will be completed before the winter term of school, twenty new 
school houses; many of these are constructed upon the more im- 
proved plans. 

m. TB^HBSS. 

It is believed that the general qualifications of the teachers com- 
pare favorably with those of any other portion of the State. Albion 



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and Marshall Academies in this district, and the State Uniyersitj 
at Madison, furnish most of the teachers. What is still needed is 
permanency and special training for the work. The hitherto Nor- 
mal Department of the State University exerted a beneficial infla- 
enoe upon the teachers of thisdistiiot. ' 

IV. TUB NORMAL SCHOOLS. 

The influence of the Normal Schools is not yet much felt here ; 
but one appointment has been made— that one to Whitewater. To 
make the Normal Schools of service they must be placed within 
reach of the masses. 

V. THE OOUNTT SUPEBIITTBNDENOT. 

i^rom my visits through the various towns of the district, I am 
eonvinoed that the system of County Superintendency would, if 
submitted to a vpte of the people, be sustained by a large majority. 

VI. THE TOWNSHIP DISTRICT STSTElf, 

\8 supplementary to the County Superintendency, is favored by 
nearly all the leading men in this district. 



DANE-2<^ Dt»t. 

N. 1. GOLDTHWAITB, SUPERINTENDENT. 
THE TOWNSHIP DISTRICT SYSTEM. 

For every other purpose, both social and political, the town is the 
unit in our system ; why should it not be in the matter of educa- 
tion? Let each town organize a Board of Education of three 
members ; let the President of the Board, in connection with the 
county superintendent, exercise the power of supervision of the 
schools Let the board have power to alter or abolish present dis- 
tricts, to hire suitable teachers and arrange the terms of school ; 
in short to do every thing possible for the interests of sound morals 
and education in their respective towns. This system might bring 
up the efficiency of the rural schools to an equality with those of 
our cities and larger towns. It is an indisputable fact that thecte 
latter schools in our own country are equal to those of any country 



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in the world. But in the language of the Ohio State Commissioner, 
** no one can visit the country schools, hear the recitations, observe 
the discipline, examine the teachers' records and look upon the cheer- 
less exterior and interior of the school rooms, without a most de- 
pressing conviction of the inferior advantages enjoyed by the pupils, 
and the unfavorable educational influences by which they are sur- 
rounded." 

To show that this state of things need not, and ought not to ex- 
ist in our rural schools, I wish to quote from a recent report of Rev- 
Dr. Ryerson, superintendent of schools for Ontario or Upper Can- 
ada : — ** In Ontario there is much room for improvement in these 
respects ; but we have a national programme for the examination 
and distinct classification of teachers, and nearly uniform methods of 
examination ; our teachers, except in comparatively few cases of 
trial, are almost universally employed by the year, in the township 
equally with the cities and toums. 

By our method of giving aid to no schcol, unless kept open six 
months of the year, and aiding all. schools in proportion to the av- 
erage attendance of pupils and length of time the school is kept 
c;)on, we have succeeded in getting our schools throughout the 
whole country kept open nearly eleven months out of the twelve ; 
the teachers are thus kept constantly employed and paid annual sal- 
aries ; and are as well paid, all things considered, in perhaps a ma- 
jority of country schools as in cities and towns. Some of our best 
teachers arc employed in the country schools, a very large propor- 
tion of which will favorably compare^ in style and fittings of 
school houses and efficiency of teaching, with the schools in cities 
and towns. Indeed, for several years, at the commencement of our 
school system, the country parts of Upper Canada took the lead, 
with few exceptions, of our cities, towns and villages." 

These results are produced under the combined influence of the 
County Superintendenoy and the Township system. 

I wish here to present a few reasons for the adoption of this 
latter system. 

The first result of the township versus the present district system 
would be an increase of the size and consequent diminution of the 
number of separate schools in most of the towns. For instance^ 



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tbe town of F. in Dane County keeps open ten separate schools at 
an annual expense, for teachers, of (1 84,40 for each school. Sup- 
pose inetead of this division of the town, four school houses were 
built in the four quarters of the township, and a central high school 
at the centre of the town. The larger and more advanced pupils 
would he ahle to attend the high school, none of them heing more 
than three miles distant and a great majority much nearer, while 
the primary scholars would none of them he more than a mile and 
a half from school. The result would he this ; each ot these five 
schools, embracing in the plan the graded system, could be kept 
open ten months in the year at exactly the same cost as the ten 
siihools now in operation, giving the teachers steady employment 
and better wages than tlie present system gives them. The primary 
schools, taught by ladies, would each be able to pay $300 a year 
to its teacher, and the central high school could pay a gentleman 
principal $645, making a total of $1845 — exactly the present ex- 
penditure. This salary in the country would adequately support a 
g&ntleman capable of teaching all the higher English branches, with 
Latin, Greek and German. 

The only possible objection to this vast improvement in the 
school system of the town is the fact that some of the pupils would 
liave a little farther to go to school. This seems a very small ob- 
jection to be set against the immense advantage of having an ex- 
cellent system of graded schools open ten months in the year. 

Another advantage of the township system would be the securing 
of more thorough inspection of the schools. To manage these 
schools a central board, like those in our cities and larger towns» 
would be appointed, and it should be the duty of the president of 
this board to visit as oft(»n as necessary the several schools in the 
town. This officer should be paid a per diem for time actually 
spent in the performance of his duties. It is useless to waste time 
in enforcing the argument that a teacher will do better when under 
a proper system of inspection and encouragement, than when leflb 
to the hap hazard visitation of school patrons and district boards. 
In the next place this system should secure permanent and well qual- 
ified teachers. Teachers would be hired by the year and not by the 
months and when found to give good satisfaction, would be kept in 



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76 

the same sohool for a series of years, tlias stimalating the profes- 
aioDal pride of the teacher, aad carrying forward the pupils in their 
studies to a point wholly unattained and nnattainahle under the 
present system. It is not only surprising hut perfectly dishearten- 
ing to the friends of free schools to see the fickle and precarious 
tenure hy which the teacher retains his position in the (same) 
school. In four of the towns of the 2d District of Dane county 
there was, during the past year, a change of teachers in every school 
from the summer to the winter term In seven other towns there 
was hut one exception to this change in each town, and of the en- 
tire eighteen towns not one retained all its teachers for a single 
year. To teach all the schools in the district requires 119 teach- 
ers ; the numher actually employed was 204 ; making a change of 
teachers in 85 districts out of 119 in the hrief space of one yeitr ! 
This is perfectly childish, and will never make our country schools 
what they ought to be, and what they might be under a different sys- 
tem. 

The last argument I will use in favor of this system is the ten- 
dency it would have to form a class of professional teachers, both 
male and female, whose lives would be spent in the service of our 
common schools. Our present teachers in the rural districts are 
mostly boys and girls ; boys and girls of most excellent character, 
and of very commendable attainments for persons of their age; but 
they lack that maturity of judgment and experience that the exi- 
gencies of the school room require. It is an actual fact t hat 97 
teachers out of 169 examined and licensed at the last examinations 
were under 20 years of age, and are actually drawing money from 
the state for the benefit of their respective districts. Thirteen more 
are just 20, leaving 59 out of 169 that are of legal age. This vast 
majority of licensed and legal teachers are children, both in the eye 
of the school code and of the statute law. Our plan of setting chil- 
dren to teach children is far worse than the famous Lancastcrian 
system of England, which has long since been given up as an utter 
failure. 

I have shown by the example of the town of F. that by a judi- 
cious division of the towns into proper sections, the same amount 
of monoy now expended will furnish adequate salaries for profes- 



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sional teachers. These adequate salaries would not fall to prodnce 
a supply, and we should have men and women of experience and 
judgment, with permanent positions, in place of youths constantly 
changing from term to term and from school to school. Our country 
schools would soon he on a par with those of our cities, and the idea 
of parents moving into town to educate their children would become 
ohsolete. 

In conclusion, let me say I am far from despising or disparaging 
our schools as they now are ; but when I seem to see the way open 
for such a brilliant future of improvement, I should be untrue to 
myself, and untrue to the cause of education, to which I have devo- 
ted my life, if 1 were to remain silent. Least of all would I leave 
the impression that any particular code or system will, of itself, pro- 
duce the object desired. The price of Liberty is ** eternal vigi- 
ilance." Unceasing interest and and activity on the part of the 
people is the minimum price we must pay for the grand success of 
popular education. 



DOBQE-^West Dist. 

LORBNZO M1.SRILL, SUPEKINTBNDBNT. 

It gives me pleasure to note an inoreasiog interest in our public 
schools for the year just closed. As results of this interest it may 
be stated that the number of school-houses has decreased in this 
district, owing to the consolidation of school districts for the pur- 
pose of maintaining better schools. Quite a large number of new 
aud commodious houses have been erected during the year ; three 
of which are substantial structures of brick or stone. In the village 
of Lowell a large and beautiful wooden building has been erected 
for school purposes, which reflects credit upon the people of that 
loci»Iity and promises to be of incalculable advantage to the rising 
generation. The village of Westford has also invested several 
thousand dollars in a school house, the people having determined 
that no place in the county shall surpass theirs in facilities for 
schooling. Six school-house sites have been enlarged during the 
year, and eleven enclosed and several tastefully planted with shade 



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78 

and ornamental trees. In consequenoe of new bnildings and im- 
poYcments, our scbool-hoases have increased in value $11,662. 

There have been over three hundred applications for certificates, 
two hundred and twenty-nine of which were successful, I have 
issued none of the first grade, and bnt ten of the second. I deem 
it best to place the standard of qualifications so highth at none but-* 
the truly eapable and meritorious can obtain certificates of the 
higher grades. 

I have visited one hundred and sixty-^even schools during the 
year, and have endeavored to make these visits not mere matter of 
form but of practical benefit to the schools visited. 

It was my design to have held an Institute in tho latter part of 
August, immediately after harvest, but I found that large numbers 
of my female teachers were on the point of leaving for the hop 
re^ons, and for that reason I postponed the Institute until Octo- 
ber, trusting at that time to witness a general gathering of the 
teachers of this district. 

In oonclns'on allow me to express the opinion that what the peo- 
ple want is not so much change as faithfulness in the discharge of 
duty, upon the part of every one oouLCCted with our public schools. 



DOOK. 

B. M. WBIGHT, BT7PSBINTBNDBNT. 

I have made forty- two visits to the schools of the county, having 
visited them once in the winter, and onoe''in the summer ; and have 
found a good general interest manifested. 

There has been a scarcity of good teachers ; the average wages 
paid male teachers, is $45.51 ; average paid female teachers, $26 95; 
average attendance of pupils, residing in school districts reporting, 
71 per cent. There is but little uniformity in text books, and a 
great many improvements are required in our school houses, which 
will be made as soon as the people are able. We live in a timbered 
county, over fifty miles long, sparsely settled by small farmers ; we 
have expensive roads which must be built, incomes are small yet. 
and taxes are large, 



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The first teachers' institute ever held in this conntj commenced 
Octohcr 15, 1867 and continued four days ; conducted hj Geo. H. 
Demmon, under the supervision of my predecessor. Wm, H. War- 
ren. 



DUNN. 

T. 0. GOLDEN, SUPBBINTENDENT. 

I regrd exceedingly that so little should he done in the way of 
school visitation, but I have done the best I could, and expect soon 
to resign the office to dther hands, unless I shall be able to give 
more time to this part of the work. 

The Institute is to be held next month, of which I will send re- 
port in due time. 

There is a constantly increasing interest in matters of education 
in this county, but especially in the village of Menomonie. A fine 
school-house, that will cost when completed the sum of 91&>000, is 
in process of erection. The school of this village requires three 
teachers. Prof. E. W. Gurley, Miss Elmira C. Wheeler and Mrs. 
H. L. Church are the teachers. They are worthy of the confidence 
which is reposed in them. 



EAU CLAIRE. 

BET. W. H. LOOKWOOD, SUPBBTNTENDBNT. 

The schools have been, during the year, prosperous — that is if 
yoQ do not put *he standard too high. They are gaining slowly. 
The interest felt by the people in this new country in education is 
strong. There are many districts where the population is sparse, 
and their means limited. But I believe I can bear testimony to 
the fact that there is much heartfelt enthusiasm in the cause of 
education, Much of this, I honestly believe, is due to the inde- ' 
fatigable labors of the former superintendent, Bev. A. Kidder. 

There are many improvements which are exceedingly desirable. 
The people seem to feel the necessity of having good comfortable 
aohool-honses, but when it comes to the matter of furnishing them 



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80 

witb apparatus, snoh as maps, dec, there seems to be mnch besi- 
tancy. I bave been urging tbis matter, as I regard it of prime 
importance. 

Tbe variety of text books is also, in mauj schools, a great eyil. 
The thoagbt continually suggests itself, can this eyil be remedied in 
any other way than through state action ? 

Another practical abuse, is the direct result of the text-book 
plan, which in matters of education, we regard as almost divine. I 
bave felt sometimes, in visiting schools, that I was almost sorry 
printing had been discovered. As tbe worthy Indian said, *< White 
man too much book — ^know nothing." The minds of our obildren 
are constipated, with heavy doses of text-book. The teachers, 
many of them, regard that as tbe way. Thay are routine ridden. 
The children recite — they do not learn. I have been astonished at 
the results of some examinations which I held — banishing the text- 
book, for the time, as a nightmare. Scholars, *< nearly through 
the book," as was joyfully anuouuced by them, could hardly answer 
tbe simplest questions. Many of the teachers seem to think that 
there is only one method of teaching, viz., ** bearing a recitation." 

Our teachers need much instruction on the theory and practice of 
teaching — more than they do on the plain elementary branches. 



GREEN. 

D. H. MORGAN, SUPBRINTENDBNT. 
SHOBT SCHOOL TSBUS. 

One of the difficulties we all have to contend with is the necessity 
of employing so large a proportion of young teachers. I think one 
of the principal causes of this is, our terms of school are too short ; 
so short that many of our best teachers cannot afford to make it a 
business, because of being out of employment so long a time during 
the year ; six to seven months being about the average time during 
the year in this, as in most other counties. The wages, though not 
what they should be, would secure good teachers, if they were paid 
for a longer time. Our best teachers soon find employment by the 
year and we lose them. Being compelled to take a new class of 
teachers or none, as a matter of course keeps the standard of qual- 
ifications low, the new beginners seldom going above 60 per cent. 



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81 
JACKSON. 

J. B. M08HEB, SUPEBINTBNBBNT. 

Thoro are twenty-eight regular townsbips and fifty-'three or- 
ganized school districts in the county — a considerable territory not 
being yet orgaoized into districts. The number of children reported 
between the ages of four and twenty as in the county on the 31st 
of August, is 2,741; 1,986 have attended school sometime during 
the year, leaving 755 who have not attended. Ninety different 
teachers have been employed during the year, at an average cost of 
931 per month Total expense, less sums paid on old indebtedness 
and for building purposes, $10,144. From these items we find the 
cost per scholar enrolled to be $5.10. 

Of the fifty-three school houses five are built of loi s, the remain- 
der are frame. Only six lots are reported as well enclosed, and this 
figure even is too large, for the site whose fence is in a dilapidated 
condition, or fenced in with a cultivated field or pasture, cannot be 
called well enclosed, I regret to say that only sixteen are re- 
ported as having outbuildings, and some of these are constructed 
without any regard to decency. Some of them are open to the pub- 
lic highway, are looked upon as places of impurity in the estimation 
of the pupils, and ought to be regarded as nuisances. 

Much improvement has been made in the school-houses of 
the county ; six entirely new buildings have been erected during 
the last year ; two of which, viz., at Alma Corners and at the vil- 
lage of Melrose are intended for graded schools ; and in every in- 
stance the districts have made good choice in the location of their 
school-house sites, with a view of making them pleasant places for 
their children, and have tried to construct upon the most improved 
mode, having the comfort and convenience of pupils as much in 
view as their funds would permit. 

One third of tho districts still really need new houses and others 
very extensive improvements and repairs in the old, to accommodate 
their pupils. Among the former are Irving District, No. 2, Spring- 
field, No. 2 and 4, and Second and Third wards in village of Black 
River Falls. No one of these districts has school room enough of 
any kind to accommodate the scholars, and in all excepting onci it 
6 — Sup. Pub. Iks. 



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82 

it is very, inferior in qaality. It is, however, gratifying to be per- 
mitted to state that the people in each of the above named districts 
contemplate building new houses during the next school year. There 
are two partially graded schools at the Falls, but these are quite in- 
sufficient to meet oven the present demands of the people. There 
is manifest an increasing desire on the part of parents and guardians 
to educate their children within the roach of home influences. In 
order to do this, preparatory steps wore taken a year ago to form a 
Union district for high school purposes ; but in making an estimate 
of their present and prospective future wants, the electors felt una- 
ble (?) to erect suitable buildings for the completion of this enter- 
prise. There is, however, reason to believe that the enterprising 
citizens of that prosperous and rapidly growing village will not long 
permit their school matters in this respect to flag behind their other 
improvements. 

Contrary to what might be expected, the school houses in the 
lumbering districts are usually most inferior in size and quality. 
Lumbermen as a class seem to be delinquent in school matters, 
thinking that money paid for education is the least economical of all 
expenditures. 

Since the commencement of my term in January last, I have 
made 120 school visits and examined 500 classes — giving such ad- 
vice and counsel in regard to the mode of teaching and school disci- 
pline as the occasion seemed to require ; and I am happy in being 
permitted to say that these suggestions have always been kindly 
received and I believe generally followed. 

We lack professional teacliers ; a large majority of those now en- 
gaged in our schools consider the work as only temporary employ- 
ment, expecting some more lucrative field of labor will soon be open 
to tbem. 

It is gratifying to know that we have two normal schools already 
|n successful operation, and we hope the board of regents will soon 
find it to be for the interest of education to establish a third, and lo- 
cate its site some where in this part of the state. 

Our teachers' institutes, I am compelled to say, have not gener- 
ally been well attended ; and it affords us pleasure to know that 



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tbe state has maolo provisions whereby these important association 
will be rendered more attractive and profitable. 

The genius of our state government has not yet enjoined upon us 
any compulsory system of education ; and I must confess for one 
that in my opinion we are not yet fully prepared for it. Let us 
first make our school houses what they should be — pleasant, com- 
fortable, convenient and consequently attractive places for children 
to go to. Let the school room be supplied with the necessary fur- 
niture and apparatus for the success of the school, and only as a 
final resort require compulsory attendance. 

In view of the fact that the population of our county is less than 
7000, and also that it has been but little more than twelve years 
since the organization of the first school district, the friends of ed- 
ucation have great reason to be encouraged. During this short pe- 
riod we have accumulated $16,000 worth of school property, and 
ezpendod during the last year alone, exclusive of the state fund, 
$18,421 for the benefit of our public schools ; and a large majority 
of the people feel that the initiatory'steps have scarcely yet been 
taken. It is pretty generally admitted that education is a public 
duty and ought to bo provided for by taxation. The people ar& 
pouring out their money freely, upon the principle that it is cheaper 
to educate two children in the school room than one in the streets. 
But we want a system by which these burdens will be more uniform 
upon tax payers ; we want to see parents and guardians contribute 
to the cause of education by their more frequent school visitations, 
and by permitting and requiring their children to be more punctual 
and regular in their daily school attendance ; we want to see better 
qualified and more thoroughly trained teachers ; we want to se * 
every school house site handsomely enclosed by a good substantia 
fence ; we want to see every school house, as it should, present the- 
handsomest exterior, and be the best finished and best furnished 
building there is in the district. 



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84 
JUNE VU. 

a. p. KKNTON, SUPERINTENDENT.. 
SCHOOLS. 

During five years of labor in the schools of this county, it is truly 
gratifying to note tho changes that have taken place for the better. 
The teachers in the county, as a class, are growing better each year, 
and the demand for good teachers is steadily increasing. Many 
districts have abandoned that ** niggardly policy'' of allowing dol- 
lars and cents to outweigh the intelligence of their children and 
righted themselves upon the basis of true economy in school admin- 
istration. It is not uncommon to receive letters from district offi- 
asking for good teachers. They say ** we want good schools let 
them cost what they may." This is the spirit of true economy — it 
has the ring of the pure metal. Would that I could say as much 
for all, but alas for the influence of the ** almighty dollar ;" many 
are still inclined to encourage the spirit that characterized the young 
adventurer, who set out with ar spelling-book in one hand, and a hal- 
ter in the other, ready to teach school or steal a horse, as ciicum- 
stances favored tho one scheme or the other. A small reduction in 
wages will atone for a multitude of imperfections in a teacher. Cheap- 
ness is the great desideratum. They are strong advocates of special 
certificate!^^ as these imply cAccrpncss. Yet, lam satisfied that gener- 
ally, the schools of this county and the cause of education are gradually 
advancing. During the year I have made one hundred and twenty 
visits to schools, and observe among other things, a marked improve- 
ment in discip^ne and modes of instruction. I find, also, better at- 
tendance and more visits from patrons. In every instance, when 
practicable, I have called on district officers, and if possiole, secured 
their cooperation in the work of visitation. These visits seemed to 
please teachers, and interest pupils. The teachers generally havo 
shown themselves masters of their profession by the success that 
has attended their labors. Few cases of insubordination havo oc- 
curred, and in these few oases district boards have been prompt to 
exercise their authority in putting things to rights. A few have 
failed in school government and been obliged to close their schools 
before the expiration of the time for which they were employed. 



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85 

SOHOOL HOUSBS. 

I am happy to report considerable improvements in the line of 
school houses. We have in this county eighty-five school houses at 
an aggregate value of about $35,186, and an average value of 
about $414. The best school house in the county is valued at 
$8,000, and the poorest at $25. 

About twelve new school houses have been built daring the year. 
First among these is the house in the village of Necedah, at a cost 
of $8,000. The building is well constructed and suited to the wants 
of the educational interests of Necedah. A smaller building for 
primary purposes, has also been erected at the same place. These 
in addition to the old school house afford ample provision for the 
accomodation of the children of Necedah. 

I understand that the school will soon open under the supervision 
of Prof. H. 0, Wood, who for many years has been strongly iden- 
tified with the educational interests of Juneau county. New Lisbon 
is not behind her sister village in educational improvements. A 
new school house has been built at that place at a cost of $3,000. 
The old school building (which orignally cost about $3,000) has been 
thoroughly repaired, repainted and reseated with Andrews's first- 
class seats (chair and desk including ink wells) furnished with a new 
supply of black board surface, new stoves and out line maps. The 
two buildings stand apon the same site, well enclosed — provided 
with good walks and out buildings. About $1500 have been ex- 
pended in improving the site, and repairing the old building. 

The school opened the 5th inst. under the supervision of Prof. 
John Breckenridge, of Dekorah, Iowa. Much credit is due the citizens 
of New Lisbon for the very liberal provisions made for schools in 
their village. I would note further that a school house has been 
built in each of the following districts, viz ; district No. 2, Orange ; 
district No. 5, Fountain ; district No.^6, Lemonweir ; district No. 
4, Seven Mile Creek ; district No. 8.> Lemonweir and Kildare ; al- 
so one in the village of G-er man town. All of these districts have 
given evidence of educational interest by the very liberal plan up- 
on which the school houses have been constructed. About twenty 
sets of outline maps have been purchased by the districts during 
year. 



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86 



IXAMIHATI0N8. 



There were present at mj examinations (inoluding special exam- 
inations) 161 candidates ; of these 131 received certificates, — 3 of 
the first, 15 of the second and 113 of the third grade. Very few 
local certificates have been granted, and these almost exclusively, 
upon application from school boards for such license. The number 
examined last fall at private exAminations exceeded the number ex- 
amined at the public examinations. To remedy this evil I published 
a circular to teachers, stating that a fee of five dollars would be 
charged for private examinations (except as provided for by law.) 
A few knowing ones said that ** the superintendent had converted 
his office into a machine for coining money," But the plan suc- 
ceeded well ; the teachers were all out, and the undersigned failed 
to receive a single fee. 

GRADED SOQOOLS. 

In this county there are three graded schools, viz : New Lisbon, 
5 departments ; Mauston 4, and Necedah 3. There ;ire two dis- 
tricts more where graded schools would be of great benefit, viz : 
Wonewoc and Lyndon Station. 

TEAOHSRS. 

To teach the schools of Juneau county requires 90 teachers ; 146 
difi^erent persons have been employed during the year, 41 male and 
105 female ; the average wages of male teachers have been about 
$44.00 and the average wages of female teachers about $23, 00 per 
month. About 25 have been retained in the same schools the en- 
tire year. 

PUPILS. 

There are in the county 4,930 legal scholars, or children over 
four and under twenty years of age. Had all the districts main- 
tained five months' school, in compliance with the law, the public 
money would be apportioned on this number ; but 180 of these 
children reside in districts maintaining schools less than five months, 
leaving 4,750 as the number for the apportionment. The following 
are the districts maintaining school less than five months, with the 
number of children in each district, viz. : district 6, German town, 



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14 ohildren ; diatriot 7, Kildare, 23 ohildren ; distriot 7, Plymontli, 
49 ohildren ; distriot 4, Clearfield, 26 children ; district 3, Lyndon, 
58 children ; distriot 3, Necedah, 10 ohildren. Thus six districts 
have lost the pnblic money for IbO children by failing to comply 
with the law, 

Of the 4,930 children in the county, 3,835 only have attended 
school during the year ; 1,'341, or about 20 per cent, of the whole, 
have not attended school at all. It is a matter of no little regret, 
and one that ought to alarm teachers, school officers, parents, and 
all who feel an interest in the future welfare of the rising genera- 
tion, that in the small area of sixteen townships over one thousand 
children have been totally deprived of the benefits of schools for one 
jear. 

OONOLUSION. 

In relation to my own labors, I have only to fay that it has been 
my endeavor to promote the interest of the schools of the county. 
In visiting schools attention has chiefly been given to the classifica- 
tion of the school, the order maintained and the teacher's method 
of instruction. The condition of the school furniture and house 
and outbuildings, together with the manner in which they are 
treated, are matters of great importance, and have not escaped my 
notice. Jihese visits have usually been unannounced, that 1 might 
be the better enabled to judge of the true condition of the school. 

I have endeavored to make my office one of suggestion and assist- 
ance, rather than espionage and fault-finding Although I am satis- 
fied that the schools are gradually improving, yet there is not that 
co-operation on the part of the people that there should be, nor the 
interest manifested that the importance of the work demands. 

This fact calls for greater effort on the part of school officers 
and teachers. Let us continue to labor with more zeal, until pub- 
lic attention is excited to this subject, and an interest awakened 
which will never slumber. 



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La FAYETTE. 

0. B. JENNINGS, 6UPEBINTBNDBNT. 
SCHOOLS. 

The most noticeable feature in the direction of progress in the 
educational interests of this county, since I had the honor of trans- 
mitting my last annual report to the educational department of the 
State Government, is an increase in the percentage of pupils attend- 
ing the schools. As may be seen from the statistical branch of my 
report, the percentage of attendance has materially increased dur- 
ing the past year, though the evil of non-attendance still exists in 
proportions demanding the earnest attention of those interested in 
ths success of popular education. 

SOHOdL BUILDINGS. 

Five new school buildings have been erected during the past year, 
in which, in point of general de9ign and construction, I discover an 
enhanced public appreciation of the advantages of ample space and 
agreeable surroundings. Prominent among these, is a union schoo^ 
building recently completed by the citizens of the village of Shulls 
burg, and at present in successful operation under a full corps of 
teachers At the village of Darlington, there is under contract a 
building for common school purposes, which, when completed, will 
approximate a cost of $20,000. 

KOKMAL SCHOOL AT PLATTBVILLE. 

The normal school at Plattevillo is, in our judgment, destined to 
prove eminently successful as an efficient adjunct to our common 
school system in this section of the State. I have had some obser- 
vation of the working of this institution, in the matter of training 
and disciplining teachers for the common schools, and take great 
pleasure in testifying to its success in furnishing a realization of 
the object and purposes for which it was founded by the wisdom and 
munificence of the State government. In a circular address to the 
citizens of my county, issued within the current year, I took occas- 
ion to invite special attention to the benefits conferred upon teach- 
ers by the normal method of training. Indeed, I regard these 
methods as indispensable to the succeFS of « graded schools." 



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OOVRTT SUPIBINTlNDIirOT. 

It may be expected that I sball say something in addition to what 
I have already said in fonner communications, of the present sn- 
perintendency system- Enough, however, 1 think, and more than 
sufficient has been said upon this subject, both in and out of the 
legislature, for aU practical purposes. My firm conviction is, that 
evil rather than good has been the fruit of its extended discussion. 
What is now demanded at the hands of the legislature is action in 
the premises. The question, to my mind, is a simple one, and as- 
suredly must be such to the leading educational minds of the state. 
Let this class of individuals be consulted by the legislature, and let 
such be chosen as have no direct pecuniary interest in the mainte- 
nance of this system. If, upon this action being taken, the county 
Buporintendency be deemed to require modification, or suplementa- 
tion, or abolition, let one or the other of these measures be at once 
adopted. K, on the other hand, it should seem to subserve the pur- 
poses for which it was created, let it receive a oordimi support from 
the representatives of the people in the legislature, and both 
'* priests and people" will find that the cheerful spirit thus begotten 
will tend to promote its success, in a measure, equal at least, I trust, 
to the discouragement and demoralization which have resulted from 
its discussion hereaway. 



MANITOWOC. 

JERS OBOWLBT, SUPBKIirTXNDllNT. 
SCHOOLS. 

The cause of education throughout this county is receiving more 
attention from the people, and occupies a higher position than for* 
merly. Many new school houses have been erected, and old ones 
repaired in a manner to meet the wants, and add to the convenience 
and comfort of scholars and teachers. 

The people more fully realise than in former years the importance 
of good schools, and their views upon the subject have become ma- 
terially liberalised. They demand the best teadiers at advanced 



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wages, and their is good reason to believe that most of our schools 
will be kept for much longer terms than heretofore. 

In a number of districts the subject of the establishment of 
schools of a higher grade, and of the erection of elegant and commo- 
dions structures for that purpose, is being agitated, and with a 
prospect of the most encouraging results. 

I trust you will pardon me for not giving jou the names, ages &;c, 
of teachers, as my book containing them was mislaid during my ill- 
ness. The state of my health also forbade me holding an institute 
during the season. 



MARATHON. 

RBV. THOS. GBIIENX, SUPERINTXNDBNT. 

Qreat improvement has been made in the qualifications of teachers 
during the last year. This has been clearly manifested, not only 
in the late public examinations of teachers, but also in the good 
order, discipline, and mode of instruction in the schools which I 
have visited. 

In the German districts, the English language is being taught 
with success. 

The school in the village of Wausau has three departments, and 
is provided with a set of Pelton's maps. A Teachers' Institute 
was organized in Wausau, in September last, and will meet again 
in January next. 

The school in district No. 1, town of Mosinee, has been supplied 
with a good ten inch globe, and a set of Cornell's outline maps. 

I gladly report that much interest has lately been excited 
throughout the whole county in respect to educational matters. 



MILWAUKEE— 1«« District, 

J. F. DBVINB, SUPBRINTBNDBNT. 

My annual report, which you havo already received, is unreliable 
in many respects. This is particularly true with regard to that 
portion of it relating to the *< Financial Statement." On more 



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than one oooasion since my coming into office, I have, by circular 
and otherwise, called the attention of town clerks to the necessity 
for accurate reports ; yet from my last annual report yon can judge 
of my success in that direction. I consider the failure as an addi- 
tional argument in favor of the '< township system." Tlie town 
clerks complain, and justly, that several school district clerks come 
in with reports that are quite unintelligible, even to those making 
them. 

From these reports, it would appear that several school district 
treasurers had expended for school purposes considerable sums 
which they had never received; while others, on the contrary, 
would seem to have pocketed no inconsiderable amount of the school 
fund. 

If the foregoing was the only fault to be found with district 
school boards it might be excusable, as, notwithstanding the appa- 
rent discrepancy in their accounts, a single ij stance has not come 
to my knowledge where it has been shown that school boards fraudu- 
lently applied school monies to their own private uses. But the 
same incapacity is, perhaps, more discernible, it certainly is more 
injurious to school interests, in several other instances, which are too 
obvious to need any comment here. 

It might, I think with propriety be asked here, to what particular 
cause is the foregoing state of things chargeable ? Certainly not to 
the people. The present school system is evidently to blame. As 
the law now stands, each district must elect its school board. It 
makes no difference whether there are men in the district capable 
of performing the duties of the office or not. Perhaps not an indi- 
vidual in the entire district is capable of any higher effort in the 
way of literature than that of reading a little and writing his own 
name ; nevertheless work is to be done from which there is no es- 
cape, and which requires no ordinary share of intelligence and cul- 
ture for its proper performance ; a teacher must be selected and 
employed ; rules and regulations for the government and man- 
agement of the school must be adopted ; the course of 
study designated; and the school visited and examined. Taking 
all these things into consideration, is it to bo wondered at, if at 
present, the duties of school district boards are sadly neglected, or 



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00 badly performed, as to call loudly for reform 7 It would, no 
doubt, be a matter of surprise, if tbe oondition of our scbools was 
at all different from what it is, when we take into consideration, 
that the several school district boards of the state, generally num- 
ber from twenty to forty individuals in each town, 

In connection with the foregoing, I do not deem it at all necessary 
to apologize (or the introduction here, of the following extract from 
the last able report of our former state superintendent, Hon. John 
G. McMynn. In speaking of our present school system, he says : 
'* Nineteen officers to manage any other branch of public business 
for a town would be declared to be at least three times as many as 
necessary. Every man knows that one-third the nunber would 
manage the educational affairs of a town three tinces as well." But 
Superintendent McMynn, in the foregoing extract, supposes an 
average of nineteen school officers for each town ; a goodly number, 
it must be admitted ; but I know of towns in this county that have 
nearly fifty I The thing is absurd. Such testimony could be mul- 
tiplied to any extent, but it is not necessary. There is not a man 
in the entire state, whose mind is unprejudiced, and who will read 
Mr. McMynn' 8 article in favor of the " to\«nship system of schools," 
as contained in his last annual report, but must admit that our 
present system is faulty in many respects, and needs a radical 
change. Such, in my opinion, can only be effected by the adoption 
of the '* town system," through which our present system will be- 
come simplified, and our schools graded. 

While the inhabitants of the cities and most of the villages of the 
state, have it in their power to give their children the highest edu- 
cation through means ot their "graded schools," I would wish to 
know, how it is that the inhabitants of the country are not equally 
entitled to the advantages resulting from the adoption of the 
"graded system," especially in those towns where the number of 
inhabitants and the advanced state of wealth and culture on the 
part of the people would warrant its adoption? 

If the present legislature, in its desire to do justice to the 
country, would adopt the " town system," I cannot conceive how 
it could afford any just ground of complaint or alarm ; provided its 



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adoption would not be rendered compulsory for at least a few years ; 
thna affording an opportunity of having its merits fairly tested. 

Under our present system, faulty as it is, the cause of education 
has made considerable progress within the past two years. Teach- 
ers appear to feel a greater interest, and to have more accountabili- 
ty. They have improved considerably in point of scholarship, and 
as a consequence, I find bettor schools and improved methods of 
instruction, I know to my positive knowledge, that School Boards 
manifest a greater degree of interest in school matters than a year 
or two since. They not on^y hearken to, and endeavor to carry out 
the requirements of the superintendent, but, in all difficult cases 
relating to school matters, ask his opinion and advice, and act in 
accordance thereto. A great change has come over the people in 
regard to voting supplies for schools. It is remarkable with what 
unanimity the people vote large sums for building and school pur- 
poses generally, where, only a few years since, they begrudgingly 
voted the smallest necessary sums for the same purposes. These 
and other considerations too numerous to mention here, induce me 
to believe that the people are prepared for any change in our 
present school system, provided it affords increase! facilities for 
giving their children a better education than can be at present 
obtained. 

In this Supt. district, there have been two brick school houses 
built within the past year, at an average cost of about twelve hun- 
dred dollars. Arrangements are being made for the erection of 
others. 

During the year I have held six meetings for the examination of 
teachers. These meetings were attended by seventy five applicants 
for examination. Ol' this number forty-eight received third 
grade certificates, four received second grade and twenty-three were 
rejected. I have also granted nine special or limited certificates, 
making a total of sixty-one certificates granted within the year. 

Also within the past year I have made ninety-seven visits to thirty- 
five schools, spending at least one half day in each school. 

My views in regard to the value of "teachers' monthly reports," 
are the same as expressed in my last annual report. I consider 
them as invaluable to the superintendent not only as a means of asoer- 



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taining the condition of the sohools, but also serving as a sort of 
index to the character and ability of the teachers. I find no diffi- 
culty in bringing my teachers to report to me at the close of each 
month. 

An institute has been held this year at Hales' Corners It com- 
menced Sept. 21st, and continued five days. With few exceptions, 
every teacher in the district was present. The exercises were con- 
ducted chiefly by S. D. Gaylord, principal of the Milwaukee high 
school. Superintendents Pomeroy, of the city of Milwaukee, and 
Hannan, of Kenosha county, assisted. II 0. Spencer, of the Na 
tional Business College, Milwaukee, gave instructions in penmanship 
in his usual interesting manner. Evening lectures were delivered 
by F. C. Pomeroy, S. D. Gaylord and by the state superintendent, 
Hon. A. J. Craig. Teachers and people were highly gratified at 
the result. 

Notwithstanding the highest testimony in favor of the good re- 
sulting from the county supcrin tendency, still it would seem that 
considerable dissatisfaction exists in regard to it. Witness the bill 
introduced during the last session of the legislature, for the abolish- 
ment of the office. I have been informed, on good authority, that 
t ^ \ ill met with considerable favor from the members of the house. 

o-i ^^ ^^Te has, during the past few years, surpassed our 
roost sanguis .^pectat ions in their liberal and comprehensive legis- 
lation, as evinced in the case of our normal schools, and our other 
literary institutions, is it, then, to be for a moment supposed that 
they will stop in this good work, and set about to undo what they 
have been years in doing? But in the event of the abolition of 
the county superintendency — a thing by no means probable — the 
question that naturally presents itself is, what organization should 
be substituted in its stead? Some are in favor of the old township 
superintendency, for there is a considerable portion of mankind who 
are filled with love and admiration for old and long established cus- 
toms, no matter how ill adapted or un suited they may be to the 
present wants of society. I can not conceive how any sane body of 
men could, for a moment, think of returning to the *'town superin. 
tendency," which I don't hesitate to pronounce one of the greates 
failures of the age. It did nothing in the way of supervision ; 



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nothing in the way of elevating the teacher ; nothing in the way 
of creating a public school sentiment. It was merely nominal in its 
character ; without influence, and without respect. The justness 
of the foregoing remarks, becomes evident from the following con- 
siderations : 

1. As there was hardly any thing to be gained, in a pecuniary 
point of view, by the office of town superintendent, the men who 
were elected to that office had generally to give their attention to 
Bome other calling whereby they earned a subsistence ; and, al- 
though some competent men were elected to the office, yet they 
failed in nearly ever]; instance to devoto either time or labor to the 
performance of its duties. There were, it is true, some honorable ex- 
ceptions to the foregoing, but they were few indeed. 

2. In the great majority of cases, men were elected to the office 
who felt no interest in schools, or school matters, and, even if they 
did, they were two ignorant to be capable of effecting any improve- 
ment. Under the old town superintendent system, there were no 
public nor hardly any private examinations ; because the ignorance of 
the great bulk of the town superintendents, precluded the possibility 
of having any. Men and women of the most limited attainments 
were thrust into the public schools of the country, to conduct them 
according to their different whims and caprices ; as the teacher rarely 
ever saw the man^ miscalled superintendent, after he scratched his 
name to the certificate authorizing him to teach ; and in most cases, 
the teacher was obliged to write his own certificate, for reasons that 
are too palpaple to need explanation. 

But it would seem that some iavor the appointment of a superin- 
tendent for each assembly district. This is only one step removed 
from the town superintendency, and the objections to both are in 
reality the same. It would, I am convinced, work incalculable mis- 
chief in the older and thickly settled portions of the state. 

The principal objection urged to the county superintendency is, that 
it fails in securing a proper supervision of the schools. This would, 
in a great measure, be obviated by the adoption of the township sys- 
tem. However, it must be admitted that there are some cases which, 
as far as supervision is concerned, the contemplated change would not 
entirely remedy. For instance, those superintendent districts, where 



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the saperiatendcnts are unable to yisit all the schools in their reapec- 
tive districts, even, once in each year. To remedy this, the state 
shoold bo so apportioned (at least in the thickly settled parts) as to 
insure full employment to each superintendent, and not as at 
present, some haying more to do than they can possibly accomplish, 
while others, on the contrary, are not more than half their time 
employed in performing the duties of the office. Districts should 
be so arranged that each superintendent could, and should be obliged 
by law, to visit each school in his entire district, at least twice in 
each year ; once in the winter, and once in the summer season ; and, 
also, that at each visitation, the superintendent should spend, at 
least half a day in each school. Any plan of supervision that will 
discard the principle of visiting the school while in session, must 
be faulty. In my opinion, the work of supervision is one of the 
most important and delicate duties the superintendent has to per- 
form ; not second even to the examination and licensing of teachers. 
^Supervision under the '* township system" would, perhaps, only be 
valuable in having the views and requirements of the county super- 
intendent carried out. Without the controlling and directing agen- 
cy of a higher power, I am strongly inclined to the belief that, for 
very obvious reasons, the new proposed township system would, for 
the purpose of supervision, be as inefficient as the old town super- 
intendency proved itself to be. 

I have never for a moment seriously entertained the belief that 
our legislative bodies would so far disregard the public sentiment of 
the country, as to abolish the county superintendency, which has, in 
so short a period, done so much toward elevating our school system. 



MARQUETTE. 

A. BOTNTON, SUPBRINTENDSNT. 

I entered upon the duties of my office, on the 1st of Janrary last, 
and during the winter term visited fifty-five schools. I found some 
of them in fair condition ; in others the teachers were trying to go 
through with the motions, or in other words killing time to the best 
of their ability. School officers and patrons seldom if ever visited 



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tbeir schools, and when they did, it was sometimel^ for the purpose 
of getting up a^ow with the teacher, especially, if the teacher un- 
dertook to punish their children for swearing at them, or like 
causes. It was very seldom that I could prevail upon a school 
officer to visit the school with me. With a great many teachers, it 
seemed to me that they were more ooncerned whether they were 
obliged to teach twenty or twenty-two dajs in a month, than they 
were in regard to the welfare of education in their schools. And 
in some instances I did not blame them so much. For how can a 
parent expect that a stranger will take more interest in the welfare 
of his children, than he does himself in a great many instances, 

I found the school houses, or things which were called school- 
houses, totally unfit for school purposes. Yet amidst all this I saw 
some bright spots ; and again, I saw the anxious, upturned faces of 
the three thousand school children of this county, and I nerved my- 
self for the struggle, and determined to do my duty, my whole 
duty. And I felt sure that if I endeavored to remedy these great 
«vils, I would gain the sympathy and good will of these children, if I 
did of no one else ; and I have labored thus far, and feel assured 
that success has partially crowned my efforts. I feel a satisfaction 
when I think that in some places soon a portion of these children 
will find new, warm and comfortable school-houses, instead of the old 
rickety, cold and bare concerns in which they formerly tried to 
study. In other places they will find that their houses have been 
repaired and made more comfortable, which has been done with but 
little expense and trouble 

I am happy to state that our teachers are exhibiting now far more 
energy, more system, and certainly more practical work. They are 
showing a disposition ,to attain to a higher standard ; in fact they are 
advancing from keeping school to teaching school. In some schools 
there are indications of the Yankee spirit, in the whittling and em- 
bellishing line. Perhaps Young America, when looking at some of 
the seats and desks, is inspired with a desire to oarve and finish 
them off; and then again, perhaps, rough seats, rickety desks, par- 
tially demolished stoves, with brick legs, surrounded by large and 
small knotty logs, do not inspire in the minds of irreverent boys 

a love of <' the good, the beautiful, or the true.*' 
7 — 8v^. Pub. Ihs. 



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t believe the parents are more interested and inclined to encour- 
age the teacher, and are showing a commendable zAal by increased 
yisitation. In some districts there is & general interest manifested, 
but I am sorry to relate, too general — ^rarely going beyond the rais- 
ing of a meager sum for the support of their schools, or ** the vigo- 
rous prosecution " of every difficulty, which may happen to exist in 
the district. In a great many districts of this county there is a 
German element. In some districts the population is entirely Ger- 
man. In these districts English schools have been, heretofore, a 
total failure. I am intending to get teachers in these schools who 
understand both languages, and wi4 require of them, in the first 
place, to teach those children to talk the English language. Indeed, 
I am now trying an experiment of the kind, and believe it works 
admirably. 

There is ona thing that must not be omitted. There are facts 
which may be gathered from* all parts of the county, that if made 
plain in their true light, would cause the cheeks of any good person 
to crimson for shame. I allude to the absence in many districts of 
proper out-houses, to screen the young of either sex while attending 
to the inevitable calls of nature. Of course a few dollars are saved, 
but can this economy compensate for the lack of refinement and 
virtue? Will it quench the fiames of passion, which may be enkin- 
dled in the breasts of the young, at a time when impure imagina- 
tions often boar sway? The efforts of all true men and women 
should be such as to assist in eradicating this plague spot. 

I have required, during the year, monthly reports from teachers* 
and find that great good has been accomplished by them. Yet some 
teachers think it is unjust to be required to make them out, and 
feel that it is too great a task for their feeble minds to accomplish, 

A teachers' association was re-organized last spring, and is in 
good working order now. It has held two meetings. Those who 
have attended have, received great benefit, enjoying them as rich 
intellectual feasts. 

A teachers' institute was appointed to meet at Westfield, on the 
10th of November, but owing to the absence of expected assistance 
from abroad, the inclemencies of the season, and the almost impa^* 



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sable state of tbe roads, whereby many were deterred from being in 
attendance, it did not prove a complete success. 

In oonclasion I would beg leave to state that I believe the people 
of this part of the State are quite well satisfied with our present 
school system, and are not desirous of any modification of the 
county superintendency ; and I hope that, with the sympathy and 
support of all good people, the county superintendency will be en- 
abled to make a mark in Marquette County, and one that '< Time's 
effacing fingers " will not soon wear out. 



OUTAGAMIE. 

D. J. BROTHERS, 8UPBRINTBNDBNT. 

In this county, the cause of education has been greatly improved 
during the past year. Three new districts have been formed, and 
new irame buildings are taking the place of many of the log heaps 
which have heretofore been designated as school houses. Some con- 
fusion exists about tbe formation of new districts and the division 
of old ones. Some districts embrace a large extent of territory, 
making the school houses inaccessible to some of the inhabitants, 
while the house in the adjoining district is near enough. In such 
cases the children are deprived of schooling, unless they pay a regu- 
lar tuition fee, but as the country is settling up rapidly, I think this 
difficulty will soon be overcome. 

Adams' system of school record has been partially introduced in 
this cpunty, which I hope will have a tendency to improve school re- 
ports in the future. 



OZAUKEE. 

p. K GANNON, SUPBBINTSNDBNT. 

In visiting the schools of this county, each one twice within the 
year ending August 31, 1 have noted down my observations regard- 
ing tbe efficiency of teachers, the attendance of scholars, and the 
condition of the school houses. 

A good number of teachers make laudable efforts to improve 



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themselves, both in the government of the school and a more thor- 
ough mode of instrnction; qualities which I have at no time omitted 
to inculcate at the public examinations and other meetings of 
teachers. This improvement and desire to improve are more ap- 
parent in those districts where there is a disposition to make the 
compensation, in some jneasure, worthy of a good teacher. I may 
here observe that the great necessity of our common schools can 
be supplied only by the increase of thorough scholarship and thor- 
ough scholars. Whether new organizations are needed is a point 
on which we may not agree, but we are of one mind that the old 
organizations need a new inspiration. High culture is to the in- 
tellectual life what a ] ure atmosphere is to the physical; and just 
as it fails or abounds, the school will struggle or flourish. Local 
self-government being the main-spring of our school system, if this 
works badly the school cannot possibly work well ; but there can 
be no question that the schools often suffer, and suffer terribly, 
from the failure of the community, through a short-sighted regard 
for a nominal economy, or through indifference to the cause of ed- 
ucation, to afford them a liberal aad intelligent support. We must 
pay our teachers well, or we shall have none worth paying ; none 
will be trained as they ought to be ; none, trained or untrained, 
will continue in a calling with which poverty walks hand in hand. 
So long as the teacher is paid, not according to the value of his 
or her services, but at the lowest rate at which any one can be 
found to do the required work, the administration of our schools is 
as unjust as it is unwise. W3 shall have teachers who have not 
learned to teach ; oftentimes who have not learned to learn ; thus 
not only crippling our scaools, but blinding them, making them 
deaf and mute and senseless; for if a school has eye or speech or 
sense, it is through its teachers. 

In many districts the per centage of attendance in school is very 
far below what it should be. In some, the toacher, either with the 
iconsent or expressed wish of the large maj ority , does a good deal of 
his work and talking in the Qerman language ; very soon you find 
no other than the children of German parentage in the school. The 
reason, you will be told at once, is that the teacher is incapable of 
properly teaching the English language. And here let me add, the 



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more you take away from the Bohool English talking children, the 
more yon retard the progress of the others in the acquirement of an 
English education ; because when unmixed, there is scarcely an effort 
to speak an English word. In other schools where the work is done 
exclusively in the English language, you will find a great number of 
German children absent, some inconsiderate parents saying they 
want their children to learn German not English, but the more in- 
telligent urging that they can learn English only through the 
medium of German. The trite observation applies hero, these 
squabbles may be fun for the old, but they are death to the young, 
whose golden opportunity of acquiring even the rudiments of an 
education will have irrecoverably passed away before these trifling 
difficulties are adjusted. I call them trifling, because a sufficient 
number of intelligent men, who ought to take an interest in the 
education of the youth, may be found in every district, who, by 
slight mutual concessions upon either side, could propose and carry 
out a harmonious remedy. 

The progress and advancement of pupils, I need not say, I found 
to be in direct proportion with the capability, efficiency and experi- 
ence of the teacher ; while in some school districts, either from fa- 
voritism, or a tenacious adherence to old erroneous ideas of economy, 
you may hear such a plea for the hiring of this or that teacher as 
this : *' Our school is backward, such a boy or girl can get along 
very well vrith the children." And I invariably answer, ** and your 
school will continue backward until you make some exertion to pro- 
core a teacher capable of advancing it." 

Our school houses for the most part, are in pretty good condition ; 
four or five new ones, stone, have been built this year, and there are 
only about seven in the county with which we can't get along tol- 
erably well for some time. During the year I have issued eighty- 
seven certificates of license to teach; seventy of the third grade, 
^ye of the second, and two of the first. Some five or six young 
men of this county have attended one or more terms in the univer 
sity at Madison, and one is at the normal school at Whitewater. I 
hope the number of those desirous to properly qualify themselves for 
teachers may increase, so that the old order of things in that pro- 
fession may give way to a new and better one. 



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RICHLAND. 

Q. W. PUTNAM, 8UPEBINTBNDBNT. 

I immediately commenced visiting the scbools of this county upon 
assuming the duties of the office of county superintendent, January 
1st, 1868. 

During the remainder of the winter term I visited one hundred 
and five school districts, in ninety of which I found schools in ses 
sion. The condition of the schools was various ; [the majority, 
however, seemed to be making progress more or less rapidly in the 
right direction. 

The original school houses in this county were nearly all built of 
logs, about 60 per cent, of which still remain ; consequently very 
many houses are in a bad condition. The log houses are yearly dia. 
appearing, and comfortable frame ones are taking their places. I 
think the people are beginning to realize the importance of having 
the school room so attractive that their children can derive proper 
benefit from the money expended for school purposes. 

Several new houses have been built in the county the past year 
that would do credit to any community, and preparations are being 
made for building others another season. 

The absence of many male teachers in the servive of our country 
and circumstances incident to a new region, caused a deficiency of 
well qualified teachers in the county ; hence originated the prac- 
tice of granting limited third grade certificates upon the request of 
district boards, which practice still prevails, to the detriment of our 
schools. A demand by many districts for cheap teachers has ten* 
ded to continue this practice ; while those who have enjoyed the 
benefit of a cheap school are quite apt to complain of the school sys- 
tem generally. 

It is hoped however that a more healthy state of public feeling is 
being manifested ; teachers are beginning to see the necessity of 
thorough education, and district officers are demanding well quali- 
fied teachers. And I trust the day is not far distant when nothing 
less than a full third grade certificate will be demanded by appli- 
cants, or accepted by the people. 

I found upon visiting the schools last summer that they were 



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generally very soiall, as nearly all the children who were larg® 
enough to tie a hop vine, or give the parent any assistance about 
the faim work, were kept at home. But since the hop business has 
collapsed, and the prospect of becoming suddenly wealthy has van- 
ished, it is hoped that parents will give more attention to the edu- 
cation of their children. 

Teachers were furnished with blank monthly reports last sum* 
mer, and they very generally reported to me. 

An abstract of monthly reports was published in the county 
paper. 

I think that good results are already manifest from requiring 
monthly reports, and I propose to continue the practice. 

A Teachers' Institute was held this fall at Richland Centre, which 
was well attended. A commendable degree of interest was mani- 
fested, and I trust that teachers have gone forth and entered upon 
the discharge of their duties with renewed zeal. It is fondly hoped 
that teachers are yearly advancing in point of education and facility 
of imparting instruction. 

I have contemplated forming Teachers' Associations this winter, 
but the sparseness of our population and the difficulty of finding 
central points that are accessible to any considerable number of 
teachers, may prevent the general adoption of the plan. 

The people are observing the defects in our present school system, 
and seem to desire so no improvement. Wherever the Township 
School System has been presented and explained, it appears to be 
favorably received ; and I think that when its workings are fully 
understood the people will be ready to adopt it. 

I hope that some well digested plan will be presented to the legis- 
lature and its adoption urged the coming winter, as I believe the 
general education of our children can be better accomplished by 
that system than by our present one. 



ST. CROIX. 

A. H. WELD, SUPEBINTBNDBNT. 
SOHOOL HOUSES. 

No less than ten school houses have been built in this county 
daring the past year, one in Troy (Mann Valley), the first stone 



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Bcliool hoase bnilt in the oounty ; one in the town of Hndson (Ger- 
man Settlement) ; two in Hammond ; two in Saint Joseph ; one in 
Somersett ; one in Bichmond ; and two in Erin Prairie. School 
honses in different parts of the coantj have been repaired, yards 
enolosed, and ont-bnildings pnt in good condition. A few however 
yet remain with little to recommend them save a free ventilation. 
They cannot, however long survive. The liberal spirit which has 
removed so many of this kind during the past two years will soon 
sweep away these relics of early necessity and hardships. 

Some of the new s thool houses are well planned and suitably fur- 
nished ; others show the want of care and good judgment in their 
construction and finish. They seem to have been planned, if plann- 
ed at all, with but little regard to durability or to the comfort of 
the future occupants. 

Districts about to build school houses, will find it to be good 
economy in the end to procure plans and specifications from some 
reliable architect, or at least from some one who has had experince 
in planning such buildingn ; and then oonfina the builders strictly to 
the plans and specifications. Special attention should be given to 
seating and furnishing the school rooms. Desks with iron supports 
can now be procured at a cost not much exceeding that of ordinary 
desks, including the expense of graining and varnishing. Such 
desks are much superior to those in common use, and occupy less 
room. 

Outline maps have been procured by nearly one third of all the 
districts in the county, and their usefulness is very apparent in the 
schools which have been furnished with them. Other means of illus- 
tration in the school room are much needed ; such as terrestrial 
globes, blocks for representing the different forms of solids ; charts 
for illustrating the principles of penmanship, and other kinds of 
charts suited to primary instruction, in reading and orthography. 

An annual appropriation by every school district, for such useful 
adornments of the school room, is earnestly recomended. They are 
suggestive, convenient for the teacher, and contribute much to the 
interest and spirit of school exercises, constantly exhibiting to the 
eye of the pupil outlines and leading topics which greatly facilitate 
his progress in knowledge. 



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TBAOHIBS — IN8TITUT1S>-A8S00IATI0MS. 

Our school districts during the past year have generally been 
fortunate in securing competent and faithful teachers. Several 
gentlemen who had once been teachers, but who had retired to their 
farms, or engaged in other business, have been persuaded to resume 
the calling which they had laid aside, and to teach some of the most 
important winter schools. 

To the services, abihty and experience of these gentlemen, and to 
some female teachers of long and successful experience, we owe 
much of the prosperity of our principal schools. They have encour- 
aged our institutes and associations, by their attendance and 
efficient co-operation, and in the localities where they have labored, 
they have inculcated correct views, and awakened just interest in 
popular education. 

Our annual teachers' institute, held in the city of Hudson, was 
well attended, and although disappointed by the unexpected deten- 
tion of ^upt. McMynn, the exercises and interest of the institute 
were well sustained. During the winter term of our schools, teach- 
ers' associations were held in Pleasant Valley, Hammond and New 
Richmond. On these occasions teachers exhibited classes of their 
own pupils, as in their customary recitations. So general was the 
interest in these associations, that teachers went with their pupils 
a long distance to attend them, in cold blustering weather. 

Some teachers however are habitually absent from both institutes 
and associations ; and those, too, who need those benefits the most. 
The influence of neglecting such means of instruction, is painfully 
evident in the common place, inefficient management of some of our 
schools. To be progressive, and to maintain a high stand in their 
calling, teachers should be studious,^ and avail themselves, as far as 
possible, of the suggestions and experience of others in the same 
calling. It is true that institutes and associations are but poor 
substitutes for systematic instruction ; but at present they are the 
only means of normal training within the reach of the majority of 
our teachers, and on this account especially should be encouraged 
and sustained by the presence and assistance of every teacher in the 
county. 

Our examinations have been as thorough and extended as oiroum- 



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stanceB would admit ; still, in order to keep np the oeeeflsary sap- 
ply of teaoherB' lieenees have been sometimes granted on a scale of 
merit so low a« to do bat little credit to the applicant, and to di- 
minish the respect and confidence which high qualifications ought 
to command. 

DISTBICT OFriGBRS. 

It has heretofore been suggested that school district officers be 
compensated for their official services. Without compensation they 
cannot justly be held accountable ; nor can good business men be 
induced to accept an office which confers neither distinction nor 
profit. Some of our districts are embarrassed and nearly disor- 
ganized by the refusal of any elector to serve as a district officer. 
In some districts, however, there are public spirited citizens who 
faithfully discharge the duties of these thankless offices out of re- 
gard to the public welfare, as well as for the interest of their own 
families. Unfortunately there are few districts so highly favored - 
Some lose their part of the public money by the failure of their 
olerks to report seasonably to the town clerks. Not a few district 
officers appear to use no disoriminatidon in the selectioa of teachers, 
offering wages disproportionate to 'their experience or qualifications; 
they also in too many instances neglect to provide suitable fuel or 
things needful for the comfort and convenience of the school, or to 
make the necessary repairs on the school-house and its premises ; 
and very few exercise that inspection and care of the schools under 
their charge which the duties of their offices imply. 

SCHOOL DISTRICT STSTBM. 

Our school district system as it now exists is too defective to ad- 
mit of a complete remedy. No other system of supervision requires 
so many officers for so simple duties ; and no other requires its 
officers to sefve without compensation. 

Its power is too much diffused and too feeble to control discord, 
ant elements, or to secure justice. The teacher under this system is 
too much at the mercy of popular caprice, and often suffers and fails 
for the want of that support in the hour of persecution, which a 
stronger government would afford. 



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That part of tbe system which regulates the formation and altera^ 
tion of school distriots, is especially backward and unsatisfactory. 
In forming some joint school districts, no less than fifteen signa- 
tures of different functionaries are required to complete the work 
which one person of common sense could do more to the satisfaction 
of the parties concerned. The **red tape" system is here found 
in perfection, and its vexations are insufferable. No wonder that 
under such a system, the state department of public instruction is 
flooded with appeals, and that the school district is the theatre of 
discord ; that friends and neighbars aro set at variance, that the 
school is a bone of contention, and,that its usefulness is so often de- 
stroyed in the midst of contending parties. A substitute for such 
a system may perhaps be found in the township system of school 
government, which is now in successful operation in several states, 
and which has been so ably explained and advocated by our present 
state superintendent and his predecessors in office. 

WOBK OV THB SUPXRINTBNDENT. 

The superintendent has made one hundred and fourteen official 
visits to the different schools in the county during the past year. 
In his rounds it has happened, as usual, that some schools, either 
on account of local holidays or short vacations, were not in session, 
and could not at the time be inspected. Nearly every school dis- 
trict* however, has been visited twice, at the expense of much ex- 
posure and tedious travel, oftentimes in storms, and over rough and 
drifted roads. 

He has been present at all the teachers' associations, conducted 
the annual teachers* institute, held ten public examinations, and has 
occasionally lectured in different parts of the county. In the duties 
ineDtioned above, and in those of reporting to the state department, 
official correspondence and private examinations, are comprised the 
labors of the county superintendent. 

By teachers, parents and district officers he has been treated with 
kiodn<2ss, forbearance and hospitality, and he hopes that the results 
of his labors may bo commensurate with his good intentions^ 

OONOLUSION. 

S'rom the statements above, it may be inferred that as our popu- 



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108 

lation iDoreases and the peoplo become better able to bear the bur- 
dens of taxation, more liberal provisions are made for schools. 

Old school-h oases are giving place to more expensive and more 
commodious structures. 

Nothing seems to be so much desired by every intelligent parent, 
as the education of his children, nor can any good citizen regard 
popular education as second to any other public interest. Our most 
successful teachers are dissatisfied with their present attainments, 
and are seeking opportunities for higher culture. Two from this 
county have already applied for admission to the State Normal 
School in Platteville, and have been accepted. Others, it is hoped, 
stimulated by their example, will soon apply to one or the other of 
our excellent State Normal Schools, now in successful operation, in 
Whitewater and Platteville. 

We greatly need a Normal or Academic institution in the Saint 
Croix Valley, and we hope the time may not be far distant when the 
people of this section of the state shall become almoners of the mag- 
nificent Normal School Fund recently set apart by wise and liberal 
legislators for the education of teachers for our public schools. 



SHEBOYGAN. 

J. B. THOMAS, SUPERINTBNDBNT. 

In addition to the statistical report already forwarded to you, I 
have to say that, soon after entering upon the duties of superinten- 
dent of schools for this county, January 1st, 1^68, I discovered a 
marked degree of discouragement on the part of some and indifier- 
enoe on the part of others, in reference to our educational interests. 
A wide spread dissatisfaction prevailed and much prejudice existed 
in regard to the county superintendent system. Teachers had 
grown lethargic and school patrons had become despondent. A 
teachers association had existed in years gone by, but had long since 
passed into oblivion Four years had gone by since an institute had 
been held, and, to make a long story short, the educational forces 
had become '* fearfully demoralized." To attempt to bring order 
out of chaos, and to reinvigorate and marshal such undisciplined 



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forces looked like a herculean task. Early in January the state su- 
periotendent was earnestly urged to yrsit this county, and to take the 
lead in ** striking the first blow." Circulars were posted through- 
out the county, inviting teachers, district officers and friends of ed- 
ucation generally, to meet at Sheboygan Falls, for the purpose of 
consulting together in regard to our common school interests, and to 
listen to words of advice and instruction from our superintendent of 
public instruction. The day came and with it a good attendance 
from all parts of the county. The Rip Van Winkle slumber was 
broken. The state superintendent gave us an admirable lecture 
Buitei to the occasion. Dr. J. J. Brown, now of Whitewater nor- 
mal school, followed with a lecture upon physical culture. Prof. 
Cushman, of New York, gave us an excellent address upon educa- 
tion, and the county superintendent closed with some plain talk to 
teachers and district boards. A teachers' association was organized 
at once by the adoption of constitution and by-laws and the election 
of officers. The ** convention " was a success, and that one day's 
work swept away a mountain of prejudice against the county super- 
intendent system. 

But little time for visitation of schools has yet been found. Of 
the 114 schools but 29 have been visited — most of the time having 
been employed in organizing, in settling the numerous matters 
of difference as they have arisen in the various districts, and in ex- 
amination of applicants 'or certificates. 176 attended regular exam- 
inations, and 15 applied at the office. 126 certificates have been 
granted. Letters have been addressed to each teacher, urging de- 
votion to the work and co-operation with the superintendent. 

A teachers' institute was hold at Plymouth, commencing March 
Slat, and continuing two days. We had a good attendance. At 
least nine-tenths of those present participated in the exercises; the 
older teachers taking the lead. Some of the citizens took part, and 
one of the resident physicians (Dr. Morehouse) delivered an ad- 
dress upon physical training. Permanent officers of the teachers' as- 
sociation were elected, after which the institute was closed by a lec- 
ture from the county superintendent upon the different methods of 
teaching. 

Thus new Hfo has been infused into educational matters through- 
out the county, 



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Upon the ten branches required by law in the examination of 
applicants, an aggregate of 60 correct answers entitles to a certificate 
for six monthn, and an aggregate of 75 to a certificate for one year. 
This rule applies to 3d grade. t<o applications have been made for 
1st or 2d grades. This raising of the standard has caused some 
grumbling, but the results have demonstrated the wisdom of the 
change, and teachers and scholars are coming up to the advanced 
line with certainty and celerity. We a/re determined to ttand in 
the front rank. 

With few exceptions the various districts are rapidly warming up 
to the good work, and we trust by another year our school officers 
will become more familiar with their duties, and the nchool patrons 
still more interested in our common school system. 

Several comfortable school houses have been erected during the 
year, and it is confidently expected that many more will take the 
place of old ones another year. 

The salary of the office is $800.00 ; less than one half the actual 
value of a faithful and efficient incumbent ; and when one possess- 
ing such qualities is elected, we trust the county board will raise 
the salary to $2,000.00 at least. 



TREMPEALEAU. 

S. S. LUOB, SUPERINTENDENT. 

Trempealeau county has now sixty school districts ; nine new dis- 
tricts having been organized during the year. Many of the districts 
are small and weak, and the people are taxed heavily for the sup- 
port of the schools, but the natural features of the country seem, in 
most cases, to necessitate divisions as made by the supervisors. 

TBAOH£BS. 

One hundred and three teachers were examined during the year, 
73 of whom received certificates. 70 were of the third and three of 
the second grade. Seventeen were given to males and fifty six were 
given to females. In addition to the above, six district licenses were 
given. Of the eighty-nine different persoss employed in the schools 
six showed an aptness for their work, and the same number made 



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partial failures. The remainder did well considering their youth and 
inexperience. 

IBBEOULAB ATTENDANCE. 

Nothing retards the progress of education more than the irregular 
attendance of the pupils. It is notioeahle that there is a great 
falling off during the summer term, commencing about the first of 
July. At this time many of the larger ones are called to the harvest 
field, and the debilitating effects of the warm weather are percepti. 
ble in both teacher vnd scholars. I am of the opinion expressed by 
many ether superintendents that there should be a vacation during 
the months of July and August. 

PBIVATE SCHOOLS. 

In two or three districts, the inhabitants of which are mostly 
Polanders, private schools are taught by the Catholic priest, which 
makes the attendance at the public schools very small. The Po- 
landers do not object to paying taxes for the support of English 
schools, but keeping their children from them has a discouraging 
effect, partially defeating the object of our free schools. 

SCHOOL-HOUSES. 

Two very good school-houses have been built in the county during 
the year, besides two or three inferior ones. Something has also 
been done in the way of improving school grounds but not so much 
as desirable. 

TEACHEBS' INSTITUTES. 

A teachers' institute, occupying three days, was held in Septem- 
ber. Forty teachers were in attendance, and the session was a 
profitable one for those who participated iu the exercises, and benc- 
fieial results were manifest in the improved system of the teachers. 

In conclusion, I may say that although the year has been marked 
by no extraordinary educational progress, there has been a steady 
advancement. The people have voted liberal taxes for the support 
of schools and have encouraged teachers and pupils by their 
presence in the school-room oftener than during the two previous 
years. 



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112 
WALWORTH. 

W. H. BBIQHT, BUPBBINTBNDBNT. 

The progress made in the baildings, and in tlie gradation of many 
of the schools in this county since the last report from this office, 
is marked, and the credit rodonnds to the people for the fine edifices 
erected, and to the teachers for the noble influence exercised for a 
better system and more thorough instruction. ' 

The spirit of advancement has been among the people, and the 
argument for reforms and more solid improvement has been used and 
adopted by nearly every school organization in the county. 

Several fine buildings have been erected, and the march of similar 
improvements has been rapid in some of the villages. Several 
houses have been finished and furnished in a style comparing proud- 
ly with the best in the country. 

A house has been built in La Grange, and one in Lyons, each 
costing $2,000, having two departments, and intended for occupa- 
tion this Winter. A new house has also been erected in Sugar 
Creek. Many buildings hcretotore dilapidated have been made com- 
fortable, and many have been thoroughly repaired. 

A houso 40x90, with front projection of 18x40, and costing $18,- 
000, was practically dedicated at Geneva, last December, and has 
since been occupied by from five to six teachers, and from 250 to 
850 children. The house is of white brick, two stories, contains 
four study rooms and two recitation rooms, and has a maximum ca« 
pacity for 400 pupils. It is finished in white paint and inside 
blinds, and furnished with Andrew's furniture, single desks through- 
out, thoroughly ventilated, and is comfortable in all seasons. This 
school is thoroughly graded and is in good working order. It has 
80 foreign pupils this term. Current expenses this year $3,200. 

A fine brown brick house 41x62, with front projection 10x40, was 
formally dedicated at Elkborn, Sept. 4th, and has been since occu- 
pied by 260 pupils and five teachers. It is two stories high, has 
four study rooms, one rociiation room, is finished in graining, hea« 
ted by coal stoves and furnished with Andrew's single seats through- 
out, is well ventilated, and cost, with grounds, $16,200, and has a 
maximum capacity for 350 pupils. The grounds surrounding this 
house are nearly three acres in extent, securely fenced, and ao- 



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118 

knowledged to be the best public school property in the State. 
The school is thoroughly graded, and is doing fine work. Current 
expenses this year {3,000. 

The house dedicated at Delay an, in 1866, is a fine model, and 
seats 400 pupils ; the whole school is graded. Whitewater has en- 
larged and repaired its high school buildings. The schools are pro- 
gressing. East Troy has a good school of two departments, and is 
doing a good work. Darien has two departments, is partially gra- 
ded, and is progressing. Geneva has a mixed school of two depart- 
ments, and Troy also. 

There have been many changes in the teachers of the village 
schools during the year. Some of them have been salutary, but 
most of them have been a positive detriment to the children. The 
fact that changes of teachers are disastrous —in that pupils and 
teachers require from two to four months to form such acquaintance 
as will make the intercourse profitable to pupils in the direction of 
the studios actually pursued — cannot be too often presented to the 
people. Other things being equal, would the farmer as readily em- 
ploy a blacksmith as another farmer, to superintend his harvesting? 
Would he set a merchant as readily as another farmer to care for his 
herd ? Would the district clerk employ the novice as readily as the 
experienced teacher, to instruct the children in the sciences - and in 
the much more important topics of morals and rational religion ? 
The most sacred trust reposed in a government is the education of 
its children; and that so sacred, so delicate, so arduous a trust should 
be confided to the best men and women in the country, is a fact 
affecting not only the destinies of the present generation, but influ- 
encing forever those who come after us. 

When conducting a teachers' class in examination recently, a dis- 
trict sought a teacher of me ; I learned that one of the candidates 
for a certific&te before, had taught the school in question the entire 
preceding term, and while granting her entire fitness, her g neral 
popularity, and his own unlimited confidence in her as an instructor, 
be did not wish to employ her for fear ** something might happen." 

The remedy then for the gross failures, for the awful blunders andl 
the criminal profligapy of time and energy in school exhibited by some 
teachers, is not so much in the reach of superintendents who license 
8- Sup. Pub. Ins. 



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114 

them, nor with schools that insure miserable instrnotion to stadents 
who snhseqnently become teachers — but it does devolve upon dis- 
trict clerks, who can employ and decline to emjfloy those worthless 
time-servers who have only the power to squander the time and dis- 
sipate the energies of pupils by reason of their total lack of manag- 
ing ability and skillfully directed nctivity. Let the people then 
elect to their school district offices those men who know what a good 
school is by reason of having been taught in one, and who are willing 
to employ all necessary time to secure qualified teachers, and otherwise 
to properly provide for and supervise the schools. Let the people no 
longer elect for clerks, men who are entirely unable to discharge even 
the clerical duties of the office, much less to manage a school dis- 
trict's funds and property, to superintend its school and school in- 
terests. 

The county superin tendency is a decided success here ; in that 
the standard of qualifications of teachers has been raised from thirty 
per cent, of correctness at examinations, to sixty per cent, -now 
required to entitle applicants to certificates. It is also a success in 
that it has, by securing better qualified teachers, and by means of 
active supervision, created an ambition among the people for better 
schools, and in many places they have taken steps necessary to 
carry their ambition practically to a result. 

Those who are interested in the educational work of the county, 
feel deeply the importance of preserving all of the present county super- 
intendency and of supplementing it with the town district system ; 
and if found elsewhere as here, that more supervision is needed, we 
hope the system of town supervision may prevail. 

There are from this county nineteen perdons holding third grade 
certificates who are students in the Normal School at Whitewater. 
We hope to receive stimulus in our beloved educational work from 
this school. 

There has been organized add maintained during the year a county 
asflociatidii of teaehers, holding meetings monthly, which has 
awilkiened a lively interest among the oommunitieff ia sohool work, 
M Well as having doue muoh viduabto institute work and class 
tnstruotion. 



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115 

The foUowiDg is the resnlt of the ezaminationB just finished in 
this county : 

Whole namber applying 114 

Of which the following passed : 

For first grade 3 

second grade 5 

third grade 45 

The remainder were refused, bnt owing to the scarcity of teachers 
I have been obliged to grant permits to 28. 

Total licensed to teach 

refused 

I find it impossible to supply the schools with teachers who can 
come up to the sixty per cent, standing. Some of those I have 
licensed for six months come but little short of it. 



WASHINGTON. 

F. RSGBNVUSS, SUPBBINTBNDSNT. 

The past year has been one of prosperity to the majority of the 
schools of this county. The teachers as well as the patrons of 
schools have shown a great zeal toward the duty they have to dis- 
charge. New school houses, and the union of small districts into 
larger ones, the increase of teachers' wages, the length of the school 
terms and the utensils necessary to teaching, as blackboards, maps, 
&o., found now in a majority of the schools, prove that the people 
of this county appreciate the services of the teachers and show their 
love to our '* free school system." 

During the coming winter we shall have teachers' associations in 
each town every fortnight, to instruct each other in the different 
methods of teaching, as well as to create a social feeling among 
themselves. The teachers' intitutes commonly held four days, will' 
be changed in this county to a kind of normal school, having a term 
of 8 or 4 weeks in the spring, and also in the fall before the com- 
mencing of the winter schools, and the teachers will find places for 
such instructions at Hartford and West Bend, under the conduct o^ 
two prominent teachers and my supervision. In the eveningSy leo- 



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116 

tures, edsajs &;c., will be held and read, and wo hope the state will 
allow the same amount of money to these inRtitutes as it does for 
those held in the old fashioned way. We prefer " practice," bat not 
given for a few days, while a majority of the teachers are too bash« 
fal to show their methods &c., but by training them for weeks in 
the same way as in our state normal schools ; the more so as not al| 
the teachers can be accommodated there, and others have not means 
enough in the first years of their teaching to attend these normal 
schools. 

** Forward " is our motto, but we like in this matter to go our 
own way — a way found out and acknowledged by a conference and 
agreement of the most capable and practical teachers in the county. 

There are many points, sections &c , in our present school code 
that ought to be altered, as, for instance, the term of winter schools ; 
it ought to be five months of <' winter school," and not merely five 
months' school daring a year. Private examinations ouglt not to 
be allowed, for they can not be made so thorough and extended at 
such a time as a public examination. The county superintendents 
ought to be allowed to hold their public examinations at any place 
in the county, and not be confined to a number of towns ; for there 
may be no convenient place in such towns where the superintendent 
and teachers can find accommodations, and the superintendent is 
compelled to go through an examination in about 5 or 6 hour.-, even 
if he has to examine a large number of candidates. 

Generally, we have every reason to be encouraged, and engage in 
the work of education with renewed vigor for the ensuing year, for 
there is every prospect of making the schools of this county satieh 
'£ying to every body ; for we havi talent, industry, wealth and best of 
all, a <<good will." Under these circumstances we are sure that the 
principles of our great Republic will find a foundation in the hearts 
of the young ones that never will be destroyed, but upon which the 
temple of liberty will stand firm for many future centuries. 



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117 

WAUKESHA. 

W. S. OBSBN, SUPBBINTBNDBNT. 

Iberewith snbmit the second annual report of the County Super- 
intendent of Schools, showing the condition of the schools under 
my care. 

VIBLD OF LABOB. 

There are sixteen townships in the county, containing 576 square 
miles of territory, divided into 81 entire, and 103 parts of dis- 
tricts. There are 120 school houses ; of these, one employs six 
*eachers, one four, and five two each ; the rest employ but one 
each. It requires 133 to supply all the schools at the same time. 

The number of children reported between the ages of four and 20 
is 10,465, a decrease of 172 from last year. Of these, 7,412 are 
reported as having attended school during the year, an increase of 
315 over last year, leaving 3,053 who have not attended school du- 
ring the year, which is 4S7 less than last year. 

The aggregate number of days taught by qualified teachers is 
17,919, which is 2,179 less than last year. To do this work 228 
different teachers have been employed — nine more than last year. 
The total number of days' attendance is reported at 587,750, which 
is 52,693 more than last year. 

The cost of this work is as follows : Average wages of male 
teachers, per month, $46 45, which is $3.33 more than last year ; 
of females, 3^6.13, which is 67 cents more than last year. Total 
amount less sum paid on old indebtedness and for building purposes 
is $34,975.04, which is $5,355 75 more than last year. The aver- 
age number of days taught is 157, which is eleven less than last 
year. Cost per scholar enrolled, $4.71, an increase of 54 cents 
over last year. The average daily attendance of each scholar en- 
rolled is 78 days — two and one half more than last year, being 57 
per cent., which is six per cent, more than last year. This shows a 
loss, occasioned by irregular attendance, of 43 per cent. It is truly 
gratifying to see an improvement in the daily attendance of schol* 
ars, and it is earnestly hoped that a much greater improvement will 
be made in this respect ; yet a loss of nearly one-half is a serious 
matter, and should arrest the attention of every one. 



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BOHOOL nOVSMB, 



Of the 120 school hoases in the coanty, 27 are built of brick or 
0tene, three of logs, and the remainder are frame ; 30 are reported 
as being well enclosed, 97 with outhouses, 84 in good condition, and 
89 furnished with outline maps — leaving 90 not enclosed, 41 with 
no outhouses, and 82 with no outline maps. The most of those re* 
ported as not being in good repair, ^ight well exclaim, '' Ob ! that 
I were a bam I" Yet nearly all of them could be made quite oon- 
venient and comfortable with very little expense, by changing the 
seats so as to have the scholars face the back part of the room, the 
stove in front, and blackboard and rostrum across the entire back 
part of the room. 

Two new school bouses have been built during the past season — 
one of brick and one of stone. The house in Dclafield village has 
also been repaired, an additional room built and two teachers 8| - 
ployed — a much needed improvement. 

SOHOOL DISTRIOT BEOOKDS AND &BPORTS. 

Oreat improvements have been made in the reports of town and 
district clerks, still there is room for more. District clerks should 
see that the teacher makes his report out properly before paying 
him, and then be very careful himself in making his report to the 
town clerk. The town clerk should be prompt and accurate in mak- 
ing out his report to the county superintendent, so that no district 
may fail in obtaining its share of the public money, 

TJIAOHERS' REPORTS. 

The system of teachers' reports, adopted by my predecessor, has 
been continued by me, and I am satisfied that great good has been 
accomplished by it. Nearly all the teachers reported during the 
summer term, and I trust a still greater number will report the 
coming winter. 

INSTITUTED. 

It is made the duty of the Superintendent to hold at least one 
institute each year, for the benefit of teachers. The State gener- 
ously furnishes $50 to each county each year for the purpose of 



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defrayiDg ezpenses. One institute has been held this year in the 
village of Waukesha. The ezeroises were conducted principally by 
Hon. J. G. MoMynn. Lectures were given by Hon. A. J. Craig 
the present State Superintendent, aad Hon. J. G-. McMynn. 127, 
teachers were present, besides a largo number of citizens. The in- 
stitute was productive of much good. 

NORMAL SCHOOLS. 

The normal school at Wnitewater is riow in operation, affording 
an excellent opportunity to all who wish to prepare themselves for 
teaching. This county has the privilege of sending 18, who are al- 
lowed the favor of attending free of tuition. Eight or ten have 
already availed themselves of the privilege, and I trust the balance 
of the number will be made out. 

TEAOUBBS' BXAHINATIONS. 

During the present year ten public examinations have been held, 
at which there were 327 applicants. Of these, eight received first- 
grade certificates, 14 second grade, 166 third grade, and 63 limited 
certificates. Besides these, 22 special examinations have been held. 
Many of these were held merely to accommodate those who wished 
to commence teaching be.^ore the public examination. Of the appli^ 
cants at the public examinations, 65 were gentlemen and 262 ladies. 
It must be remembered that all the limited certificates granted last 
spring (68) have expired, leaving but 203 now holding certificates 
granted at a public examination. Eight special examinations have 
been held since the public, making the total number now helding 
certificates, 211. 

Many of these do not intend to teach, so that at present we have 
not a large surplus of teachers ; enough, however, to supply all the 
schools in tho county. 

supbbintbnbbnt's work. 

The examination of 327 applicants, writing an average of nine 
pages each, involves the reading and marking of 2943 pages. This 
with the 22 special examinations, the copying, enrolling the names, 
filling out certificates, getting up questions, making out reports and 
the office correspondence, occupies the entire time of the superintend 



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120 

dent during the vaoanoies between the nsnal terme of school. One 
hundred and nine schools have been yisited, many of them twice. 
It has been my purpose generally, to visit but two schools a day, 
staying in each half a day ; a shorter time wonld be prodnotive of 
but little good. 

IN GONOLUSION. 

I think I can safely say that at no former period had there been 
so much interest manifested in the cause of education by the people 
of this county, and in having good schools, as at this time. Never 
has there been such a call for good teachers, and especially male- 
Good wages have been offered, and the best class of teachers om~ 
ployed. I think we have as good a class of teachers as can be found 
in any county in the State. Permit me to again return my sincere 
thanks te all who have so generously assisted me in the laborious 
duties of this office. 



WAUSHARA. 

THBO. 8. OHIPMAN, SUPIBINTINDBNT. 

In visitation of schools, all the schools of the county have been 
visited once, all but four twice, during the year, and a number twice 
during each term. I have found district officers generally willing 
and ready to co-operate with mo for the advancement of the schools. 

Dnring the year some improvement has been made, in the erection 
of new school-houses, but we still have many poor houses. 

During the year there has been held one normal school or school 
for teachers, consisting of a term of seven weeks, closing .April 
17th, 1868, just before the institute — held at Wautoma with an at" 
tendance of fifty-six. A tuition fee of 9^ P®^ ^^1*°^ was charged. 
Byron S.Williams was employed as assistant teacher and heartily co- 
operated with me for the advancement of the school. 



WINNEBAGO. 

S. SHAW, SUPBRINTBNDINI. 

I shall confine myself to a statement of a few of the facts that 
are not contained in the statistical columns of my annual report. 



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121 

BXAMINATI0N8. 

Among all the daties of a oonnty superintenddnt^ I beliero there 
is none other so absolutely important as a careful inspection of 
those who desire to fill the difficult and responsible position of 
teacher. I am aware that many attach more importance to the 
number and length of his school visits ; bat how far can his dili- 
gence in this respect remedy the injuries inflicted upon a district by 
an incompetent teacher licensed on account of his carelesness? 

It is to his skillful and thorough examinations that the people 
must look for a selection of only those who are best qualified among 
the applicants for the significant work of the school room. It is to 
his prudence and inflexibility that those who obtain certificates must 
look for the maintaining of so high a standard of qualifications 
that they, upon the relation of demand and supply, may receive an 
adequate remuneration for their labor. 

With this in view I have endeavored to secure the presence of all 
our teachers at the regular examinations, but have not succeeded. 
I am convinced that many remained away from them unnecessarily, 
upon various excuses, frivolous and false, and subsequently applied 
for special examination, expecting to be questioned on a few 
branches in a superficial manner, and licensed without having any 
standing of scholarship marked upon their certificate. 

While instances may arise where a teacher can not attend the 
regular examinations, especially in the case of those living out of 
the county, yet there is neither sense nor jnstice in so many re- 
maining away as have done in Winnebago during the present year. 

Two courses have been left open for me to pursue in seeking to 
disconntenance and remedy this evil. 1st. To insist upon satisfac- 
tory proof of unavoidable absence from the regular examinations, 
and refuse special inspection if it be not given. This I consider of 
but little practical value, because all who applied late here, had 
some show of excuse, satisfactory to themselves and friends at least, 
so that a superintendent would hardly be sustained in refusing them 
special examination. 2d, To makn these special examinations as 
searching, and, if need be, as lengthy as the regular examinations. 
This course has been invariably pursued — ^with what effect can be 
better told in another year. 



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Would it not be will if those that apply late were compelled to 
pay a snug gam for the privilege of special inspeotion ? It is my 
opioiim that some sach plaa would materially lessen the number of 
those who as they say, had not quite concluded to teach at the time 
of the regular examination ; or who found it so all-important to go 
off visiting then ; or who actually did not know when and where the 
examinations were to be held. Would it not serve as a powerful 
tonic also to strengthen many, fearfully subject to semi annual epi- 
demics. 

LIOBNSBS. 

Many school boards, upon the plea that their school was small and 
not far advanced, have requested a license for some favorite, incap- 
able of obtaining a certificate. I have acted on such occasions with 
a great deal of caution and stringency, realizing that while no one 
kind of test of a teacher's ability is infallible, yet in case of a stran- 
ger, scholarship is the best that can be had. 

Accordingly, when circumstances compelled me to license, I did it 
only with the unanimous consent of the Boafd, and upon a standard 
of soholarsbip just a trifle lower than that required for a regular 
third grade certificate. Thus licenses are really limited certificates 
rather than a blind submission to the opinion of aoy set of school 
officers unable to estimate the ability of a teacher with any degree 
of certaintv. I have never granted blank licenses, as I believe they 
are detrimental to both teacher and superintendent. 

B1II>0BBTH0 OBBTIVIOATES. 

Many teachers residing in other counties bave asked me to en- 
dorse their certificates, urging the inconvenience and exptmse of 
of further examination, I have invariably refused to accede to their 
request, for reasons well known te you. My experience is that 
generally the best teachers of any county remain in, it while the 
poorest have to look elsewhere for employment. I wish it could be 
generally understood that endorsing certificates is not recommended 
by our state Superintendent. 

IIOMTHLT RBPOBTS. 

The teachers in this county have been requested to transmit mon- 



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128 

ihlj reports and most of these have complied. Data have been 
found in these of much interest and value to me ; but I think the 
plan adopted by several oounty superintendents of collecting them 
and making a monthly abstract to be printed and distributed 
throughout the county, is the best means of making them an entire 
Eucces. I expect to make such an arrangement mth our board of 
supervisors as to do that in this county. 

Is the committee appointed at Milwaukee last summer likely to 
agree upon some form of monthly reports that will be uniform 
throughout the state ? 

INSTITUTE. 

We were disappointed in not having a larger attendance of teach- 
ers, especially as those who need such work most were numbered 
among the missing. In every other respect, the institute was aU 
that could have been desired. Still I think more good can be done to 
the weaker teachers in a town association than a county institute. 
We have none of the former yet in Winnebago, but expect to report 
some next year. 

NORMAL PUPILS. 

Six applicants have been sent from this county to Whitewater 
since the first of January. Efforts are being made to secure a more 
numerous delegation than this in the future. We stand in great 
need of a larger number of teachers that have received such instruc- 
tion as can be best obtained in our normal schools . Teachers who 
are so well versed in the constitution and laws of our land that the 
next generation of voters cannot possibly be so profoundly ignorant 
as the present of their own form of government. Teachers who have 
obtained such a knowled^re of the principles of hygionce, that phy- 
sical culture will not be so entirely ignored as it is now in most 
school-rooms. Teachers who, above all, are competent and willing 
to give instruction to their pupils which must act as a balance wheel 
upon their future conduct, and without which all mere mental train- 
ing becomes a positive injury. 

WOKK. 

This report is so extended already that I shall not enter into a 
minute statement of what has been done for the various districts. 



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124 

Snoli a report has been submitted to the county board of snperyi - 
sors wbo ought naturally to be more interested in it than our state 
department. 

Suffice it to say that much has necessarily been left undone that 
ought to have been done ; and permit me to express the hope that 
our nexfc legislature will not retrograde^ as many of our educators 
fear ; but, acting upon your advice, will go on to perfect our educa- 
tional system now so well begun, until Wisconsin shall rank second 
to none of her sister states in the excellence of hor common schools. 



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COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS. 

(1869.) 



GouDty. 



Superintendent. 



Residence 



Adams 

Ashland 

Bayfield 

Brown 

Buffalo 

Burnett 

Calumet 

Cbippewa 

Clark 

Columbia 

Crawford 

Dallas. 

DATie—UiDut 

Dane— 2</ Dist 

Dodge—l si Dist 

Dodge— 2(; Dist 

Door. ... 

Douglas 

Dunn 

£an Claire 

Fond du Lac 

Grant 

Green 

Green Lake 

Iowa 

Jackson 

Jefferson 

Juneau 

Kenosha 

Kewaunee 

La Crosse 

LaFajette 

Manitowoc 

Marathon 

Marquette 

Milwaukee— 18/ Dist 
Milwaukee— 2c? JHsi. . 

Monroe ; 

Oconto 

Outagamie 

Ozaukee 

Pepin. 

^erce 

Polk. 



Thomas B. Freeman. . 

John W. Bell 

Andrew Tate 

Oscar Gray 

James Imrie 

W. H. Peck 

A. W. Hammond 

Theodore Coleman... 

John S. Dore 

Levi Bath 

C. W. Clinton 

Alfred Finley 

J. Q. Emery 

I A. Kierritcad 

Charles Allen 

Lorenzo Merrill 

RufusM. Wright 

Irw^n W. Gates 

W. H. Bushnell 

W. H. Lockwood 

D. B. Lyon 

Josepli P. Hubbard . . . 
Daniel H. Morgan . . . , 

A. A. Spencer , 

Samuel Parks 

J. R. Mosher , 

George W. Bird , 

George P. Kenyon. . . , 

James Hannan , 

Constant Uartin. . . , 

G. S. Paton , 

Charles B. Jennings. 

Jere Crowley 

Thomas Greene 

Abraham Boy n ton. . . 
James F. Devinc.. . . 
Anson W. Buttles. .. 
Charles W. Kellogg. . 

John Fairchild 

D. J. Brothers 

P. K. Gannon 

George Van Waters. 

R. L. Reed 

R.H. Clark 



Clin. 

La Pointe. 

Bayfield 

Fort Howard. 

Maxville. 

Grant;4burg. 

Chilton. 

Chippewa Falls. 

Neillsville. 

C< lumbus. 

Prairie du Chien. 

Barron. 

Stoughton. 

Oregon. 

Mayville. ^ 

l^urnett. 

Sturgeon Bay. 

Superior. 

Menomonie. 

Eau Claire. 

Rlpon. 

British Hollow. 

Monroe. 

Berlin. 

Avoca. 

Hixton. 

Jefferson. 

New Lisbon. 

Kenosha. 

Dyckesville. 

Hamilton'. 

Harlington. 

Manitowoc. 

Wausau. 

Westfield. 

PainesTille. 

Good Hope. 

Tomah. 

Marinette. 

Kaukauna 

Cedarburg. 

Durand. 

Prescott. 

Black Brook. 



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County Svpertntendentg — Oontinued. 



County. 



Superintendent. 



Residence. 



Portage 

Racine 

Richland 

B,oc\i—\8t DM 
Rock— 2(; Dist 

St. Croix 

Sauk 

Shawano 

Sheboygan... 
Trempealeau. . 

Vernon 

Walworth 

Washington.. 
Waukesha.. .. 
Waupaca. .... 
Waushara. . .. 
Winnebago .. 
Wood 



John Hegran, Jr. . . ^ . . 

L. M.Hawes 

George W. Putnam. . . . 

0. M Treat 

J. I. Foot 

A. H. Weld 

R. B. Crandall 

Z. O.Oolborn 

John E. Thomas 

S S.Luce 

Thomas J. Shear 

Elon Lee 

Fred. Regenfuss 

William S. Green 

J. Burnham 

Theodore S. Chipman. . . . 

Samuel Shaw 

George F. Witter 



Stevens Point. 

Rochester. 

Fancy Creek. 

Clinton. 

ETansTille. 

River Falls, Pierce Co. 

Baraboo. 

Shawano. 

Sheboygan Falls. 

GalesviTle. 

Hillsborough. 

Elkhorn. 

West Bend. 

Waukesha. 

Waupaca. 

Berlin. 

Omro. 

Grand Rapids. 



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REPORTS OF CITY SUPERINTENDENTS. 



BKLOIT. 



RUVUB KING, 8UFSRINTBNDINT. 

1 am happy to state that the public schools of this city are in ex- 
cellent condition, and the scholars in every grade making satisfac- 
tory progress. 

We have in this city two graded schools, each having three de- 
partments, Primary, Intermediate and Grammar. An outline of 
the course of study in the different grades is as follows : 

Tenth GraOe. — Reading from cards and blackboard. Printing 
and writing the reading and spelling lessons, and the Arabic num- 
bers as far as twenty. 

Ninth Orflkic,— Reading cards reviewed. MoGuffey's First Reader, 
com. Oral Arithmetic through 4 plus 10. Writing exercises on 
slate and blackboard. 

Eighth Grade, — McGuffey's First Reader, completed. Spelling 
from the Reader. Oral Arithmetic through addition and sub- 
traction. Writing exercises on slate and blackboard. 

Seventh G^acZc.— MoGuffey's Second Reader. Spelling all the 
words of the Reader, Robinson's Table Book to page 60. In- 
struction in music. Writing on slate and blackboard. 

Sixth (Trcu^e.— MoGuffey's Third Reader. Spelling the words 
of the Reader. Writing on slate and blackboard. Robinson's 
Table Book, completed. Mitchell's First Lessons in Geography. 
Sinipng. 

Fi/ih (i7ra<2«««*Sandera' Umon Third Reader. Spelling lessons 
from the Reader. Speuoerian Penmanship. Robinson's Primary 



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128 

Arithmetio to pago 60. >. itchell's Primary Geography to page 58. 
Yocal masio. 

Fourth Grade. — Sanders' Uoion Fourth Header to page 200. 
Spelling LessoDS from the Reader. Spenoerian Penmanship. Rob- 
inson's Primary Arithmetic, completed. Robinson's Rudiments of 
Written Arithmetic to page 74. MitcbeU's Primary Geography, 
from page 53 through. Instruction in vocal music. 

Third Grade. — Sanders* Union Fourth Reader, from page 201 
through. Spelling lessons from the reader. Spencerian Penmanship. 
Robin sons's Intellectual Arithmetic to page 118. Robinson's rudi- 
ments of Written Arithmetic, from page 74 through the book. 
Greene's Introduction to the study of English Grammar, to page 88. 
Mitchell s Intermediate Geography to page 57. Instruction in vocal 
music. 

Second (rrcu^e— Sanders' Union Fifth Reader, to page 220. Spell- 
ing lessons from the Reader. Spencerian penmanship, Robinson's 
Intellectual Arithmetic, completed Irom page 118. Robinson's Prac- 
tical Arithmetic, from beginning to page 231. Mitchell's Intermed- 
iate Geography, from page 57 to 88. Greene's Introduction to the 
study of English Grammar, from page 8b to 152. Anderson's 
Grammar School History of the United States, to page 105. In- 
struction in music. 

First Grade. — Sanders' Union Fifth Reader, completed. Spell- 
ing less ns from the Header. Spencerian Penmanship. Robinson's 
jntelleotual Arithmetic, reviewed. Robinson's Practical Arithme^ 
tic, completed and reviewed. Mitchell's Intermediate Geography, 
completed and reviewed. Greene's Introduction to English Gram- 
mar, completed and reviewed. Anderson's Grammar School History 
of the United States, completed and reviewed. lustruction in vo. 
oal music. 

The foregoing is a mere synopsis of the revised course of instruc- 
tion, and will give a general idea of the plan pursued. Connected 
with this, there is a regular system of oral teaching. Many useful 
and practical subjects, which are not treated in the text books named 
above, are thus brought before the minds of the pupils. 



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129 

The number of scholars between the ages of four and twenty is 
nine hundred. 

The number of leachers employed in the Bohools is eighteen, who 
discharge their duties in the most efficient %nd satisfactory manner. 

The organization of the High School is being perfected and I 
feel safe in promising a most favorable and satisfactory report for 
your next publication, 

A very fine location has been purchased for the High School 
building, which is expected to be in readiness for oi«cupation by next 
September. ^ 



BERLIN. 

W. A. BUGH, SUPBRINTENDBNT. 

1 am pleased to report that our schools are in a very excellent and 
flourishing condition, excelled perhaps by few in the State, bring- 
ing from the surrounding country a large number of tuition scholars, 
who prefer these schools to the more advanced Collegiate Institu- 
tions. We employ a corps of II teachers, with salaries varying 
from 25 to 100 dollars per month, according to the grade of the* 
school taught. The High School is under the charge of Rev. D. 
E. Holmes and his lady, and the Grammar School under the charge 
of Mr. J. L. Marsh ; and all of our teachers are, of superior ability,, 
and excellent instructors, under whose industrious services the pu- 
pils have been making rapid progress, highly creditable to them- 
selves and their teachers. 

Our people have recently completed two large and commodious 
buildings for school purposes — one at a cost of 37>000, and another, 
the High School building, at a cost of $24,000. The latter build- 
ing is located in one of the most elevated positions in our city, 
commanding a fine view of the adjacent country, and is surrounded 
by a fine campus of 13 acres. The plan of the building was drawn 
by that celebrated architect, Mr. Randall, of Chicago, and for com- 
fort, convenience and elegance is not surpassed by any public school 
edifice in the State. 

9 — Sup. Pub. Ins. 



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180 

The Board of Education of the oity has recently adopted the 
following Text Books : 

Sigh jScAnoZ.— Physiology, Jarvis'. Orthography, Wright's. 
Analysis of English .Sentences, Welsh's. Physical Geography, 
Warren's. Rhetorio nnd Englisb Composition, Quackcnbos'. 
Philosophy, Wells'. Geology, Wells' Chemistry, Youman's. 
Astronomy, Kobinson'R. English Literature, Shaw's. Botany, 
Gray's. Intellectual and Moral Science and Political Economy, 
Wayland's. Logic, Whately's. Latin Series, Andrews & Stod* 
dard's. 

Grmmar and Intermediate, — Mathematics, Robinson's Series — 
entire. Geography, Mitchell's Series — taught Topically. Gram- 
mar, Quackenbos'. Readers and Spellers, Sanders' Union— entire. 
Histories, Goodrich's and Wilson's series. Readers and Spellers, 
Saunders' Union — entire. Writing, Spencerian System. 

The grade or course of study for the several departments of the 
schools, as recently adopted by the Board of Education, is as fol- 
lows: 

Primary Departrtient. — No scholar admitted under five years of 
age. Studies— Primer, First Reader, Second Reader, Spelling, 
Printing, Oral Arithmetic, Oral Geography, Writing Numbers, Sing- 
ing, Object Lessons and Gymnastics. 

Secondary Department. — Terms of admission. — Spell seventy- 
five out of one hundred words from the First Reader. Write any 
number up to one thousand. 3Iultiplication table to sizes. Print 
and write the alphabet. Read simple sentences in writing and quali- 
fied to read in Second Reader. Studies — Second Reader, Third 
Reader, Spelling, Printing, Finish Primary Arithmetic, Intellectual 
Arithmetic to Division, Primary Geography, Intermediate Geogra- 
phy, Map Drawing, Oral Instruction in Natural History, Singing 
and Pbysioal exercises. 

Intermediate Department. — ^Terms of admission — Spell seventy- 
five out of one hundred words from the Second Reader, qualified to 
read in Third Reader, in Geography give definitions, bound each of 
tbo United States and give their Capitals, have completed Pri- 
mary Arithmetic. Studies^Third Reader, Fourth Reader, Inter- 



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mediato Geography, Intellectaal Arifchmetio, Rndimeots of Arithme- 
tio, Praotioal Arithmotic, Map Drawing, Oral iostraction in Natura 
History, Singing, Physiosl exeroises and Declamation. 

Grammar School, — Terms of admission — Spell seventy-five out 
of one hundred words from Third Reader, Practical Arithmetic 
through fundamental principles to fractions, qualified to read in 
Fourth Reader Studies — C grade — Fourth Reader, Practical Ar- 
ithmetic, Mental Arithmetic, Intermediate Geography (completed) 
Orthogrhphy with reading and spelling. Declamation, Lessons in 
Composition once a week, B grade — Practical Arithmetic, Mental 
Arithmetic, Fourth Reader, Orthography with reading and spelling. 
Declamation, Composition, History of the United States and Eng 
lish Grami/iar. A grade — Fourth Reader (completed). Practical 
Arithmetic (completed), Speller (completed). History of the Uni- 
ted States (completed), English Grammar (completed), Oral In- 
struction, each term as teacher may direct. 

High SchooL—WiTSt Tear, First Term — Higher Arithmetic, 
Physiology and Hygiene. Analysis of English sentence and Ortho- 
graphy. Second Term — Higher Arithmetic, Physiology and Hy- 
giene, Analysis of English sentence and Orthography. Third Term 
— Higher Arithmetic, Elementary Algehra, Analysis of English 
sentence and Agricultural Chemistry. Second Tear, First Term — 
Elementary Algebra, Universal History, Physical Geography and 
English Composition. Scond Term — Universal Algebra, Universal 
History, Physical Geography a)id English Composition. Third 
Term — Geometry, Rhetoric, Natural History and English Composi- 
tion. Third Tear, First Term — Geometry, Rhetoric, Natural His- 
tory and Latin. Second Term — Geometry, Natural Philosophy, 
Geology and Latin. Third Terra — Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, 
Geology and Latin. Fourth Tear, First Term — Chemistry, Intel- 
lectual Philosophy, Astronomy and Latin. Second Term — English 
Literature, Intellectual Philesophy, Astronomy and Latin. Third 
Term — Moral Philosophy, Logic, Botany and Latin. Composition 
and Declamation throughout the entire course, and Reading and 
Spelling every week. 

Public examinations in all the grades when the classes complete 
their studies, and when they advance from one department to another. 



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BNUMBBATION. 

AccordiDg to the recent eDunieratioD, we haye in the oity a total 
of 1,114 Bcholars — 585 male, and 579 female. 



FOND DU LAC. 

G. H. BRONSOM, BUPBBINTBNDBNT. 

The schools of our oity are graded. We hare first, second and 
third, primary, intermediate, grammar and high schools, all of 
which have a two years* course of instruction except the High 
School, which is four years. 

Our teachers are all females from the principal down, and proba- 
bly the schools were never under better discipline, mental and 
physical, than at this time. The reason for it may be our board 
have taken great pains to get well educated ladies for teachers and 
therein have had regard to refinement of manners, capacity to gov- 
ern and impart knowledge, as well as a suitable education. The 
board have also given the several schools much of their personal 
attention. They believe the schools should be often visited by pa- 
rents and the authorities ; that it strengthens and encourages the 
teacher^ and animates the scholars. 

We exclude from our schools all corporal punishment of females, 
believing it barbarous and useless. 

The principal of our High School is Miss L. H. Eaton, a gradu- 
uate of Olenwood Seminary, Brattleboro, Vermont. She is well- 
qualified for her position, possessing the rare faculty of imparting 
instruction with ease and pleasantness, and of governing with grace 
and dignity of manners, instead of the old method of the rod and 
ferule. The two head teachers of our Grammar Schools are also 
graduates, and well-qualified for their positions. Until the present 
year our principal teacher has been a male, his salary varying from 
twelve to seventeen hundred dollars. We now secure the same 
service, much bettor performed, for seven hundred. The salaries of 
our other teachers range from three to five hundred dollars. 

We have thirty-six teachers — ^two in the High School, three in 
the Qrammar, eight in the Intermediate Department, and twenty- 



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188 

three in the other Bohools. We also have sixteen sohool houses and 
fonr rented buildings for sohool purposes. 

Within the past year our High Sohool building proper has been 
burned, and, a few days ago, the same misfortune befel the building 
1 ented for that purpose, In the first fire, all our records were de- 
stroyed, also all our school books, includiDg those belonglDg to the 
scholars ; together with our philosopbical apparatus. In the last 
fire we saved nearly all the books and apparatus, but again lost our 
records. Our grammar sohool was in the same building. By the 
active energy of our Board, new rooms were procured and both 
schools going again in less than a week. 

Before closing, it may not be amiss to present the following gene- 
ral summary : 

The number of children withhi school ajze 5,501 

The number enrolled, about 3,000 

Average number attending, about 2,000 

We have seats for about 2,000 

I would also report that wo have already commenced a new build, 
ing for a High School, on the ground on which the old one was 
burned, about 75 by 9v> feet, with three stories and a basement ; and 
it is intended to have four school rooms to a story. It is to be of 
brick and stone. Estimated cost, from $35,000 to (40,000 ; and 
calculated to accommodate between seven and eight hundred 
students. 

Our present school buildings are of wood — certainly not the best 
material — and they are not as commodious as they should be ; but 
I trust and hope, time and good judgment, with the intelligence 
and characteristic energy of our people, will soon correct these de- 
ficiencies. 



HUDSON. 

B. P. HU0HB9, SUPERIITTBNDBNT. 

Our schools are, by a special act of the legislature, under the 
control of a board of trustees, consisting of two commissioners from 
each ward, and a city superintendent, chosen by the school oommis- 



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donen, at their annual meeting in April, in eaoli year. Tbe wbole 
control, suporvision and management of the Bchools are in the school 
board, with the bnrden of management falling on the anperinten- 
dent. 

I am sorry to any that our schools are, in a measure, retrograd- 
ing — that is, in the matter of grade Until a couple of years ago 
we adhered strictly to the graded system, but of late, on account of 
the great lack of school room, we have been compelled almost en- 
tirely to abandon the strictness in grade to which we have hereto- 
fore adhered, by reason of having to promote scholars from one de- 
partment to another, before they had attained sufficient advance- 
ment to make room for othem. 

The following ivill show something of the condition and wants of 
our schools in the matter of buildings. We have in this city about 
seven hundred children who ought to attend s3hool cv- ry day. We 
have three houses to accommodate them ; two of them are of brick, 
and one, the union school house, a wooden building. The brick 
houses were built last year, and are very good buildings. The 
three houses will accommodate, all told, three hundred and seventy- 
five scholars. We have no room for the rest of the seven hundred 
children. We have but one private school in the city. I am in 
hopes that before another annual report is due, the superintendent 
can make a better report on school buildings. 

As to the schooh, I will say those is the union (2d ward.) build- 
ing, are divided into four departments, each one independent of the 
rest. Number four is the high school, number three the intermedi- 
ate, and the rest, together with those in the first and third wards, 
are primary schools. We have an excellent corps of teachers in the 
schools, with the exception of the high school. We have no teacher 
for that at this writing, having concluded to employ a new princi- 
pal to commence next term. 

We have a choice library of about eighty volumes, and some very 
good philosophical apparatus in the high school. We pay our teach- 
ers from three hundred and sixty to one thousand dollars a year, 
according to the position they hold. 

One of the greatest obstacles the board and teachers have to over- 
come in Hudson, is the lack of interest, on the part of many of the 



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parents, in the welfare of the schools. There is also a disposition 
to find fault with the teachers, upon the ** ipse dixifc " of their own 
children, without visiting the schools to see for themselves how thej 
are conducted. But notwithstanding this, I think the great major- 
ity of the people of Hudson are justly proud of our schools, believ- 
ing we have as good schools in Hudnon as any other town of its size 
in the north west, and it is the determination of the board and those 
who can take time to interest themselves in the schools, to keep 
them so. 



JANBSVILLE. 

0. B. SMITH, PRINCIPAL OF HIGH SCHOOL. 

In compliance with your request I send you the foUowing report 
of the condition of our public schools. 

Our schools are organized upon the graded system. There are 
twenty-four grades, foir divisions, and fourteen departments : 

High School division, six grades, one department. 

Grammar division, eight grades, two departments. 

Intermediate division, four grades, five departments. 

Primary division, six grades, six departments. 

The course of study is carefully graded, requiring twelve years 
for its completion. Promotions are made semi-annually on a writ- 
ten examination. The gradation is kept clear by a monthly writ- 
ten examination of all except the primary division, which is exam- 
ined orally The attendaoce during the year just closed has been 
92 per cent, of the members of the schools. The instruction in the 
schools has generally been good ; each teacher is required to make 
preparation in writing for the work of the day. This has been in 
practice for more than a year, with gratifying results; it has met 
opposition only from inefficient teachers. 

We have been able to get along with little or no corporal punish- 
ment. The use cf it has been discouraged, and teachers who formerly 
would whip for a trivial offence, have learned to be prudent and 
thoughtful in their modes of punishment, and a better feeling to- 
wards our schools has been the result. 



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Oar Bohool-buildings are not in a good condition. We are tied 
by limitations in our city charter, in suoh way that we cannot bny 
a dipper from which the children may drink without most 
oarefnlly estimating, whether it is not an extravagance in the 
present condition of our funds. .IVIach less can we make re- 
pairs upon our buildings unless we close the schools to save money 
for the purpose. During the year the grounds of the high school 
building have been fenced and graded, and the out-buildings put in 
a decent condition. By a special act of the last legislature we have 
been enabled to make an appropriation for a school building in the 
First ward. The plans have been prepared and the contracts let. 
It will be ready for occupancy next fall. The estimated cost is 
(16,000. I think the building will be a model of convenience for a 
ward school. 

There is an increasing feeling among our citizens that by some 
means more liberal provisions must be made for the support of our 
public schools. I confidently hope that it will ripen into action. 

We hold teachers' meetings weekly, and through this agency are 
enabled to secure harmony of action in school management. 

At your request I send the daily programmes of the intermediate 
and primary divisions for the last term. 



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Programme of Intermediate Diviiion, JanereilU Public SehooU. 



Time. 


5.2 


Principal. Assistant. 


9 


6 


Opening Exercises. 


9.10 


10 


General Business. 


9.15 


20 


Reading, A. Spoiling, C. 


9.35 


25 


Practical Ari'th, B. Mental Arithmetic, B. 


10 


20 


Mental Ari*th, A. Reading, C. 


10.20 


10 


General Exercise, Oral Instruction, General Topics. 


10.80 


16 


Recess. 


10.46 


5 


Study. 


10.50 


20 


Geography, B. ' Reading, D. 


11.10 


5 


Physical Exercise. 


11.15 


20 


Spelling, A. Mental Arithmetic, C. 


11.85 


15 


Writing. 


12 


90 


Intermission. 


1.80 


10 


General Exercise, American Biography. 


1.10 


20 


Reading,' B. Spelling, D. 


2 


6 


Singing. 


2.5 


25 


Practical Ari*th, A Map Drawing, G. 


2.80 


20 


Mental Ari»th. B. Map Drawing, D. 


2.50 


10 


Geoepal Exercise. 


3.00 


16 


Recess. 


8.16 


45 


Study. 


8 20 


25 


Geography, A. Geography, 0. 


8.45 


10 


General Exercise, Object Lessons. 


8.50 


20 


Spelling, B. Geography, D. 


4.10 


10 


ReporU. 


4.20 


10 


Singing. 


4.30 


. • . . 


Dismissal. 



Friday, P. M., after recss, will be devoted to composition and declamations. 
Divide the school into two divisions. 1st division, A and 0. 2d division, 
B and D. Have the pupils rehearse and drill them carefully. Let all write 
conipoeitions. 

The general exercises must be carefully prepared, writing out. Standard 
works upon biography should be selected for preparation. 

Object lessons should be carefully prepared. Minerals, trades and profes- 
sions, animals, plants, &c., will furnish topics. 
QN. B. — The above programme is to be rigidly adhered to. 



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Programme Primary Du>i»i4m Janetville Pvblie Sehoolt 



Time. 




Principal. ABsistant. 


9.00 


6 


Opening Exercises. 


9.06 


10 


Oeneral Business. 


9.16 


16 


Reading, E. Reading, F. 


9.80. 


10 


Object Lesson— Color. 


9.40 


16 


Reading, 0. Reading, D. 


9.66 


10 


Physical Exercise and Singing. 


10.05 


10 


Oral Instruction — Plants, 


10.16 


16 


Drawing and Painting. 


10.80 


16 


Recess. 


10.46 


16 


Reading, A. Reading, B. 


11.00 


10 


Exerc'se on Number. 


11.10 


10 


Object Lesson — Life and Properties 


11.20 


16 


Arithmetic, A. Arithmetic, B. 


11.86 


06 


Physical Exercises. 


11.40 


16 


Spelling, A. Spelling, B. 


11.66 


06 


Singing. 


12.00 


90 


Noon. 


1.80 


05 


General Business. 


1.86 


10 


Object Lesson— Form. 


1.46 


16 


Reading, E. Reading, F. 


2.00 


10 


Singing and Physical Exercise. 


2.10 


16 


Reading, 0. Reading, D. 


2.25 


10 


Oral Instruction— A.nimals. 


2 86 


16 


Drawing and Painting 


2.60 


10 


Object Lesson- Morals and Manners. 


8.00 


16 


Recess. 


8.16 


16 


Reading, A Reading, B. 


8.30 


M 


Oral Instruction— Trades and Professions. 


8.40 


16 


Geography, A. Geography, B. 


8.65 


06 


Physical Exercise. 


4.00 


16 


Ppell'ing, A. Spelling, B. 


4 16 


10 


Object Lessons— Tools and Materials, and Divisions of Time. 


4.1i6 


06 


Singing. 



N. B.— This programme is to be rigidly adhered to. Every exercise 
must be carefully prepared by the teacher. Oral instruct'on and Object 
lessons must be carefully studied and judiciously adapted to the needs of the 
school. Care must be taken in singing that the songs are suitable in senti- 
ment and in tune. There is danger of injuring the voices of children by 
having them sing with so violent an energy as is too often done. The Physi- 
cal Exercises must not be violent. Lessons upon neatness should be given, 
by having the pupils arrange your table, their desks, the things in the room, 
&c. Moral lessons can be given by telling some story which will teach love 
to parents and others ; friendship, kindness, gentleness, obedience, honesty, 
truthfulness, generosity, self-denial, diligence, courage, patience, &c. 

Teachers must be careful of the language which they use in school ; let it 
be pure English, spoken in gentle terms. Never fret nor scold. 



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Despite the obstaoics in the way of the teacher in this city, I 
fed that some progress has been made in the right direction daring 
the past two years, and the indioatioQs are favorable for the work in 
the future. I go to it confident of heart, doubting not that the 
next report will show an educational advance in this city. 



LA CROSSE. 

N. 0. OHAPIN, SUPSl^INTENDBNT. 

Our Board of Education was organised early in the year 1867. 
Five Commissioners chosen annually by the City Council oonatitule 
the Board, vis.: one from each ward, and one for the city at large. 
The whole management of the public schools is committed to this 
board. The commissioners elect a oity superintendent who is also 
olerk of the board. They also determine, with certain limitations, 
the amount to bo received by taxes far school purposes. Under 
this direction the schools of this oity have risen very materially in 
character and value. A much larger amount of money than ever 
before has been expended on the schools. Higher wages have been 
paid to teachers, who, as a natural consequence, have done their 
work better. Tbe schools have boon carefully graded, in accordance 
with a definite plan of progressive studies. Some decided improve- 
ments have been made in the buildings and furniture. Good rules 
of order and discipline have been adopted and enforced. A larger 
number of children have received instruction and better instruction 

We have as yet. no High School. Our departments are Primary, 
Intermediate and Grammar, with four grades or classes in each de- 
partment. We are in great need of larger accommodations. A 
new building, it is hoped, will be provided very soon. A high 
school will also be organised as soon as possible. Fifteen teachers 
are now employed, three men and twelve women. The scholars 
enrolled are nearly eight hundred. Irregularity in attendance af^ 
fects the schools very unfavorably. How to remedy this evil is 
with us a grave and difficult problem. The correction of the evil 
lies very much with parents and guardians, who seem generally to 
have no fit appreciation of its magnitude and mischief. 



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140 
MADISON. 

B. M. B1TN0LD8, BUPERIMTENDSNT. 

I have nothing partioular to report in regard to tho scboola of 
this oity» except that they continne to prosper, and appear to meet 
the wants of our citizens. 

We haye seats yery comfortably arranged for upwards of eleven 
hundred pupils, and these seats are nearly all occupied. The schools 
are under the charge of twenty-two teachers, iocluding the superin. 
tendent, who acts as principal of the high school and is the only 
male teacher in the corps. 

The teachers are discharging their duties with a zeal, fidelity and 
ability worthy of commendation. 

Efforts have been made to improve the penmanship of our pupils, 
which heretofore has been very poor. Much valuable assistance has 
been rendered by Prof. B. M. Worthington, of the Northwestern 
Oommercial College in this city, and we have also had one very ex- 
cellent lecture before our teachers, on this branch, from Prof. Spen- 
cer, of Milwaukee. I think that we have made a good beginning in 
this art, and that in the coming year much progress will be made. 

The discipline of the schools, on the whole, is good, there being 
but few cases of corporal punishment reported. Our board has a 
regulation requiring teachers to report all cases of corporal punish- 
ment, with the causes thereof, and all attending circumstances. This 
regulation has reduced the number of such punishments without in^ 
juring the good order of the schools. I think the order is better 
than it was before the regulation was adopted. 

Two years since I transmitted to your department our programme 
of studies. Since then it has been somewhat modified, but is still 
very defective. Ours is a programme by text -books instead of a 
programme by subjects without regard to text-books, as it should 
be. A programme judiciously arranged by subjects will be more 
definite, and in passing over it less time will be frittered away upon 
things comparatively useless. Corresponding classes in the differ- 
ent schools will be kept more nearly together, with a view to their 
being brought into the same classes in higher grades, and more oral 



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teaching may be seoured, and teaobers will be debarred from spend- 
ing an undue amount of time and attention upon favorite studies. 

I am not certain but that in the lower grades of our schools, we 
aim too much toward a high average per cent, of scholarship, and 
oonsequentlj remain too long on a given subject, and thus discour- 
age those pupils who learn their lessons well and do not need to re- 
view them so much as is required of them. In passing through a 
book or over any subject for the first time, I would suggest 
whether fifty or sixty per cent, may not be an average high enough. 
In going over the subject the second time, a higher per cent, may be 
aimed at. 

Another point on which I fear wo make a mistake in our graded 
schools, is the tendency of teachers ar.d boards to arrange their 
programme and conduct their instruction as if all the children un- 
der their eare were to enter the various learned prcfessions. Only 
a very small proportion of them are to enter the professions, and 
the studies in the various grades should be thoroughly practical and 
bave more direct reference to practical life, while at the same time 
they afford sufficient mental discipline. 

The large majority of the children are to engage in manual labor, 
and the education furnished should have this fact fully in view. 

Could we act according to this consideration we should modify 
our system of instruction very materially. 

In furnishing school accommodationSi our Board have been more 
anxious to provide seats for the Primary Grades than for the High 
School Grade, and consequently they have built their scbool houses 
with a view to provide for the smaller children, and our high school 
house 18 yet to be built. We have, however, good accommodations 
for the lower grades. I think the policy of the board is the correct 
one ; and had it been more carefully pursued by all the cities and 
towns of the Northwest, it would have been better for the cause of 
primary education. 



MILWAUKEE. 

T. 0. POMEBOT, SUPEBINTENDINT. 

The number of children of school age in the city August 81, 
1868, was 28,660 This is an increase of about seven per cent. 



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on the number retarned by sobool cenBus in Angust, 1867. The 
increase in the number enrolled in our sobools is over eleven per 
cent.; in average number belonging, over twelve, and in average 
daily attendance over nineteen per cent, "^he average increase on 
number enrolled since 1864 has been over one hundred per cent. 
While these figures show that our schools arc becoming every year 
better appreciated by our people, yet they fail to show the real im- 
provement — improvement in class room work. ' In this important 
particular we think wo can report a per cent, of improvement far 
beyitnd that of average daily attendance. The amount expended 
during the past year was ?73,819.20. Of this amount ?61,674.31 
was expended for salaries, the remainder for fuel, repairs, supplies, 
printing, &?c. The cost of instruction per child, estimated on the 
number enrolled was $7.04; estimated on the daily attendance; 
was 912.62. 

The High School was opened January 1, 1868. The number o 
applicants 192 ; number admitted 128 — all but 17 from the publio 
schools. The examining committee appointed by the Mayor use 
the following language in their report of this school : '* The com- 
mittee's attention was at once attracted to the deep, earnest work 
that appeared, both on the part of teachers and pupils. Earnest 
study and close attention on the part of the pupils to the instruc- 
tion of the teachers strikes a visitor as the leadiog feature of the 
school." 

The number of days the schools were in session, 199. Per cent, 
of attendance on number belonging, 94. On punctual attendance 
96. Number of teachers examined 98. Number of certificates 
granted 59. The number of suspensions during the year is as fol- 
lows: absence 361, truancy 11, defacing furniture 1, bad conduct 
1, disobedience 9, comaiunioation 3, improper language 2, fighting 
3. Number of visitors 6.012. 

In June the Board adopted a list of text books in oomplianee 
with special act of legislature, which list cannot be changed for five 
years. The Board in August established a new grade for the 
Schools. This grade went into effect in September ; it works well 
and the schools are improving under the same. 



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GBADl OF MILWAUKBE PUBLIO SOHDOLS. 

Grade 10. — ^Pupils in this grade must thoroughly learn the obarts 
— not only to read bnt also to spell the words ; to form simple sen- 
lencos and print or write the same on their slates : notation and 
numeration to one hundred; drawing simple forms. Oral instruc- 
tion — Common objects, their size, color iuDd more observable 
qualities. 

Grade 9. — Pupils in this grade must learn to read readily the 
lessons in the First Eeader ; to spell any of the words in the same ; 
to perform correctly any example in addition not ezoceding five 
places of figures; notation and numeration to tens of thousands ; 
writing on slates simple sentences ; drawing familiar objects. Oral 
Instruction — Domestic animals, trees and primary colors. 

Grade 8. — Second reader begun and finished ; particular atten- 
ti9n to punctuation marks ; spelling both by letter and sound ; dic- 
tation ; notation and numeration to millions ; subtraction, with an 
occasional review of addition ; writing simple sentences with capital 
letters; drawing. Oral Instruction — Wild animals, secondary 
colors, plants and vegetables. 

Grade 7. — Third Reader begun and finished; dictation exer- 
cises; arithmetic through multiplication ; oral lessons in geography ; 
primary geography to North America ; mental arithmetic to multi* 
plication; writing; drawing. Oral Instruction — Trades, tools and 
mate-ials ; divisions of time. 

Grade 6. — Fourth Header as far as lesson forty ; dictation ex- 
ercises ; arithmetic through division ; primary geography to South 
America ; mental arithmetic to parts of numbers ; writing ; draw- 
ing. Oral Instruction — Parts of the body; five senses; kingdoms 
of nature. 

Grade 5. — Fourth Reader finished ; arithmetic to fractions ; 
primary geography finished ; mental arithmetic to fractions ; map 
drawing ; writing ; spelling, oral and from dictation. Oral Instruc- 
tion — Air, light, heat ; agricultural and mineral productions. 

Grade 4. — Fifth Reader to lesson fifty ; arithmetic to ratio ; 
mental arithmetic through fractions ; grammar to verbs ; inter- 



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mediate geography to South America ; map drawing and drawing 
le«8ons ; composition ; writing. Oral Instmction— Biography- 
(national); solar system. 

Ghade 3. — Fifth Reader finished ; Arithmetic to alligation ; 
Mental Arithmetic completed ; Grammar to syntax ; Intermediate 
Geography completed ; spelling, oral and from dictation ; declama- 
tion ; composition ; writing ; drawing. Oral Instruction — Bio- 
graphy, (foreign). 

Crrade 2. — Arithmetic completed; Geography reviewed; Map 
drawing from memory ; Grammar finished ; History to Washington's 
administration ; declamation ; composition ; drawing ; writing. 
Oral Instruction — Bone and muscles ; digestive organs. 

Orade 1. — Higher Arithmetic; English analysis; Physical 
Geography ; History completed ; Algebra through simple equations ; 
declamations ; composition ; drawing ; writing Oral instruction — 
Respiration and circulation ; nervous system. 

QBBMAN GRADE. 

Ghade 9. — Reading from charts ; writing small letters. 

Grade 8 — First Reader ; writing capital letters. 

Grade 7. — First Reader ; writing words. 

Grrade 6. — Second Reader ; writing sentences with capitals. 

Grade 6. Second Reader; writing 

Grade 4. — Third Reader ; writing ; written translations. 

Grade 3. — Third Reader ; writing ; grammar ; written transla- 
tions. 

Grade 2. — Fourth Reader ; writing ; written translations ; gram 
mar 

Grade 1. — Fourth Reader ; grammar; written translations. 

LIST OF TEXT BOOKS ADOPTED FOB USE IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS 
OF MILWAUKEE. 

Readers. — MoGaffey's First, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth 
Readers, and McGuffey's Speller. 

Arithmetics. — Ray's Mental Arithmetic, Ray's Practical Arith- 
metic and Ray's Higher Arithmetic. 

Grammar.-^KeTVB Common School Grammar. 



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Geography, — Mitcheirs Primary, MitcheU's Intermediate, and 
MitcbeU's Physical Geography. 

History, — Goodrich's United States History, 

Penmanship. — Spencerian System and Spencerian Copy Books. 

Alden's Toung Citizen's Manual. 

(rerman.-— Raffler's First, Second, Third and Fourth Readers ; 
Ahn's German Course, First and Second Books ; Hey's (small) 
German Ghriimmar and Oelsohlager's Dictionary. 



OSHKOSH. 

B. B. DALE, SUPBRINTSNDXNT, 

Our census shows a trifle over 4000 persons between the ages of 
four and twenty residing in the city. Of this number about 2,000 
have been enrolled in the public schools during the year as follows : 
high school 60 ; "A" grammar school 60 ; <<B" grammar school 
130. The balance, intermediate and primary, being about evenly dis- 
tributed in the five wards of the city. 

Probably about 500 are in attendance upon the various private 
and church schools, leaving a balance of about 35 per cent, out of 
the schools. We employ twenty-eight toiohers all ladies, except 
principal of high school and one German teacher. Average salary of 
ward teachers ^35 per month. Principal of high school $180 per 
month. German teacher (100 per month. 

During the past year we have completed a high school building 
than which there is probably no finer of the ^ kind in the state. 
We have also erected a building for fourth ward school, accom- 
modating 500 pupils, at an expense of $10,000. 

Herewith I send you a copy of our general regulations, together 
with plan and courses of instructioD, text books, etc 

OOUBSB OV INSTByOTION. 

Second Pbimabt, Class **F." 1st year. — The class shall be sub- 
divided into as many sections as the teacher may deem necessary. 

Oral instruction. — Lessons on the human body ; five senses ; 
common things ; size, color, and prominent qualities ; habits of 
order ; morals and manners ; reading from tsharts and blaekboardu 
10 — Sup. Pub. Ins. 



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with exercises in spelling, both by letters and sonnds, nntil the 
child can spell correctly, at least one hundred words, in the first 
half of the primmer (Hillard's Primmer); counting from one to 
sixty ; singiog, and physical exercises, four times per day. 

First Pbimart, Glass •* -fi," 2d year. — Oral instruction.-^An- 
imals, colors, and classification of objects, as belonging to either the 
animal, vegetable, or mineral, kingdoms ; morals and manners ; 
reading and spelling, (Hillard's Primmer and First Header, com- 
pleted. Second Reader begun); the names and forms of the differ- 
ent pauses, with the proper use of the period ; spelling ; counting, 
from one to one hundred ; reading and writing Arabic numbers, to 
one hundred; Roman numbers to " L."; exercises in adding series 
of small numbers ; oral geography ; writing, on slates, and black- 
board ; singing and physical exercises. 

Class ** 2^.," B(Z year, — Object lessons continued. Reading and 
spelling, (Hillard's Second Reader, continued and completed), with 
particular attention to punctuation, definitions and illustrations ; 
spelling the reading lesson. Addition and subtraction, (Robinson's 
Primary); reading and writing Roman numerals, to one hundred ; 
Arabic numerals to five hundred. Writing and printing on slates 
and blackboard. Geography, (Mitchell's Primary), to page 64. 
Singing and physical exercises. 

Second Intbbmbdiatx, Glass << C," 4th year. — ^Reading and 
spelling, (Hillard's Third Reader), three terms, with strict atten- 
tion to punctuation, ^definitions and illustrations ; spelling the read- 
ing lessons, both by letters and sounds. Arithmetic, (Robinson '0 
Primary), completed and reviewed ; three terms. Writing, on 
filiates and blackboard, Roman numerals to 500 ; Arabic numerals 
to 10,000 ; words from the reading lessons ; three terms. Geogra- 
phy, (Mitchell's Primary), completed and reviewed, with constant 
use of the globe and maps ; three \erms. Singing, and physical 
exercises. 

FiBST Iktebmbdiatb. — Glass **j5." — Fifth Year, — Reading 
and spelling, (Hillard's Third Reader),' 1st and 2d terms, oonft- 
pleted ; (Hillard's Fourth Reader), 3d term ; dose attention to 



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punctuation, definitions, an d^illustr&tions; written and oral spelling 
from reading lessons. Arithmetic, (Robinson's Intellectual, to page 
118, three terms ; (Eobin son's Practical Arithmetic), to page 28, 
third term. Writing with ink, (Spencerian Penmanship), three 
terms. Geography, (Mitchell's Intermediate), to page 58, three 
terms, with constant use of globe and maps. Singing and physical 
exercises. 

Ola$8 ''J," Sixth Fear.— Reading and spelling, (Hillard's 
Fourth Reader), 1st and 2d term ; (Goodrich's Child's History), 
3d term — close attention to panctuation, definitions, and illustra- 
tions ; written and oral spelling from reading lessons. Arithmetic, 
(Robinson's Intellectual), completed, twice a week, three terms ; 
(Robinson's Practical), to page 116, three terms. Writing with 
ink, (Spencerian Penmanship), three terms ; writing with ink, from 
dictation, once a week. Geography, (Mitchell's Intermediate), 
completed and reviewed, with constant use of globe and maps, three 
terms. History, (Goodrich's Child's History) ) three times a week, 
three terms. Declamations and recitations.- Singing and physical 
exercises. 

G&AMMAR Department. — Class *• -B." — Reading and spelling, 
(Hillard's Fifth Reader); written and oral spelling from reading 
lessons, three terms. Geography, (Mitchell's High School Geo- 
graphy) — First term, to page 02 : second term, to page 207 ; third 
term, to page 341. Map drawing during the three terms. Gram- 
mar, (Greene's Grammar), to Syntax, page 139, three terms. 
Writing with ink, (Spencerian Penmanship), and from dictation. 
Arithmetic, (Robinson's Practical), to page 287, three terms. De- 
clamations and recitations. 

Clast '• A." — ^Reading and spelling, (Hillard's Sixth Reader); 
written and oral spelling from reading lessons, three terms. During- 
the last term, Goodrich's IT. S. History may be used as a reading 
took. Geography, (Mitchell's High School Geography), from page 
341 to the end. one term. History, (Goodrich's U. S. History), 
two terms, after Geography completed. Grammar, (Greene's 
Grammar), completed; two terms. English composition, (Quaok- 
«nboBb), one term, after grammar Arithmetic, (Robinson's Prac- 



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tical), from pago 237 to the end, three terms. Declamations and 
recitations. In place of Orammar and English composition, pupil» 
may be permitted to take either Latin or Ixerman. 

HIGH SCHOOL DBPABTMENT. 

First Tear — "D" Class. — Higher Arithmetic, tliree terms; 
Qrcene's Analysis, three terms ; Warren's Physical Geography, two 
terms ; Elementary Algebra, one term. 

Second Year-^'* C^' dots. — Elementary and Higher, Algebra, 
three terms ; Natural Philosophy, Peck's Oanot, two terms ; Hitch- 
cook's Physiology, two terms ; Quackenbos's Rhetoric, one ; any 
optional study, one term. 

Third Year — "5" Class. — Oeometry, two terms; Toumans 
Chemistry, two terms ; Wilson's General History, throe terms ; 
Gray^s Botany, one term; Shaw's English Literature, one term. 

Fourth Year — *'iL" CUum. — Alden's Mental Science, one term; 
English Literature, continued, one term ; Geology, one term ; Ha- 
yen's Moral Science, two terms ; Political Economy, or Trigonome- 
try, one term ; Bobinson's Common School Astronomy, two terms ; 
General Review of studies, previous to graduation, one term. Hil- 
lard's Sixth Reader. 

ClassioaIi Coubsb. — FirMt Year. — Harkness'* Latin Lessons, 
two terms ; Harkness' Latin Grammar, and Reader, one term. 

Second Year. — ^Harkness' Latin Reader, continued, one term ; 
Osdsar, and Dictation Prose exercises, two terms ; Hadley's Greek 
Grammar, one term ; Whiton's Lessons, last term ; Ancient Geo. 
graphy. 

Third Year — Johnston's Cicero, and Arnold's Latin Prose, 
Aree termai ; Greek Grammar, and Lessons, one term ; Boise's An- 
abasis, and Arnold's Greek Prose Composition, two terms. 

Fourth Year. — Frieze's Virgil, and Arnold's Latin Prose, three 
terms ; Greek Prose, three terms. 

German shall be an optional study, for scholars in << A" Gram, 
mar School and High BchooL The course of instruction therein 
«hall extend during three years, and shall be such as may hereafter 



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be directed by the Board. The tezt-books to be nsed, Bball hereaf- 
ter be !fized by the Board. 



SHEBOYQAIt 

A. MAB80HNBB, SX7PEBINTBNDBNT. 

The city forms ono school -district, containing one large union 
school and two ward schools. The union school has six depart- 
ments a-..d seven grades. The three primary, one intermediate and 
one grammar department represent each ono grade, while the high . 
school department embraces two grades. 

Seventh Grade, — The third primary department. Miss Ruthie 
Edwards, principal, is divided into A. and B. classes. 

B class, Stvdies — Alphabet and general exercises in geography 
arithmetic and object lessons. Text-book, Watson's National 
Primer. 

A class, Stvdies — Beading, spelling and general exercises in 
object lessons, arithmetic and geography, with declamations. Text- 
book, National Primer. 

The Second Primary DcPARTMBNT—.iStx^A Grade, — Miss Mary 
Jenkins, principal, is also divided into A. and B. classes. 

'*3," Class, Studies — Reading, spelling and general exercises 
in arithmetic, geography and object lessons. Text book : Watson's 
National Primer. 

"A* Class, Studies, — Reading, spelling and general exercises 
in arithmetic, geography and object lessons, with declamations. 
Text-book : Parker's National First Reader. 

The Third Primabt Departmbnt. — Fifth Grade, — Miss Kate 
Sullivan, principal, Miss Agnes Cassidy, assistant, is divided into 
A. B. and 0. classes, 

** C" Class, Studies, — Reading, spelling, mental arithmetic and 
general exercises in geography and object lessons. Text-books : 
National Second Reader and Davios's Primary Arithmetic. 

**B" Class, Studies and Text-books bs above. 



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150 

<< ^" Class, Studies and Text-books as above. 

Writing and drawing are taught to the three classes bj Mr. 
Dunker, teacher of that specialty. 

The Intermediatb Depaktmbnt — ith grade — 31iss Sarah 
Fairweather principal, is divided into ** A " and '*B ' classes. 

*' -B " Class — Studies : Spelling, reading, geography, rlietorical 
exercises, arithmetic — mental and practical. Text books: Na- 
tional primary speller, third reader, and Davies' intermediate and 
practical arithmetics. 

*' B " Class — Studies and text books as above. 

Both classes are taught writing and drawing by Mr. Dunker. 
German optional. 

The Grammar Department — Sd grade -^^It. 0. F. Weed,, 
principal, Miss Mary Cole, assistant, embraces ** A/* ''B," and 
''0" classe'p. . v.* 

'* C7" Class. — Studies: Spelling, reading, arithmetic (mental 
and practical) and geography. Text books: National Elemen- 
tary speller, National fourth reader, Davles's Intellectual and ele- 
ments of written arithmetic, and Mitchell's intermediate geography. 

«^" Class, — Stuiiies and text books as above. 

**J." Class. — Studies: Spelling, reading, grammar, mental 
and practical arithmetic, and geography. Text books : 

National Pronouncing Speller; National Fourth Reader; 
Kerl's First Lesson's in Grammar ; Davies's Intellectual and 
Practical Arithmetic, and Mitchell's Intermediate Geography ; wri- 
ting and drawing, all classes, by Mr. Dunker. Map-drawing, 
rhetorical exercises, composition and declamations are also taught. 
German optional. 

High School Department. — Mr. A. H. Gaylord, principal; 
Miss Ellen Weeks, assistant. 

Second Grade, B class. Studies. — Arithmetic (Praetioal com- 
pleted) ; Grammar to Prosody ;. United States History completed ;. 
reading and spelling. Text-books, Griffith's Elocution ; Sander'a 



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161 

Speller; Willard's History; Davies' Arithmetic; Kerl's Gram- 



mar. 



GERMAN DBPABTUBNT OF Uf^ION SCHOOL. 

Grade 1, Class A, — Beading, (Oehlschlaeger III) ; writing and 
grammar, (Meunsen.) 

Grade 2. Glass A. — Reading, writing and grammar. Text 
books as above. 

Grade 1, Class B, — Translation, (Ahn's method II), grammar 
and writing. 

Grade 2, Class B. — Beading, Oehlschlaeger II), and writing. 
Grade 1, Class C — Translation (Ahn's method I), and writing. 

Grades 1, 2 and 3, Clas& C — Beading (Oehschlaeger I), writ- 
ing and spelling. 

The above classes are formed of pupils from the five upper grades 



A Class, Studies, — Arithmetic, Practical, completed ; Grammar 
to Prosody ; Physiology ; reading ; spelling Text-books, Davies's \ 

Practical Arithmetic; Kerl's Grammar ; Loomis' Physiology ; Na- | 

tional Fifth Bcader ; Sander's Speller ; composition and' declama- » I 

tion ; German optional ; writing aud drawing in both classes. 

First Grade — D Class. Studies : Natural Philosophy, Algebra, 
Pbyscal Geography, U. S. government, ^nglish Analysis continued. | 

Textbooks; Peck's Ga not, Davis' University Arithmetic, War- 
ren's Physical Geography' Alden% Government, Paradise Lost. 

C Class, Studies — Geomtry, (begun and completed) ; Chemis- 
try ; Universal History. Text books: Davies' Lgendre; You man's 
Chemistry ; Willard's History. 

A arid B Classes. Studies : Trigonometry, (completed) and 
Geometry (reviewed) ; Astronomy ; Geology. Text books : Davies' s 
Lgendre ; Brooklesby's Astronomy. 

Latin. Three classes : Elementry, Grammar, Cieronis Ora- 
tion es. 
German Optional ; Bhetorical Exercises. 
Gymnastics for all departments — Mr. Dunkcr, teacher. 



I 
I 
I 
\ ! 



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X52 

of tbe Udioh School, and have an average attendance of 52 boys 
and 74 girls, total 126. The membership of the different grades of 

Union school is as follows : 
/ 

Grade 1 Boys 6 Girls 16 Total 22 

2 do 28 ....do 27 do 66 

8 do 48 ....do 48 ....do 96 

4 do 29 do 39 ....do 68 

6.. do: 60 do 48 ,.. do 98 

6 do 48 do 82 do 80 

7 do 31 do 84 do 64 

240 243 483 

WARD SOHOOLS. 

Third Ward School. — Miss H. Ashby, principal, Miss Ellen 
Martin, assistant. 

Fovrth Ward School— Hr. Wm. Wolk, principal, Miss Tilda 
Brown, assistant. 

The grades of these schools correspond with grades 7. 6, S, 4 
and 8 of the Union School, so as to fit their graduates for tbe High 
School Koom of the Union School. The average attendance of both 
schools 250. 

GBNERAL BBMARK8. 

In a city like Sheboygan, chiefly inhabited by citizens of foreign 
birth, officers and teachers^f public schools have to contend with 
disadvantages entirely unknown to districts .purely American. A 
great po'iiion of our adopted citizens, especially Germans, give 
preference to schools in which the dogmas of their respective 
churches and branches of public instruction are taught in their 
native tongue. The building of a church and the foundation of a 
parish school are unavoidable in most cases. Owing to this cause 
we find sectarian schools abound in most every county of this state, 
even where the foreign element is but small. This ought not to 
be so. Our public school system is the very corner stone of our 
liberty. The existence of private schools is only justifiable where 
the public schools do not supply the wants of a community. This 
public schools should do in all places of significance. The munifi- 
cence of the state and the liberality of our citizens enable public 
schools to sustain a superiority not within the reach of sectarian 



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158 

flobools. While religions instruction must be excluded from public 
schools, and exclusively left to churches and Sunday schools, their 
educational platform must be made so firm and spacious as to allow 
the entire people to stand upon it. 

Where public and business life require the knowledge of a certain 
language, that language must be taught thoroughly in public 
schools. In districts where maritime interests prevail, Geography, 
Arithmetic, and even the use of nautical instruments must be made 
a specialty. In rural districts flie rudiments of rational agricul- 
ture, chemistry, geology, &c., should be among the studies. All 
public schools, however, should excel by efficiency, thoroughness 
and rapidity in the teaching of reading, speaking, writing and 
arithmetic — the sine qua nona of common scbool education. Ohil* 
dren should not be allowed to spend years at the alphabet ; writing 
should supersede the printing of letters as soon as possible, and be 
taught judiciously, simultaneously with writing and reading, and 
books like the National Pronouncing SpeUer should be confined to 
the High School room. 

As it would fill volumes to enumerate all the attainments desira- 
ble for a public school, allow me to close by the assurance that 
teachers and scholars in our public schools are wide awake and try- 
ing bard to maintain and preserve the rank and reputalion among 
the public schools of the State, for years established and conceded 
by good judges. 



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CONTENTION 



CITY AND COUNTY SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENTS. 



The City and Gonntj Superintendents of the State of Wisoonsin 
met pursuant to the call of the State Superintendent, in Mil- 
)B7aukee, at Harmony Hall, Tuesday the 21st day of July, 1868, at 
nine o'clock, A. M. State Superintendent Cbaig was appointed 
chairman, and S. H.Cabpsntbb, secretary. 

The roll being called, the following superintandents answered to 
their names : 

8UU6 Superintendeni— Ron, A. J. Oratg. 

AsnUarU—J. B. Pradt, 

County SuperinUndenis-^, Q. Emery aud 3. H. Carpenter, of Dane ; L.Merrill, 
of Dodge ; R.tf. Wright, of Door ; Jas. Hannan, of Kenosha ; A. Boynton, of Mar< 
quette ; J. F. Devine, of Milwaukee ; JohnMegran,jr., of Portage ; G. W. Put. 
nam, of Richland ;R.B.Candall, ofSauk; T.J. Shear, of Vernon : W. S Green, 
of Waukesha; T S. Cbipman, of Waushara; S. Shaw, of Winnebago ; L. Bath, 
of Columbia. 

OUy Superiniendenis—O. R. Smith, Janesville; B. M. Reynolds, Madison ; F. 
C. Pomeroj, Milwaukee; Wm. Bieber, Watertown. 

A business committee, consisting of Embbt, Merrill, and Shaw 
was appointed to present topics of discussion. 
Said committee reported the following : 

1. Modification of the County Superintendency. 

2. Township Distriet System. 

8. Teachers' Institutes and AssociationB. 

4. Methods of Examination of Teachers. 

6. School Supervision. 

6. Terms of School. 

7. School Reports and Teachers' Certificates. 

Which topics were referred to sub-committees for report. 
The chair appointed the foUowing. committees, after which an 
ad|joarnment was taken till two o'dock : 



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, 155 

Modifieaiion of School SuperinUndency — Boynton, Shear and Carpentei. 
Town Dislriet System— Emery , Crandall, Green and Pradt. 
Ihaehera^ Institutes and Associations — Hannan, Wright and Do vine. 
Methods of Examination of Teachers— Vomevoy^ Patnam, Reynolds, Crandall 
and Carpenter. 
School Supervision— }&eTr\W^ Megran, Ghipman and Bath. 
Terms 0/ School Sh&w, Bieber and Goldthwaite. 
Monthly Reporia and Teachers' CteWi/fcote*— Ghipman, Emery and Pomeroy, 

AFTERNOON SBSSION. 

The coDYention was called to order at 2 o'clock in the afternoon, 
and the following additional suj^erintendents reported : W. H, 
LoOKwooD, of Eau Claire ; A. A. Spsnoer, of Orecn Lake ; 0. 
T. Bbight, of Walworth ; J. Buenham, of Waupaca ; P. H. 
Gannon, of Ozaukee ; C. M, Treat, of Rock ; D. B. Lton, of 
Fond du Lac ; M. Dresser, City of Kenosha. 

Mr. F. C. PoMBROT, Ifor the committe on methods of examination 
of teachers, made the following report : 

Your committee on methods of examination of teachers would respectfully 
report as follows: 

1. We would recommend such a modification of the schoollaw as to pro- 
Tide for holding regular monthly examinations at some central point in each 
district, such examination to be held on stated days to be designated by law, 
not less in any case than two davs, instead of holding examinations in each 
four townships as at present required. 

2. We would also recommend that the examination be written upon Arith- 
metic, Geography, Grammar and Orthography, to be followed by an oral ex- 
amination upon all the studies now required by law, together with an exami- 
nation on such other topics as will test the applicant's general knowledge. 

F. G. POMEROT, 
B. M. REYNOLDS, 
GEO. W. PUTMAN, 
&. H. GARPENTER, 
R. B. CRANDALL. 

CommiUBe. 

The above resolution was discussed by Superintendents Boynton, 
Emery, Carpenter, Spencer, Lockwood, Bath, Gannon^ Bright and 
ex-Buperintendents Graham and Goldthwait. 

The recommendations of the committee were not adopted. 

Mr. Hannan, from committee on Institutes and Associations, pre- 
sented the following report : 

Your committee on institutes and teachers' associations recommend: that 
in Tiew of the lack of trained teachers the institute should be made for the 
time to take the place of the Normal School, and those subjects presented 
which are to be taught in the schools ; that the superintendent should have a 
definite plan of the work to be accomplished; should call to his ail as much 
of the local tiJent of his county as possible; should conduct the eiercises 
promptly according to a programme, and should make the great object of the 



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166 

institute to be the formation for each teacher of a proper course of instruc- 
tion and the acquisition of practical methods of teaching, thus sending out a 
corps of teachers baring a definite idea of the work to be done and the man- 
nerof doing it 

Y our committee further recommend the organization of county and town 
teac hers' associations holding frequent meetings, as a great means of arous- 
ing and instructing teachers. 

JAMES HANNAN, 
R. M. WRIGHT, 
JTAS. F. DEVINE, 

C7ommttf0fc 
Report adopted. 

Mr. Boynton, for the oommittee on Bobool sapervision] mad6 a 
report wbioh was reoommitted witb instruotions to report whether 
any further supervision is needed and for what purpose. 

Mr. Emery, for committee on the town district system, presented 

the following report : 

Your committee to whom was referred the township district system of 
schools respectfully submit the followini; report : 
There ea^ists in our present school system, among others, the following 



1. Want of uniformity in the school and school-houses. 

2. Inequality of the burden of the support of the schools. 
8. Lack of immediate and uniform supervision. 

4. Evils of mixed, ungraded schools, impracticability of grading the 
schools, or establishing high school'. 

5. Loss of advantages of associations and co-operation of teachers, 

6. Loss of advantages of town school libraries. 

7. Lack of uniformity and proper adaptation of text book?. 

8. Evils of fixed school boundaries — quarrels, appeals, &c. 

9. Lack of accurate and uniform reporting. 
10. Supeifluity of school officers. 

11« The unnecessary multiplicity of separate schools. 
These defects can be remedied by tne adoption of the ** township district 
system," embracing essentially the following features : 

1. Each town a unit for schol purposes ; a provision may be made for spe- 
cial cases ' 

2. The existing school districts to remain as they are until changed by a 
town board. 

8. The school interests to be controlled by a town board to which shall be 
assigned a maximum and minimum limit. 

4. Each local district to be represented on the board until the maximum 
is reached after which smaller districts may be jointly represented. 

6 Taxation to the amount required by law to be on the town — ^but may 
be supplemented by limited local tax. 

6. Equalization to be provided for in regard to the erection of new school 
houses till all districts are equally provided. 

7. Towns containing parts of joint districts to pay their proportionate 
share of the expense of the school to the town containing the school-house. 

8. The board to organize with an executive oommittee, if needed, and the 
■ secretary of the board to act as local inspector of the schools with reasona- 
ble remuneration, reporting to the county superintendent and chairmain of 
town teachers' association . 



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' 167 

9. Provision to be made as far as practicable for graded schools, with a 
high school if needed. 

Your committee would suggest that the adoption of this system should be 
permissory rather than obligatory. 

Id conclusion, your committee would recommend the appointment of a 
committee of three from this convention, to act with a committee from the 
State Teachers* Association, the State Superintendent as chairman, who shall 
present this matter iji due form to the next Legislature, and urge its adop- 
tion. 

J. Q. EMERY, 
R. B. C RANDALL, 
W. S. GREEN, 
J. B. PRADT, 

Mr, Smith, of Janesville offered the following resolution : 

Betoked^ That we are in favor of the adoption of the township system, and 
that BO much of the report as relates to the appointment of a committee be 
adopted, and that the remainder of the report be referred to that committee. 

After some disoussion by Messrs. Smith, Pomeroj^acd Emery, 
the resolation wa? adopted. 

Mr. Shaw, for Oopmittee on Terms of School, made the following 

report : 

Your committee on Terms of School beg leave to report : 
That in the majority of country districts the present arrangements of terms 
and vacations is radically defective ; that the defect is the chief cause for so 
poor an attendance during a great part of the summer term. 

Your committee wonld therefore respectfully recommend that at least 
eight months of school be held each year in said districts; that this term be 
divided as follows : A fall term of^three months, to begin about the middle of 
September, bringing a short vacation through the holidays. A winter term 
of three months, commencing early in January, vacation through the muddy 
season. A summer term of two months through Uay and June, bringing the 
close of the school year previous to the 4th of July. 

Your committee would further report that whenever, from local causes, 
the best interests of any school district are not subserved bv the before men- 
tioned number of months, or division of terms, we would still insist upon 
havinz a school vacation through the months of July and August. 

SAMUEL SHAW, 
WM. BIEBER, 
N. E. GOLDTHWAIT, 

Committee* 

* After discussion by Messrs. Boynton, Ooldthwait and Bieber, 
the report was adopted. 

Mr. Boynton offered the following resolution : 

Reaolved^ That in the opinion of the Convention, a better distribution of 
laws, circular!*, papers, ^c, to school officers by the State Department can 
be effected by distributing through the County Superintendents instead oi 
Town Clerlu. 

The resolution was not adopted. 



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158 

On motion of Mr. Reynolds, the Chair was authorized to appoint 
a business committee of three to prepare matter for discussion and 
to assign the samo to different persons to prepare reports for the 
next Convention of the County Superintendents. 

After some oqnsultation regarding the Milwaukee School Month* 
ly^ in which all agreed that this educational monthly 'should be sup- 
ported throughout the State, the Convention adjourned until eight 
o'clock to-morrow morning at the Skating Eink. 

WBDNBSDAT. 

The Convention assembled at the **Rink" at 8 A. M. 
The following additional Superintendents reported : 
J. P. Hubbard, of Grant; and L. H. Hawes, of Racine. 

A general discussion was had upon the question of School Super- 
vision, which was participated in by Supts, Bath» Spencer, Boynton, 
Gannon, Putnam, Green, Sh^w, Carpenter, Emery and Pomeroy. 

On motion of Mr, Reynolds, of Madison, the Convention ad- 
journed until 1:45 P. M. 

BVBNINO SESSION. 

Discussion upon school supervision resumed, and participated in 
by Crandall, Pomeroy. Spencer, Devine, Emery, Craig, Green, 
Chipman, Boynton and Bright. 

Moved by Supt. Chipman that the convention adjourn till to 
morrow morning at 8 o'clock, and that the discussion be resumed at 
that time. Carried. 

THUBSDAT. 

The Convention met a 8 o'clock at the Rink. Mr Pradt offered 
the following resolutions, which were laid aside to await the report 
from the committee on modifications of the county superintendent 
system : 

Besolvedy That more immediate local supervision of the Fchools is necessary, 
than is practicable under the present system. 

Mesolved, That some form i)t town supervision is the best method of seciir- 
the needed local oversight of the schools. 

Mr. Chipman, from the committee on Teachers' Certificates and 
Monthly Report, made the following report : 



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169 

Your oommittee on Teachera* Certificates and School Reports beg leare to 
submit the following report : 

That sec. 42 of the school lav should be so amended as to require a copy of 
a teacher's certificate to be filed with the district clerk, instead of the cer- 
tificate, as the law now is. 

That in addition to the standing required in teacher's certificates as rec- 
ommended by the last meeting of County Superintendents, a minimum staid- 
ard of five in each branch should be required in limited third grade certifi- 
cates for six months. 

That the practice of County Superintendents, in some portions of the 
State, of indorsing or approving teacher's certificates from other countieii, 
witout an examination of the applicant, is illegal, and ought to be discon- 
tinued. 

THEO. S. CHIPMAN, 
F. 0. POMEROY, 
J. Q. EMERY, 

CimimUtee, 

Tbe report was adopted, and on motion of Mr. Bright, the chair 
was directed to appoint a committee to prepare a blank for monthly 
reports. 

Mr. Emery offered the following resolution, which was adopted : 

Resolved^ That, in the opinion of tliis convention, educational interests 
would be better subserved if schools were taught only five days in each week, 
and teachers were required to attend monthly or weekly town or district 
teacher's associations. 

Mr. Shaw offered the following resolutions : 

Retchedj 1. — ^That while we are highly grotified with the success of our 
system of county school superintendence, in raising and maintaining a prop- 
er standard of qualifications fur teachers, we yet feel the urgent necessity 
for more thorough supervision than the arduous duties of county superinten- 
dents will permit. 

Rnohedy 2. — That in our opinion no other plan than a well perfected town- 
ship system, will fully secure that efficient local supervision so desirable and 
essential to the school interests of our State. 

JUsoived, S.—Thatif a township system cannot be speedily secured, we 
would recommend as a substitute that a iaw be passed authorizing town clerks 
to act as local school supervisors. 

Adjourned to 7 o'clock P. M. 

BTENINO SBSSIOK, 

Mr. Boynton, from the committtee on Modification of County 
Superintendency, presented the following report : 

Your committee, to whom the above topic was referred, beg leave to re- 
port as follows : 

We believe the system to be complete ; that if the intent and spirit of the 
law were carried out by County Boards of Supervisors in dividing their 
counties into suitable superintendent districts, and if County Superintend- 
ents would well perform their duties, the system would be Entirely satisfac- 
tory to the people of this State. Yet, in view of the lack of suitable action 
by County Boards of Supervisors in the past, whereby the people have become 



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160 

justly dissatisfied with the inefficiency of the system in some parts of the 
State, we would respectfully recommend, to the favorable consideration of 
the honorable houses composing the Legislature of this State, the following 
resolution : f 

HeBolved, That in the opinion of this convention, that part of section 86 of 
the school code which reads as follows: " When a oounty contains more than 
- one senate district, each such senate district shall constitute a superintend* 
ent district, to be numbered as above provided, except senate districts lying 
wholly within incorporated cities, &c.,'* be asiended as follows: '^Whena 
county contains more than one assembly district, each such assembly district 
shall constitute a superintendent district, to be numbered as above provi* 
ded, except assembly districts lying wholly within incorporated cities, &c." 

A. BOYNTON, 
THOS. J. SHEAR, 

^Ir. Emery mored that the reBolntions heretofore presented by 
Mr. Shaw be adopted as a substitute for the report of the commit* 
tee just read. Motion adopted. 

On motion of "Mr. Crandall a rule was adopted that no person 
shall speak more than five minutes at one time, and not more than 
twice on the same subject. 

The Chair announced the following committees, which had been 

previously ordered : 

On ButineufoT next meeting — Reynolds, Spencer, Treat. 

On LegidaUon — Emery and Green. 

On i20por(s~Uannan, Shaw and Pomeroy. 

Mr. Emery offered the following resolution, which was adopted : 

Resolved^ That the effcient prompt and earnest manner in which our Super- 
intendent of Public Instrcution, A J Craig, has hitherto performed the du- 
ties of his office, merits our acknowledgments ; that he has our sympathy and 
confidene ; and that we hereby pledge him oar co-operation. 

On motion of Mr. Shaw the thanks of the Convention were given 
to Superintendent Pomeroy for his valuable labors in providing a 
place of meeting for the Convention and in furthering the objects of 
the meeting. 

On Motion of Mr. Boy ton, the foil owing resolution was adopted : 

Beaohedy That the thanks of this convention are due to the papers of this 
city for kindly reporting and publishing the proceedings of our several 
meetings. 

On motion the Conventiob adjourned. 

A. J. CRAIG, 

Chairmaiu 
8. H. Ca&pbhtbr, 

Secretary. 



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PROCEEDmGS 

OF THE SIXTEENTH ANNUAL SESSION 

OF THB 

WISCONSIN TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION. 



MiLWAUKBB, Jnlj 21, 1868. 

The assooiation convened at Milwaukee Skating Rink, at 8 o'clock, 
Tuesday eveniog* and after being called to order by the President, 
0. B. Smith, of Janesville, was cordially welcomed in behalf of the 
citizens, Board of Education and teachers of Milwaukee, by Mayor 
O'NiiL, Hon. C. L. Sholxs and Supt. F. 0. Pohbrot, respeetirely, 
to which a response was made on the part of the Association by the 
President, followed by a lecture from Hon. Anthony Van Wtok, of 
Kenosha, upon *< Education in Bepublics," which was highly ap- 
plauded. 

mobnino sbssion. 

Wbdnbbdat, July 22, 1868. 

The Association was called to order by the President, and the 
exercises opened by prayer, by Rev Sahttbl Fallows, of Mil- 
waukee, followed by the President's address, which, on motion of 
W. D. Parkbb, of Oeneya, was referred to a committee consisting 
of I. N. OuNDALL, D. Gbat Pubm AN and N. E. Ooldthwait, 
which committee were instructed to refnr the various topics pre* 
sented in the address to sub^cmimittees for report. 

The following committees were then appointed by the chair : 

On AfiMte.-^. T. LoTewell, S. H. Oarpenter, 0. T. Bright. 
On HuUb.—W. G. Whitford, 0. H« AllCD, Alexander Kerr. 
11 — Sup. Pub, Ins, 



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The following officers were then appointed : 

Asmtavt Secretaries — £. E. Woodman, Albert Earthman. 
Clerk.— Q. W. Heath. 
Treamrer.—W. A. De La Matyr. 

The reports of standing committees being declared in order, Mr. 
S. D. Gaylord, of the committee on '* Ventilation of School- 
Honses," reported that the committee had neither time nor fands 
necessary for an investigation, and requested that another com- 
mittee be appointed. 

The report was adopted and the committee discharged. 

Mr. I. N. CuNDALL, chairman of the committee to whom was re- 
ferred the President's Address, reported sub-committees as follows : 

Qualifieations of Teachers. — C. H. Allen, M. Montague, F. C. Pomeroy, 
County Superinietidency. — I. N. Cundall, T. Bright, E. E. Woodman. 
Township System.— W 0. Whitford. D. G. Purman, N. E. Goldthwait. 
Normal Schools.— k\ex. Kerr, G S. Albee, T. N. Haskell. 
Teachers^ Institutes. — A. J. Craig, R. Graham, J. T. Lovewell. 

The report was adopted. 

After a recess of ten minutes for completing the enrollment, a pa- 
per was read by T. C. Chamberlain, of Delavan, upon •* Mental 
Philosophy, as an aid in teaching." 

', Another intermission was had, followed by a paper from T. H. 
Little, of Janesville, upon the "Education of Idiots." 

Adjourned to 2 o'clock P. M. ' 

AFTERNOON SISSION. 

The Association was called to order by the President, who made 
the following appointments of committees : 

Nominai\ons.—7J . A. De La Maty, E. P. Brooks, T. C. Chamberlain, Miss 
G. E. Bruce, Mips A. Curtis. 
Resolutions — W. D. Parker, W. C. Whitford, E. B. Woodman. 
Finance.— G. W. Heath C. M. Treat, B. M. Reynolds. 
Honorary Members— i^. S. Albee, T H. Little, A. R. Cornwall. 

Mr. W. 0. Whitford made the following report on rules, which 
was adopted. 

Your committee would respectfully report the following rules for 
the government of the assooiation at the present sessioii : 

Rule 1. — No person shall speak more than five minutes at cue time, 
upon any motion or question, nor more than twice without the unanimous 
consent of the association. 

Bulb 2«— No person, not a member, shall be allowed to vote upon any 
question or motion, or to l|pMk) ^xmf^t by inTitation of the association. 




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BvLX 8. — ^In the discusBion of all queetions of order, GuRhing's maDual is 
adopted as the standard. 

W. C. WHITFORD, 
0. H. ALLEN, 
ALEX. KERR, 

OommiUee, 

On motion of Mr. B. M. Beji^olds, the following substitnte for 

artiole 1st of the constitation was adopted : 

The constitution may be amended at any regular meeting of the associa- 
tion, provided the proposed amendment shall have been submitted in writing 
a( least one regular meeting previous to its adoption. 

Mr. S. D. Gaylord offered the following resolution as an amend- 
ment to the oonstitation, which will lie over to the next regular 
meeting : 

Beadved^ That article 2d of the constitution be so amended as to read 
'* school officers and teachers of this State may become members of this asso- 
ciation by the payment of one dollar.'' 

A paper upon the '* History of School Supervision in the State," 
was then presented by W. C. Wbitford, President of Milton 
College. 

After a short recess, the exercises were opened by music from the 
Glee Club. 

The *' Township System of Schools " was next discussed by J. B. 
Pradt, Assistant State Superintendent, followed by remarks from 
Supt. Craig, which were endorsed by Supt. Pomeroy. 

Mr. J. B. Pradt then offered the following resolution, which was 

adopted : 

Jtesoived, That a committee of fire be appointed by the chair to report at 
the next session of the association, upon school-house architecture, including 
the subjects of heating, ventilatiou, lighting and seating, and with more 
especial reference to the wants of country schools; the report to be aocom- 
pAoied with suitable plans and specifications, at an expense not to exceed 
fifty dollars. 

Mr. Montague, from the committee on qualifications of teachers 
presented the following report, which was adopted : 

Tour committee to whom was referred so much of the president's 

address as relates to the qualifications of teachers, beg leave, re- 

spectfolly, to report as follows : 

In common with our president, and all other thoH^htful educators, we have 
felt the necessity of higher and broader qualifications on the part of the 
teachers of our schools. We look anxiously for the time when a knowledge 
of Uie "laws of health,'' the "science of government," and the general laws 
of mental development shall be required even for the lowest grade of oertif- 
catea. 



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Therefore we recommend the adoption of the following resolution : 
Jie$olvedf That, as the sense of the association, applicants for any grade af 
certificate should be examined in physiologji and the constitutions of the 
United States and the State of Wisconsin. 

C. H. ALLEN, 
M. MONTAGUE, 
F. 0. POMEROY, 
CommUtee. 

The assooiation then adjourned to 8 o'clock in the eyening. 

BYBNINa 8XSSI0N. 

The assooiation was called to order by the president, and then 
listened to music by the male chorus of the Milwaukee Musical So- 
ciety, after which Bev. G-. F. MagouD, D. D., President of Iowa 
College, was presented, and delivered an able lecture upon the 
"Education of Woman." 

After listening to another chorus from the Musical Society, the 
association adjourned to 9 o'clock the next morning. 

MOBNING SXESION. 

Thubsdat, July 28, 1868. 

The Association was called to order by the President, and the 
exercises opened with prayer by Rey. J. B. Pradt, after which a 
paper upon ** Educational FaUaoies" was read by W. I). Parker, of 
Geneva. 

The chair then appointed the following committees : 

School Arehiteetttre.^J, B. Pradt, C. H. Allen, S. D. GaylordjiW. D. Parker, 
I. N. Stewart. 

ZegidatiotL^Alei, Kerr, S. H. Carpenter, W. C. Whitford, T. H. Little, W. 
A. De La Matjr. 

Mrs. M. A. McOonegal, Principal ot the lavenport Training 
chool, then conducted an exercise in Primary Moral Instruction. 

A recess was taken, followed by an address from Rev. I. N. Cun- 
dall, Superintendent of the Orphans' Home, at Madison, upon the 
«« Educational Lessons of the War." 

Mr. Alex. Kerr, of the Committee on Normal Schools, presented 
the following report which was adopted : 

The committee to whom was referred so much of the president's address as 
relates to normal schools, report that they approve the same and recommend 
the following resolutions : 

lUaolved, Ist, That we regard with the highest satisfaction the progress 
made in the development of the normal Bchool system in Wisconsin, 



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2d, That we commend the efficiency of the normal schools already estab- 
lished at Platteville and Whitewater, and that we take great pleasure in the 
interest which they have awakened among the people, and that we wish them 
for the future a hearty God-speed. 

Sd, That the public schools of the commonwealth, to accomplish the ends 
required of them, and to meet the wants of an advancing civilization, imper- 
atively demand teachers qualified and trained for their work. 

4th, That it should be the aim of the normal school, without essentially 
shortening the curriculum of academic studies, to send forth teachers who 
shall be thoroughly acquainted with the science and art of their profession, 
and who shall, by their practical skill, bring into general use the most import- 
ant methods of instruction. 

ALEX. KERR, 
6. S. AL6EE, 
T. N. HASKELL, 

GcmmUbee. 

Mr. W. C. Whicford, of the Committee oq Township System 
offered the following report which was adopted : 

Tour committee to whom was referred so much of the president's address 
as relates to the Township system of School Government would respectfully 
submit the following report : ^ 

That it is evident to them that a large minority of the teachers and other 
educational men in the state, are already convinced that the township system 
of schools furnishes superior advantages above the district system now in 
operation among us; and that, therefore, no argument need be presented by 
the committee setting forth the merits of that system. But they are of the 
opinion, from such observation as they have been able to make, that the mass 
of the people throughout the state cannot be induced at present to adopt the 
system as a whole, while they might be willing to accept certain features of 
it, which would probably lead, in the end, to the introduction of such others 
as could be made to harmonize with those general opinions and usages which 
our existing school laws have inculcated and established. 

They would recommend that the Legislative Committee of the association 
be authorized to take into consideration, in connection with the state super- 
intendent and the committee appointed by the county superintendents for the 
same purpose, the preparation of a bill, embracing such provisions of the 
township s^ stem as in their opinion will receive the support of the member 
of our legislature, present it to that body at their next session, and memo _ 
rial 2e them on the subject. 

W. C. WHITFORD, 
D GRAY PURMAN, 
N. E. GOLDTHWAIT, 

Adjourned till 2 1-2 p. m. 

AFTBBNOON 81SSI0N. 

Tbo President called the Association to order and introduce d 
Mrs. Mary Howe Smith, of Oswego, N. T., who read a paper upon 
*' G-eographical Teaching." 

Mr. 6. S. Albee, Chairman of Committee on Honorary Members, 

made the following report, which was adopted : 

Your committee would respectfully offer, as Honorary members of this 
Association, the names of the following distinguished Educators and friends 

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of Educational progress, who have rendered their own names illostrioiis, 
while dignifying our profession : 

Hon. Anthony Van Wyck, of Kenosha ; 

Hon. Newton Bateman, State Supt., III.; 

Mayor E. Neil, Milwaukee; 

Hon. G. L. Sholes, Milwaukee ; 

Rev. Samuel Fallows, Milwaukee; 

Rev. G. F. Magoun, D. D., Pres. Iowa College ; 

Supt. W. A. Bemis, Davenport, Iowa; 

Mrs. M. A. McOonegal, Davenport, Iowa; 

Mrs. Mary Howe Smith, Oswego, N. Y. 

0. S. ALBEE, 
T. H LITTLE, 

A. R. CORNWALL, 

CommiUM. 

The foUowiDg report was tben received and adopted : 

The Committee on School Supervision report as follows : 

JUaoltfed, That the results of the system of county superlntendency daring 
the past seven years in raising and maintainiug a higher standard of qualifi- 
cations on the part of teachers, warrant a continuance of the office. 

Jteaolvedf That the too extended fields of labor given to County superin- 
tendents prevent that thorough supervision which is so essential to the pro- 
gress of our school. « 

Jiesolved, That we recommend such a supplementing of the present system 
as rthall make school visitation more frequent, general superv sion more 
thorough, institute work more extensive and practical, and secure a more 
uniform distribution of good school buildings and appliances ; and, in the 
opinion of your committee, these results can best be accomplished by the 
adoption of a township system of schools. 

Jiesolvedy That County' Superintendents should be practical teachers ; that 
they should be subject to examination by the State Board of Examiners ; 
that their entire time and energies should be devoted to school work ; that 
onlv such an amount of work as can be accomplished should be assigned to 
erch ; and that they should be paid accordingly. 

Respectfully submitted, 

1. N. CUNDALL, 
0. T. BRIGBT, 

E. E. WOODMAN, 

Committm, 

Mr. W. A. De La Matjr, Chairman of the Committee on Nomina- 
tions, made the following report : 

Your committee would respectfully recommend the following named per- 
sons as officers of this Association for the ensuing year: 

iVsnoKmi— Alexander Kerr, Beloit 

VtoB-PrmdenU^O, E. Spinney, Miss R. W. Mason, Miss Frances Taylor. 
Secretary—B. H. Carpenter, Madison. 
TVtfosiirtfr— Samuel Shaw, Omro. 

H^Btcuiive CommiUee^W. D. Parker, Geneva ; D. G. Purman, Flatteville ; 
0. R. Smith, Janesville; E. E. Woodman, Monroe; G. W. Heath, Racine. 

W. A. De La MATYR, 
E. P. BROOKS, 
I T. C. CHAMBERLAIN, 

' OommUUB. 



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After some discussion, the report was accepted and C. H. Allen 
instructed to oast the ballot of the Association, which resolted in 
the election of the officers as recommended by the committee. 

Hon. J. L. Pickard, City Superintendent, Chicago, 111 , was pre- 
sented to the Association, and, after extending a happy greeting 
to the teachers of Wisconsin, made some timely and appropriate 
remarks. 

Rey. Dr. Magoun, President of the Iowa College, was next intro- 
duced and made some interesting remarks in relation to Iowa 
schools, paying a high tribute to Wisconsin teachers. 

Prof. T. N. Haskell offered the following resolution whiuh was 
adopted : 

Retohed, That we congratulate the State on the eitablishment of afttate 
University with male and female colleges, seeking the highest culture of its 
attendants, that they may be fitted for any learned calling in the common- 
wealth. 

Adjourned to 7 1-2 o'clock in the evening. 

BVBNIKO SESSION. 

The Association was called to order by the President. 
George W. Heath, chairman of the committee on finance, pre- 
sented the following report, which was accepted and adopted : 

The committee on finance would make the following report : 

Amount of cash on hand from last year $74 83 

Amount received from membership fees this year 114 00 

1188 83 

The committee have audited bills to the amount of 93 21 

Leaving a balance on hand, with some bills yet to be paid, of |95 12 

GEO. W. HEATff, 
C. M. TREAT, 
B. M. REYNOLDS, 

A. J. Cheney, chairman of the committee on enrollment, made a 
report, showing that over 600 teachers were present during the 
session. This report was accepted and adopted. 

A. J. Crai^, chairman of the committee to whom was referred 
that portion of the president's address relating to teachers' insti- 
tutes, read the following report, which was accepted and adopted : 

The committee to whom was referred that portion of the Presidents ad- 
dress which relates to Teachers' Institutes, respectfully report, that 



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Whxrsas, The normal schools cannot afford immediate aid to any consid- 
erable number of actual teachers ; and 

Whxreas, We recognize the Teachers* Institute as a valuable and efficient 
instrument in preparing teachers for their work ; therefore 

Jiesolvedy That the statute requiring each county superintendent to hold an 
annual institue should be rigidly enforced. 

JUaolved^ That the Board of Regents of Normal Schools are earnestly re- 
quested to expend annually the whole sum at their disposal for holding insti- 
tutes, in furnishing agents to conduct the same, and in meeting the expenses 
incurred by the county superintendents in connection therewith. 

A. J. CRAIG, 
R. GRAHAM, 
J. T. LOVE WELL, 

OommUtee. 

T. H. Little, ohairman of the committee to whom was referred 
that part of the president's address in relation to the education of 
feeble-minded children, made the following report, which was accept- 
ed and adopted : 

The committee to whom was referred that portion of the address which 
relates to the education of feeble-minded children, respectfully report thai 
they find the opinions on that subject expressed in the address to be in ac- 
cordance with sound principles of educational policy, and with the senti- 
ments of true Christian philanthropy, and as such, to be worthy of the en- 
dorsement of the association. 

They submit for the action of the association the following resolutions : 

JUsolvedy That we re-affirm our belief in the pressing necessity of a school 
for the education of the 'feeble-minded and idiotic children of Wisconsin, 
and of tbe duty of the Legislature to provide one at the earliest possible 
moment. 

Jiesolved, That we have observed with much gratification the recommenda- 
tion of Gov. Fairchild, upon the subject, and we highly commend the late 
Legislature for its good intention, while we deeply lament the blunder which 
rendered that intention ineffectual. 

Hesolved^ That we gratefully acknowledge the services of the press in this 
good cause, and trust that they will continue to be rendered so long as the 
necessity exists. 

T. H. LITTLE, 
E. P. BROOKS, 
T. G. CHAMBERLAIN, 
Committee. 

The following resolution was unanimously adopted : 

Reiolvedf That all the courses of instruction in the University and other 
higher educational institutions should, and of right ought to be, open in all 
respects equally to males and females. 

Upon motion of W. D. Parker the chair appointed committees to 
attend the National Teachers' Association, at Nashville, Tenn., and 
the State Associations, of Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska and Illinois; as 
follows : 

ITcUional Agsoeiation—C, H. Allen, A. J. Craig, Alex. Kerr. 
Jou>aA8tociationr-W, C. Whitford, W. D. Parker, W. Cutler. 
Kanscu Associatioti^F, C. Pomeroy, G. S. Albee, W. A. DeLaMatyr. 



dbvGooQle 



Nfbnaka Aaodaiitmr^lif. E. Goldthwait, A. J. Cheney, J. E. Pardy. 
lUinoia Associaiion-^, C. Pickard, B. M. Reynolds, J. T. Loyewell. 

The business session being oyer, the exercises of the evening were 
opened with music from the male chorus of the Fhilharmomo sooiet j, 
which was enthusiastically encored. 

Gov. Fairchild was then introduced, and in a neat and happy 
speech paid a high tribute to the teachers of Wisconsin and the as- 
sociation for their energy, expressing his own deep sympathy with 
theia in their noble work. 

Hon. Newton Bateman, of Illinois, followed with an elaborate 
and exhaustive history of '^Industrial Education in this country." 

The lecture was followed by a guitar solo by Hernandez. 

Mr. E. E. Woodman, of the committee on resolutions, presented 
the following, which were adopted : 

Retolved^ That the entertainment which the citizens of Milwaukee have ex- 
tended to the Association has caused thegreat and general enjoyment, and 
now excites the lively gratitude which the number and generosity of the at- 
teniions bestowed upon it might be expected to occasion ; that we termin- 
ate with regret an intercourse so delightful, and take with us a kindly and 
enduring remembrance of a hospitality as munificent as it has been spon- 
taneous and unaffected. 

Hesoived, That the municipal officers, the Board of Education, the City Su- 
perintendent and teachers have contributed to the success of our present 
convention by laborious a jd continued efforts in many directions, and that 
we acknowledge our obligations to them with great fullness, proportionate to 
the extent of their labor in providing the various accommodations for the 
Association. 

Resobfedy That wc thank the Milwaukee Mastcal Society and the Philhar- 
monic Society for their choice musical entertainments, which have been a 
source, not only of exquisite pleasure, but valuable instruction, as exempli- 
fying in a signal manner the possibilities of vocal culture. 

JUfoioed^ That we tender our grateful acknowledgments to the Hon. 
Anthony Van Wyclt, of Kenosha; Rev. G. F. Magoan, D. D., President of Iowa 
College Hon. Newton Bateman, State Superintendent of Illinois ; His Ex- 
cellency Gov. L. Fairchild ; Mrs. Mary Howe Smith, of the Oswego Normal 
School of New York, and Mrs. M. A. McGoncgal, of the Davenport Training 
School, Iowa, for the honor which their presence has lent to our assembly, 
and the pleasure and instruction derived from their addresses. 

Jie»olvedj That in the presence of the visiting delegates from Iowa, we re- 
cognize a warm fraternal feeling existing between the Iowa and Wisconsin 
associations, and that we reciprocate the favor of the presence of Superin- 
tendent, W. A. Bemis, of Davenport, in the appointment of a similar com- 
mittee-from this association. 

JRuohedj That we are under obligations to the Western Union, Milwaukee 
and St. Paul, and the Chicago and Northwestern railway companies, and to 
the Goodrich Line ot Steamers and the Wolf River Navigation Company, for 
such reduction in the rate of fare and attention to the comfort of the mem- 
bers as have been the means of swelling our numbers and of evincing in those 
corporations a large public interest and an active sympathy with the cause in 
which we labor. 



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Bssolved^ That our thanka are due to W. H. Sherman, Esq., for the use of a 
Bradbary gprand piano. 

Huohed, That the press is a powerful educator and the strongest ally of 
the teacher : that the newspaper press of the state is doing a valuable work 
in connection with our edcucational interests; and that the thanks of the 
association are due to the presses of Milwaukee tor the manner in which they 
have promoted the success of the 16th session of the association, and are es- 
pecially due to the Milwaukee Sentinel and the Milwaukee Neios for the full 
and accurate reports of our proceedings which they have published. 

JUaobfed, That the thanks of the Association are due to its officers for the 
prompt and efficient manner in which they have conducted the proceedings 
of the session. 

BMolved^ That the secretary of the Association bo instructed to furnish the 
State Superintendent with a copy of the proceedings of this session of the 
association for publication and distribution throughout the state. 

W. D. PARKER, 
W. 0. WUITFORD, 
E. B. WOODMAN. 

CommiUee. 

After another piece of mnsic from the Philharmonic Society, the 
President declared the sixteenth annnal session of the Wisconsin 
Teachers' Association ended. 

0. R. SMITH, Prendent. 
C. W. CuTLBB, Secretary. 



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EXEOUTIYE SESSIOIS" 



WISCONSIN TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION. 



The Wisconsin Teachers' A ssooiation met in executive session at 
at the rooms of the Young Men's Association, Janesville, at 7 ^^2 
o'clock P. M., Deo. 28, 1868. 

The Asssociation was called to order by President Alex. Kerr, of 
Beloit, who briefly stated the object of the meeting. 

On motion of Mr. Reynolds, of Madison, 0. R. Smith, of Janes- 
ville, was elected secretary pro tern. 

The President announced the following committees. 

C<mniy Superintendency. — Or. R. Smith, Janesville ; W C. Whiiford, Mil- 
ton, W. D. Parker, Geneva. 

Education of Feeble-minded ChUdrm—W, C Whitford, Milton ; T. H. Little, 
Janesville ; R. Graham, Kenosha. 

Nwmal SeJiooU. — Oliver Arey, Whitewater; J. T. Lovewell, Whitewater; 
E. G. Stone, Delavan. 

Teachers^ IrtstUuies.—W. D. Parker, Genevaj B. M. Reynolds, Madison ; 
P. 0. Pomeroy, Milwaukee. 

Tovms/dp Organization of SehooiB.—l, N. Gundall, Madison ; S. D. Gay lord, 
Milwaukee ; A. J. Cheney, Delavan. 

The committees not being ready to report, a discussion upou the 
education of feeble-minded children ensued, participated in by 
President Whitford, of Milton College, Superintendent Little, and 
W. D. Parker of Geneva, and others, 

Mr. Parker presented a communication from Walworth Oounty 
Teachers' Institute, which, on motion, was received and placed on 
file. 

Adjourned until 9 o'clock Tuesday morning. 



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HOBNINO SBS8I0N. 

ABBOoiation called to order by President Kerr. 
W. D. Parker, ohairman of Committee on Teachers' Institutes, 
made the following report : 

The committee to whom was referred the sabject of institutes, have had the 
same under consideration, and beg leave to report the following resolutions 
embodying their sentiments: 

Whereas, The system of teachers' institutes as now held, has proved a 
yaluable auxiliary to the teacher's profession; and, 

Whereas, The law recognizing institutes is, in some cases, not executed ; 
therefore, be it 

JUiolvedy Ist That it is thp sense of the Wisconsin Teachers* Association 
that the institute should be made a permanent organization in every super- 
intendent district, holding at least one annual session of at least one week's 
duration. 

JReaolvedf 2d. That the observance of the law establishing an annual county 
institute, should be enforced by a proper penalty. 

Ruolvedy 3d. That the Board of Normal School Regents be, and hereby are, 
respectfully requested to organize a series of institutes, under an agent in 
connection with the state superintendent and competent instructors, to be 
held throughout the stote. W. D. PARKER, 

B. M. REYNOLDS, 
F. 0. POMEROY, 

Commute, 

On motion of Mr. Cheney, the report was accepted and the com- 
mittee discharged. 

After an animated discussion by Messrs. Whitford, Parker, 
Lovewell, Reynolds, Gaylord, Cundall and Smith, the report was 
adopted. 

President Whitford, chairman of the Oommictee on the Educa- 
tion of Feeble-minded Children, made the following report : 

Your committee, to whom was referred the subject of the education of the 
feeble-minded children of tho state, would report the following resolutions 
for your consideration : 

Raolvedj That it is gratifying to perceive the progress made in public 
opinion during the past year, in favor of the establishment of an institution 
by the state for the instruction of this class of unfortunate children. 

Eetolved, That we re-affirm our conviction that our state, in order to be 
true to herself and just to all classes of her citizens, while supporting her 
excellent system of free schools, and her benevolent institutions for the 
education of the blind, the deaf and dumb, the children of soldiers who 
perished during the war, and for the reform of the vicious youth, should, as 
soon as practicable, recognize the needs of her feeble-minded children, and 
found and conduct by ample means a school for their devolopment and 
training. 

Jiesolvedf That in our opinion the legislature of our state should take steps 
at their session this winter, toward the opening of a school for these cbil- 
hren as soon as the proper arrangements can be effected. 

BespectfuHy submitted, W. C. tV^HTTFORD, 

T. H. LITTLE, 
R. GRAH4M, 

OommiUee, 



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On motion of Mr. Reynolds the report was accepted and adopted. 
Professor Arey, chairman of the Committee on Normal Schools, 
made the following report, which was adopted : 

The committee to whom was referred the subject of normal schools beg 
leave to report the following resolutions: 

Reaolvedy Ist. That the normal school does its best work when it produces 
the best men and women, and to this end iutellectua], moral and physical 
culture should run parallel with methods of instruction through the coarse. 

2d. In admitting students to normal instruction regard should be had 
rather to '* a fitness for the work of teaching,'' than to age and scholarship; 
and that the earlier such students are put under such instruction the better 
the teachers produced. 

8d. That the course of study should be such that graduates shall be compe- 
tent to instruct in graded schools ; and their diplomas should be a suflSdent 
warrant of their fitness for teaching. 

4th. That instruction should be mainly individual, and that classes should 
not exceed twenty in number. 

OUVER AREY, 
J. T. LOVEWELL, 
EDWARD 0. STONE. 

Jiir. Smith introduced the following resolution and moved its 
adoption : 

Reidved, That we recognize in Superintendent R. A. Qraham, who has 
been conducting the instituted during the past autumn, an efiScieut educator, 
and that we confidently hope he may be continued in the work. 

After remarks from Messrs. Whitford, Parker, Cheney an 
others, strongly endorsing it, the resolution was unanimously 
adopted. 

Adjourned to 2 o'clock P. M. 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

2 p. M. 
0. B. Smith, chairman of committee on County Superintendency, 
made the following report : 

Your committee to whom was referred the subject of the County Superin- 
tendency have had the same under consideration, and beg leave to submit 
the following report: 

This system of school supervision has been in operation in several states 
for the past twenty-five years with uniformly successful resnlts. The demand 
for it in our own state proceeded from the feeling of a want to be supplied in 
the direction of more efficient work in the examination and licensing of 
teachers, in the holding of institutes, in the dissemination of educational in- 
formation among the people, in the improvement of school buildings and the 
arousing of a general interest in all that pertains to good schools. Encoun- 
tering at the outset an opposition from many educators, which, in many 
cases, has been persistent, and meeting the dislike of the people to the 
adoption of new modes of conducting business, it has, nevertheless, accom- 
plished in the space of seven years far more than the fondest anticipations of 
its'fiiends. 



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174 

We ftre now able to jadge somewhat of the merits and defects of the sys- 
tem as applied to onr State, and we wonld snbmit the following facts as ex- 
hibiting the comparative merits of the two syatems of county and town su- 
pervision. 

It u eeonamieaL — Townfi sometimes had as many as six superintendents in 
a year under the old system, and as many as $100 were paid these officers iu 
A town in a single year. This frequent change of officers and excessive prices 
paid are extravagant beyond parallel. 

Daring the last six years of the town superintendency, there was an average 
of 102 days of school taught per year in each district in the state ; dnriufr 
the first six years of the county superintendency there was an average of 
127.6 days of school taught per year in each district in the state, or a gain 
of 25.6 days schooling in each district. This result follows from an in- 
creased interest in educational circles, accomplished mainly by county super- 
intendents. 

Applied to 1867, the increase is equivalent to again of 6.142,592 days 
schooling for one child, or sufficient to educate 2,802 children from alphabet 
through high school grades, or sixteen years* schooling, or the education of 
the children of a city the size of Janesville during their entire school life. 

The last six years of the town superintendency there was an average at- 
tendance of pupils on the school sessions of 62 percent.; under the first six 
years of the county superintendency there was an average attendance of 67 
per cent., showing a gain of five per cent, under the present system This 
item applied to 1867 is adequate to educate 1,200 children from alphabet 
through high school, or sixteen years' schooling. Thus, in 1867 the a^fdi- 
tional interest awakened mainly by county superintendents, secured a result 
greater than the town superintendency ever accomplished, by an equivalent 
of educating 4,200 children from alphabet through high school, or the entire 
education of the children of a community of 1,800 people for sixteen years. 
The average cost of the town superintendent's office may be set down at |85 
per town, and a total of $27,825 for the state The average cost per county 
for the county superintendency for 1867 was $564 78, and a total for the state 
of $31,620, which added to a total incidental expense of $7,126 is $38,745. 
The town superintendf ncy would have made available but 62 per cent of the 
gross cost of the schools ; the county superintendency made 67 per cent, of 
the gross cost available, or the latter system saved five per cent, more of 
$1,521,412, or $76,070.60 'in one year than the town superintendency, or 
twice the total cost of the county superintendency for one year, and more 
than sufficient to pay excess of cost of the present system over the old sys- 
tem for 6^ years, besides the innumerable benefits accruing from the greater 
regularity in attendance and increased length of terms. * 

The following balance sheet shows the finaiicial statements at a glance : 

County Superiniendeney to State, Dr. 
1867. To total cost of Schools, cash $1,521,412 

Or. 

By 67 per cent, of cost made available $1 , 019, 846 04 

By loss in irregular attendance 602,065 96 

Town Supennimdmey to State, Dr. 
To total cost Schools, cash $1,621,412 

Or. 

By 62 per cent of cost made available $948 ,276 44 

By loss in irregular attendance 578 , 186 66 

Loss by Town Superintendents $578, 186 56 

liOss by Oounty Superintendents 502,065 96 

$76,070 00 



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176 

This showing is largely in favor of the county superviBion, and the econo- 
my of this systenii a? regards efficiency, having already been shown, it is clear 
that in no sense can we return to the town system of snperintendency econ- 
omically. 

One of the objections urged against the County Superintendency is that we 
are unable to get competent men in the position. The average salary paid last 
year, the most extensive year under the system, was $564. When we consid- 
er the amount and nature of the work the County Superintendent is called 
upon to perform, can it be a matter ofwondertlat our best educators cannot 
be induced to accept the position and give all their time and energies to the 
discharge of its duties, for such a pittance ? 

It seems to your committee that the law needs an amendment here, giving 
a per diem of at least $5, and an allowance of at least $150 per annum for 
traveling expenses. We would^recommend accordingly. Our County Super- 
intendents find it impossible to properly examine and visit schools, the 
number under their charge generally being too great. We believe this visit- 
ation and supervision of prime importance to our schools, and that it can be 
best gained by the adoption of the township system. 

We believe that the County Superintendency has accomplished, and is ac- 
complishing, notwithstanding the embarrassments under which it has labored, 
untold good for our schools, and that it would be disastrous to the educational 
interests of the State to go back to the Town Superintendency. We would, 
therefore, summon all educators in the State, and all who are intesrested in 
the best good of our schools to stand by the system, and do all that is possible 
to render it more efficient ; and we beg leave to report, as the sense of this 
association, the following resolutions: 

JReaolvedj That we hereby re-affirm our oft-expressed conviction of the ad- 
vantage and efficiency of the system of County Superintendency of schqols, 
and earnestly request our present legislature to supplement it by a township 
organization of schools. 

Jietolvedj That to our County Superintendents we tender our sympathy in 
their work and our abiding determination to give them our confidence and 
support. 

0. R. SMITff, 

W. C. WHITFORD, 

W. D. PARKER. 

Upon motion of Mr. Reynolds, the report was adopted. 

Superintendent Cundall, chairman of committee on Township Sys- 
tem, reported verbally that as the ground had been covered by the 
report on County Superintendency, the committee had no further re- 
port to make. 

On motion, committee discharged. 

Mr. Parker moved the adoption of the following resolution : 

Jiesokedj That a committee of Ibree be appointed byjthe President, whose 
duty it shall be to prepare matter upon educational topics for publication, 
and that the School Monthly is^hereby invited to publish the same without 
expense to the Association. 

Hr. Smith moved to amend by adding, ** and that the committee 
get the reports published in as many papers of the State as possible." 
Amendment prevailed, and resolution as amended adopted. 



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176 

The President appointed the foUowing committee : 0, li. Smith, 
W. D. Parker, T. H. Little. 

Mr. Smith moved the adoption of the following resolution : 

Buohiedy That tbe legifllatiye committee of tbe Association is hereby in- 
structed to present tbe reports of the several committeeti to the legislature at 
the coming session and to urge the embodiment of the views therein expressed 
in legislation. 

Resolution unanimously adopted. 

Superintendent Little, of the Institution for the Blind, extended 
an invitation to spend the evening at the Institution. On motion 
the invitation was aooeptedand the oonvention adjourned $inedie^ 

ALEX KERB, Pres't. 
S. H. Cabpentee, Seo*y. 



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EEPOET 



PRESIDENT OF THE BOARD 



REGENTS OF NORMAL SCHOOLS. 



Hon. a. J. Craig, 

Superintendent of Public Imtructton : 

Sib : In acoordanoe with the requirements of law, I have the 
honor to submit the following report of the doings of the Board of 
Regents, and the condition of the Normal Schools, for the year end- 
ing August 31st, 1868. There were four meetings of the board 
during the year, as follows : At Whitewater September 24th, 1867; 
at Madison, November 12th, 1867, and January 27th, 1868, and at 
Platteville, June 27th, 1868. 

Without attempting to give in detail the specific action had at 
each meeting, the work accomplished and results secured will be 
briefly presented. But before proceeding further, it is fitting and 
proper that I should allude to the severe loss sustained by the 
board in the early part of the year by the death of its honored pres- 
ident, Hon. C. C. Sholes. He died at his residence in Kenosha, on 
the 5th day of October, • 1867. Tlie President of the Board from 
its organization, his courtesy, wisdom, prudence and zealous devo- 
tion to the cause of education, made him one of its most efficient 
members, and won for him the affectionate respect of > all his asso- 
ciates. At the meeting held at Madison, November 12th, 1867 
12— Sup. Pub. Ins. 



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178 

Begent MoMynn annonnoed bis decease, wherenpon a oommittee 
consisting of Regents MoMynn, Lines and Whitford was appointed 
to draft resolutions expressive of the feelings of the members of the 
board, in view of the sad eyent. The following resolutions were 
reported and adopted : 

Resolved, That by the death of the Hon. C. 0. SholeB, the president of the 
board since its organization in 1868, the state has lost one of its most hon- 
ored citizens, and the cause of education a sagacious and deyoted friend. 

Besolved^ That by his patriotic deyotion to the welfare of his country, he 
has associated his name with the development of the material and educa- 
tional interests of the Northwest, and left his impress upon every enter- 
prise calculated to promote the prosperity of our own stale. 

Resolved, That to his forecast, energy and influence, our normal school sys- 
tem is largely indebted for its present and prospective influence. 

Resohed, That the members of this board retain a vivid recollection of his 
ability and courtesy as a presiding officer, and of bis uniform courtesy to- 
wards all associated with him 

Resolfed, That we tender our respectful sympathy to his sorrow- stricken 
wife, who, in these dark hours, can find consolation only by trusting ia Him 
** who doeth all things well," and we commend to his children the practice 
of the virtues of patience, charity and industry which their father^s life so 
well illustrated, and which will fit them to be useful members of society. 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be furnished to Mrs. 0. G. 
Sbolcs by the secretary of the board. 

In January last the committee having the matter in charge, en- 
gaged as principal of the Normal school at Whitewater, Prof. Oli- 
ver Arey, of Brockport, New York, an experienced and successful 
educator, under whose charge the school was opened on the 22d day 
of April last ; the building having been dedicated with appropriate 
exercises on the 21 st. The complete faculty for the first term, 
which closed the scholastic year, was as follows : 

NORMAL DEPARTMENT. 

OLIVER AREY, A. M., 
Principal, and ProfeBeor of Mental and Moral Philosophy and Theory and Praotlee oi 

Teaching. * 

J. T. LOVBWELL, A. B., 
Professor of Mathematics and the Latin Language. 

Mas. H. E. G. ARBT, A. M., 
Preceptress, and Teacher of English Literature, Frendi and Dzawlng. 

Man EMILY J. BRYANT, 
Teacher of History, Grammar and Geography. 



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179 
MODEL SCHOOL, 

M188 CATHARINE H. LILLY, 
Teacher and Critic in tirammar Department. 

M1S8 ADA TTAMTT. TOTT^ 

Teacher and Critic in Intermediate Department. 

Hiss SARAH A. STEWART, 
. Teacher and Critic in Primary Department. 

HARVEY H. GREENMAN, M. D., 
Teacher of Vocal MoDic. 

Miss VIRGINIA DEICHMAN, 
Teacher of Instrumental Masic. 

7 he attendance of pupils during the first term was as large as 
oould have been expected, and the future prospects of the school are 
very encouraging. The building is not completed externally, but 
the rooms are finished, and furnished with the necessary appliances 
for prosecuting the work of preparing teachers for our public 
sohols. 

The new building at Platteville was completed in August last, 
and extensive changes and improvements having been made in the 
old one, about four hundred pupils can now be accommodated in its 
commodious study and recitation rooms. 

The faculty for 1867-8 was as follows : 

CHARLES H. ALLEN, 
Principal. 

JACOB WERNM, 

Assistant Principal. 

DUNCAN McGregor, 

Professor of Mathematics. 

PANNY 8. JOSLYN, 
Preceptress. 

EURBTTA A. GRAHAM, 
Principal of Model School. 

CHARLES ZIMMERMAN, 
Teacher of Drawing. 

In addition to the regular faculties of the schools, Mrs. A. T. 
Bandall, of Oswego, N. Y., was employed the greater part of the 



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180 

last term of the year, to give instruction in reading and elocution. 
She devoted a portion of her time to each school, and also attended 
a few teachers' institutes and associations. She was well qualified 
for the work, and her labors weri quite successful and well appre- 
ciated by her pupils. 

At the meeting of the board at Platteville, in June last, the salary 
of Professor Allen was raised to $2,500, and the following maxi- 
mum salaries for all teachers employed was established : For prin- 
cipals, $2,500 ; for associate professors, $1,500 ; for lady teachers, 
$700, except that in each school one lady teacher may be employed 
at a higher salary. 

At this meeting arrangements were made for procuring plans for 
a building for the Normal School, located at Oshkosh, and it is ex- 
pected its erection will be commenced early next spring. 

Courses of study for the Normal Schools were established at this 
meeting. The courses for both schools are essentially the same, 
but inasmuch as the principals preferred to arrange the specific 
studies, in a somewhat different order, the courses for each school 
will be given. 



PLATTEVILLE NORMAL SCHOOL. 

OOURSES 07 STUDY AND TRAINING. 

Three courses of study have been adopted by the board : 

/. An Institute Course, 
IL An Elementary Course, 
III. An Advancea Course. 

The Institute course is designed to meet the wants of those 
terchers who, possessing the necessary scholastic acquirements, yet 
feel the need of professionol training. It will consist of a rapid 
review of the various subjects taught in our common schools, with 
lectures upon the best methods of teaching the same ; lectures upon 
the organization, classification and government of schools, and the 
school law. 



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181 

The object of the Elementary course is to fit students to become 
teachers in the common schools of our State, and will consist of a 
thorough drill in the studies pursued, experimental lectures on 
methods of instruction, and if practicable, practice in the Model 
School. 

The advanced course should fit teachers for the Higher Depart- 
ments of Qraded Schools in the State, and as will be seen from the 
detail statement of tho courses of study is both thorough and prac- 
tical. Students in the advanced course will have extended practice 
in the Model School, under the eye of experienced teachers, who 
will, by kindly criticisms and pointed suggestions, strive to make 
the practice conform to the theory of instruction. 



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182 



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188 



WHITEWATER NORMAL SCHOOL. 

ocrtrBSBS of study. 

Three Courses of Study are established — 

If ^. An Institute Course of one term. 
2d, An Elementary Course of two years, 
3c7. An Advanced Course of three years. 

The Institutb Coubsx is designed to meet the wants of those 
teaobers who desire to familiarise themselves with the most approved 
methods of teaching the subjects mentioned in the course. 

The Elxmsntaby and Advanobd Coursbs will have for their ob- 
ject, thorough drill in the branches pursued, accompanied with in- 
struction in the best methods of teaching them. 

INSTITUTB COURSE. 

1st. Obthogbaphy. — Cousisting of drill in nature and proper- 
ties of letters. Rules of spelling with illustrations. 
2d Obthodpy. — Principles of pron(»nciation. 

3d. &BAMMAB. — Oral grammar, veibal and sentential analysis, 
correcting false syntax, impromtu composition, essays, declama- 
tion, use of dictionaries. 

4th. RXADINO. 

5th. Mbntal Abithmbtio. — Methods of analysis, elementary 
combinations, &;c. 

6th. Wbittbn Auithmbtio, — Demonstration of principles. ^ 

7th. Elbhbnts of Pbnmanship, with systematic drill in muscu- 
lar action. 

8th. Gboquaphy. — Map drawing on Guyot's and Apgar's prin- 
ciples, and mathematical geography, 

9th. Outlines of United States History, Government of United 
States, School Laws of Wisconsin, School Economy, Gymnastics, 
Vocal Music. 



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184 

BLEMBNTABY OOUBSB. 

Class B. — First Year. 

First Term — ^Higher arithmetic, grammar and analysis^ geogra- 
pbj, use of globes, map drawing, readings, orthography and im- 
promptu composition, select reading, declamation and gymnastics. 

Second Term — Algebra, history of the United States, chemistry, 
penmanship and reading, essays, select readings, declamations and 
gymnastics, lectures on practice of teaching twice a week, criticism 
lessons before the school daily. 

Third Term — Geometry, physiology, civil goyernment, impromp- 
tu composition, essays, select readings, declamations and gymnastics, 
weekly lectures by the preceptress to the ladies on practical life, cri- 
ticism lessons daily. 

GLASS A. — SBOOND TBAB. 

First Term — Natural philosophy, rhetoric, drawing and book- 
keeping, practice in training department, essays, declamations, se- 
lect readings, gymnastics. 

Second Term — Universal history, higher algebra, school economy, 
zoology, essays, declamations, select readings, gymnastics. 

Third Term — Moral philosophy, botany, geology, impromptu 
composition, reading and penmanship, essays, select readings, decla- 
mations. 

ADVANOXD COUBSX. 
JUNIOB GLASS FIRST TBAB. 

First Term — Higher arithmetic, grammar and analysis, geogra- 
phy, use of globes, map drawing, reading, orthography, impromptu 
composition, select readings, declamations and gymnastics, lectures 
on practice of teaching twice a week, criticism lessons before the 
school daily. 

Second Term — Elementary algebra, history of United States, 
chemistry, reading and penmanship, select readings, declamations, 
e ssays and gymnastics, lectures on practice of teaching twice a 
week, criticism lessons before the school dsily. 



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185 

Third Term — G-eometry, physiology, civil government, impromptu 
composition, essays, select readings, declamations and gymnastics, 
lectures by preceptress to the ladies, criticism lessons before the 
school daily. 

MIDDLfl GLASS — SBOOND YBAB, 

First Term — Geometry, Universal History, Rhetoric and Im- 
promptu Composition, Drawing, Select Readings, Declamations, 
Essays and Gymnastics. 

Second Term — ^Higher Algebra, Natural Philosophy, Latin, G-er- 
man or French, English Grammar Reviewed, Select Readings, 
Deolaoiations, Essays and Gymnastics 

Third Term — Botany, Zoology, Latin, German or French, 
Arithmetic Reviewed, Select Readings, Declamations, Essays and 
Gymnastics. 

SKNIOB GLASS — THIRD TBAB. 

Firet Term — Geometry and Trigonometry, Chemistry, Latin, 
French or German, Terspective Drawing, and Practice in Training 
School, Select Readings, Extempore Speaking, Essays. 

Second Term — Geology, Latin, German or French, Astronomy, 
Practice in Training School, Impromptu Composition, Extempore 
Speaking, Lectures by Students before the class on Practice of 
Teaching. 

Third Term — Mental Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, School 
Economy, Practice in Training School, Lectures by Studeuts before 
the School on Practice of Teaching. 

The board has continued its aid to teachers' institutes, in accord- 
ance with the plan adopted last year, and has audited accounts for 
expenses incurred by County Superintendents in holding the same; 
the amount allowed for each institute being limited to (50. The 
sum of $704.85 has been thus expendeol. 

Tne whole expenditure of the board is given in detail below : 



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192 

The action of the board during the year has been harmonions, 
and all the members seem to have been actuated by an earnest desire 
to promote the cause ot normal instruction, and at the same time 
to jealously guard and husband the fund committed to their charge. 
They look forward, hopefully, to the establishment, at no distant 
day, of four or five normal schools, which shall furnish thoroughly 
prepared teachers for our public schools, and advance the cause of 
popular education in every part of the state. 

WILLIAM STARR, 
Pres't. Board Regents Normal Schools. 



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TERMS OF ADMISSION 

TO THE STATE NORMAL SCHOOL. 



1. Each Assembly district in the state shall be entitled to six rep- 
resentatives in the normal schools, and in case vacancies exist in the 
representation to which any Assembly district is entitled, such va- 
cancies may be filled by the President and Secretary of the Board 
of Regents. 

2. Candidates for admission ■shall be nominated by the connty 
superintendent of the county (or if the county superintendent has 
not jurisdiction, then the nomination shall be made by the city su- 
perintendent of the city,) in which such candidates may reside, and 
they shall be at least sixteen years of age, of sound bodily health 
and good moral character. Each person, so nominated, shall re- 
ceive a certificate setting forth his name, age, health and character, 
llnd a duplicate of such certificate shall be immdiatcly sent by mail, 
by the superintendent, to the Secretary of the Board. 

o. Upon the presentation of such certificate to the principal of 
a state normal school, the candidate shall be examined, under the 
direction of said principal, in the branches required by law for a 
third grade certificate, except History and Theory and Practice of 
Teaching, and if found qualified to enter the normal school in re- 
spect to learning, he may be admitted, after furnishing such evi- 
dence as the principal may require, of good health and good moral 
character, and after subscribing the following declaration : 

I, , do hereby declare that my purpose in entering 

this state normal school is to fit myself for the profession of teaoh- 
inff, and that it is my intention to engage in teaching in the public 
Bohools of this state. 

13--SU.' PoB. Ins. 



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194 

4. No person sball be entitled to a diploma who has not been a 
member of the school in which such diploma is granted, at least one 
year, nor who is less than nineteen years of age ; but a certificate 
of attendance may be granted by the principal of a normal school 
to any person who shall have been a member of such school for one 
term, provided, that in his judgment such certificate is deserved. 

Normal pupils receive their tuition free, and all necessary text- 
books are furnished for a charge of one dollar, or one dollar and a 
half per term. 

Board can be obtained at from ^2.^0 to ^B.60 per week. 

The scholastic year is divided into three terms : The first to com- 
mence on the first Tuesday of September, and to consist of sixteen 
weeks ; the second to commence on the Tuesday succeeding New 
Year's day, and to consist of fourteen weeks ; and the third to 
consist of ten weeks, and to end on the last day of June. 



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REPORT OF THE PRINCIPAL 

OF THE STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT PLATTEVILLB. 



Statb Normal Sobool, PiiAiisTiLLx, 
December 1, 1868. 

Hon. A. J. Craig, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

Dbar Sir : In coraplianoe with your request, I have the honor 
to transmit to you the following report of the Normal School under 
my charge, for the past year. 

1. The total number enrolled as in attendance upon the Normal 
School in all departments was 816. 

2. Of this number, 143 were regularly admitted upon nomina- 
tions from County Superintendents, having passed the required ex- 
aminations. The remainder, 178, were either in the preparatory, 
academic, or model departments. The average attendance in the 
Normal School proper was 91. 

8. No class was graduated, although there was a small ele- 
mentary class prepared ; the class preferring to remain another 
year, completing the full course. 

During two terms of the year all the pupils were in attendance 
that could be accommodated in the building, and indeed more than 
oould be furnished with seats in the study rooms. The completion 
of the new building enables us to reoeive more pupils and afford 
better accommodations than heretofore ; yet even with the increased 
fadlities, but forty more could have been aeoommodated the present 
term* 



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196 

The Fall attendanoe upon tho sohool is much above the average, 
as the demand for teachers is so great that many pupils attend only 
during the recess of the public schools, and others only long 
enough to fit themselves to obtain certificates. Out cf an average 
attendance of ninety^one, less than twenty have been members of 
the school during the whole year. More than forty have left 
the school during the present term and are engaged in teaching in 
the winter schools. 

The opening of the Normal School at Whitewater has dimin* 
ished the representation iu this school from remote counties in the 
state. As many counties, however, have no representatives in 
either school, it would seem to be«policy to have a slight appropria- 
tion for a "traveling fund" to equalize tho benefits of the schools 
throughout the state. This seems especially necessary until the 
other schools are opened. The State of New York paid sufficient 
mileage to students attending the Normal School to bring the school 
at Alban/* virtually within twenty miles of each pupil in the 
State. 

I have again to call attention to the fact that not safficient care is 
exercised by county superintendents in making nominations. Some 
candidates have come to us entirely unfitted in bodily health, capa- 
city, qualifications, or habits, for admission into the school. This 
forces a very unpleasant duty upon those in charge. Thus far we 
have assigned such to the Preparatory or Academic departments, or 
rejected them entirely. 

By the liberal provisions of the Board of Regents, one school is 
now fully equipped. With our increased accommodations, excellent 
apparatus, and additional members of the Faculty, we are looking 
forward to a year's work that shall far surpass in eflPectiveness what 
has heretofore been done. 

Thanking you for your sympathy and hearty co-operation in 
everything tending to advance the interests of the school under 
jny charge, 

I am very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

CHAS, H. ALLEN, Principal. 



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197 



KEPOKT OF THE BOARD OF EXAMINERS FOR THE 
YEARS 1867-8. 

Hon. a. J. Craiq, 

State Superintendent of Public Imiruction : 

Sir: — ^The undersigned having been appointed as Visitors and Examiners 
to the State Normal School at Platteville, and having performed the duty as- 
signed to them, beg leave to present the following report: 

Nun\JI)€r of days taught during the year. 

First Term "^^ 

Second Term 0*7 

Third Term ^^ 



Number of pupils in attendance during the year 816 

iTii 

The percentage of regular attendance was — 

Normal Department .- 9H 

Academical. . . .do 09 

The percentage of punctuality was — 

Normal Department 99|- 

Academical. . . .do 99|- 

Average age — 

Ladies 19^ 

Gentlemen 20^ 

StuduB pursued during the year, 

Reading, Spelling, Arithmetic (Practical and Mental), English Grammar, 
Penmanship, Physical Geography, German, Latin, Algebra (Higher and Ele- 
mentary), Trigouometry, Surveying, U. S. History, Political Economy, Bo- 
tany, Natural flif?tory, Drawing, Geometry, Descriptive Geography, Rhetoric, 
Criticism, Physiology, Philosophy of Natural History, Training, or Lectures 
on Theory and Practice of Teaching, and Vocal Music. 

The time of the committee being somewhat limited, they could not review 
all the classes, but after careful consideration they concluded to examine the 
following, viz : 

United States History, Practical Arithmetic, English Grammar, Mental 
Arithmetic, Penmanship, Physical Geography, Descriptive Geography, Ele- 
mentary Algebra, Government, Training, Philosophy of Naturkl History, 
Natural History, Botany, Spelling and Latin. 

Nearly all the branches, although not all the classes, were examined, and 
the students exhibited a very thorough acquaintance with the subjects under 
review, leaving the committee very justly to conclude that in the branches 
of study which had not passed under review, they were equally proficient. 

From experience in tlie examination of teachers the committee would 
judge that the qualifications of the pupils are much in advance of those who 
have not attended this or similar institutions, and they would urge upon 



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198 

teachers the necessity of ayailing themselves of such advantagec as far as 
possible. 

The committee were also impressed with the manner of recitation, with 
the thoroughness of the drill, the self-reliance, the facility of expression, 
and the knowledge of principles and causes as well as facts and minute de- 
tails, exhibited by the scholars. The work had evidently not been cursorily 
or superficially done ; but there was a manifest desire on the part of the pro- 
fessors to show to the committee that the studenis had been carefully and 
systematically trained in the noble work of the futi:re. 

The visit of the committee was entirely unexpected, and hence no time had 
been allowed for particular preparation, even if such had been wished for, 
making the examination more impartial, just and satisfactory. 

The examination was conducted orally and not by written questions; and 
was topical. To each student was assigned a particular branch in the study 
under examination, and he was expected to discuss it as thoroughly and as 
rapidly as the time would permit. The professors took charge of their own 
classes during review, leaving to the committee the work of asking questions 
at such places and on such points as they might think necessary. 

The Model School, which is under the immediaie supervision of an effi- 
cient disciplinarian, is principally intended for the training of teachers in 
the Normal Department in the theory and practice of teaching. This has not 
hitherto been done ; but it is understood to be the design of the faculty, on 
the completion of the new buildings, to carry out this plan in a proper and 
effectual manner. 

The new building?, which will be completed for the opening of the next 
term, are in every way adapted to the purpose for which they are intended. 
The recitation rooms are large, airy and well ventilated ; the latter requisite 
of all buildings haying been lost sight of in the erection of the older por- 
tion. Six hot-air furnace^s are being placed in the basement, thereby secur- 
ing full and ample warmth and comtort. 

The discipline of the school is perfect, and bears a noble contrast to many 
of our highest institutions of learning in the state. Punishment of all 
kinds is unknown, and the students, free from personal restraint, have that 
manly bearing and that honesty of purpose in their deportment which are 
not only commendable but actually praiseworthy. 

The committee were also impressed with the fact that the professors in the 
different departments are overworked. The committee would suggest the 
necessity of increasing the corps of teachers, so as to relieve those having 
charge of such a burden as each is now obliged to bear. The efficiency, the 
dignity, and the future of such a noble institution seem to call for additional 
assistance in the work to be performed. 

In conclusion, the committee cannot but congratulate the State on the 
perfection which the Normal School, at Platteville, has already attained, and 
the grand and hopeful future which lies beforp it Supervised by a gentle- 
nian whose large experience, practical knowledge and social qualities make 
him facile princepSf in the educational ranks, aided in his efforts by a body of 
teachers whose souls are alive to their work, and wlio possess those intellec- 
tual, moral and social qualities which rouse in their pupils a love for study 
and their future profession ; situated in a charming and healthy locality, the 
state may confidently look forward to the time when all our public schools in 
this district shall be presided over by teachers who will have obtained their 
training and experience in thin Institution, which the luri^e-heartedness and 
liberality of the State have provided for them. 

With the hope that our visit was as pleasant to our friends of the school as 
it was to us, and that this report will meet with approval, we have the honor 
to subscribe ourselves, my dear sir. 

Your obedient servants, 

R. B. CRANDALL, 
CHAS. W. CLINTON. 



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OPENING ADDRESS 



DEDICATION OF THE STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT 
WHITEWATER. 



BY WM. STAKR, ESQ., PRBSIDENT OP THE BOARD OP NORMAL REGENTS. 



We have met here to-day, friends, to mmgle oongratalatioDS and 
rejoioiDgs, over the progress that has been made in the establish- 
ment of this school. 

When we review the history of normal schools in this state, there 
is truly much of encouragement in the fact, that to-day witnesses 
the opening of the second normal school in Wisconsin. 

It is not long, since the friends of a system of normal instruc- 
tion regarded the establishment of the normal school, distinct and 
ndependent in our state, as a something to be earnestly desired and 
striven for, yet so dimly seen in the future, a? to be a subject of 
hope, rather than realization. 

But, discouraged by no obstacle, the true friends have worked on, 
with a wisdom and zeal that is bearing early fruitage of their hopes, 
and to-day, this fine structure is one of the mile stones that mark ^ 
a new station and a now advance in the educational history of our 
fair young state. 

To those who have been dwellers in Wisconsin since its organiza- 
tion, it is perhaps unnecessary to recapitulate the hisitory of the 
normal school movement in this state ; bnt, to those younger child- 
ren of the commonwealth, who were not present at its christening, 
some brief sketch of leading land-marks, may be useful, in making 
up the judgment, as to how much the footsteps of the past, give 
promise and hope for the future. 



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200 

Let U8, then, devete a few moments, in this, the opening of onr 
ezeroises, to a brief narration of some of the leading facts in the 
earlier history of normal schools in this state. 

In this narration I can make no mention of individuals and their 
labors, bnt must, in the few moments I occupy, confine myself to 
results only, which have become the policy of the state, by the en- 
actments of the legislature. 

For these dry statements I must crave your indulgence, and from 
me you must expect only the mile stones of the journey, while from 
others (present,) who have traveled along the pathway, we may 
hear of the beautiful landscapes, the fresh flowers, and the singing 
birds that have gladdened and quickened them in their toil. 

Among the provisions for education in the constitution of the 
state, adopted twenty years since, it was provided 

" That the revenues of the school fund should be exclusively ap- 
plied to the fallowing objects : " 

1st, « To the support and maintenance of comnon schools in 
each school district, and the purchase of suitable libraries and ap- 
purtenances therefor." 

2d, " That the residue of the income of the school fund should 
be appropriated to the support of academies and normal schools, 
and suitable libraries and appurtenances therefor." 

Nothing was however accomplished for normal instruction until 
in 1867, an act was passed, providing <' That the income of 
twenty-five per cent, of the proceeds arising from the 'sale of swamps 
and overflowed lands, should be appropriated to normal institutes 
and academies, under the supervision and direction of a board of 
regents of normal schools," who were to be appointed in pursuance 
of the provisions of that act. 

Under tbid law, somewhat of good was accomplished — as much 
perhaps as conld bo expected with means so limited, and methods so 
experimental and desultory as necessarily grew out of this first at- 
tempt upon normal instructioo the fostering care of the state. 

Enough, however, was accomplished, to direct public attention 
to the subject, and stimulate a wish for better methods and more 
comprehensive results than had been or could be attained under 
this law. 



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01 

Meantime, the swamp lands had become a bone of contention, 
subject as they were to the raids of sharpers, nnder the cover of 
benefits to various enterprises and localities. 

In 1865 the legislature divided the swamp lands and swamp land 
fund, into two equal parts — one set apart for drainage purposes, 
the other to constitute a Normal School fund — the increase of 
which should be applied to establishing, supporting and maintaining 
normal schools, under the direction and management of the Board 
of Eegents of normal schools, with a proviso, that one-fourth of 
such income should be transferred to the common school fund, until 
the annual inco^ e of the school shall reach $200,000. This was 
followed in 1866 by an act incorporating!; the Board of Regents of 
Normal Schools. 

The division of the fund and lands having been made, and it becom- 
ing apparent that a productive fund of about $600,000 with a net in- 
come of over $80,000, was already in hand, with a prospect of a 
ptcady increase as fast as lands were sold ; the Board, after a care 
ful investigation and and consideration of different methods, deci- 
ded upon the policy of establishing several schools, and of locating 
them in various parts of the state. 

At a meeting held on the 2d day of May in that year, the Board 
designated Whitewater as the point for the southeastern section of 
the state, and selected the site upon which we now stand for the 
building. 

The school at Platteville, located at the same meeting, was opened 
in October ensuing, the building donated being considered suitable, 
with some alterations, for immediate use. 

Some time was necessarily consumed in procuring, revising and 
adopting a plan for the building at this place ; and, after advertis. 
ingfor proposals to construct the building in accordance with the 
plan adopted, the Botrd met at Madison, on the 5th of September, 
1866, to consider said prop osals. 

But here arose a question of practical difficulty. The organic 

aw provides that no more than $10,000 from the income fund, 

shall be used for the completion of the buildings of any Normal 

School, and for the furniture and fixtures pertaining to the same, in 

addition to the sums donated by the locality where established. 



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Whitewater donated 926,000— the addition of 910;000 from the 
income fand, made the sum of $35,000 at the disposal of the Board, 
for the erection and completion of this building and the furnishing 
thereof. 

The Board had expressly instructed the architect to furnish a 
plan for a building which , with heating apparatus^ should not in 
coat exceed 933,000, leaving $2,000 for furniture. 

No bids were received, coming within the limits, and hence none 
that the Board felt authorized to accept. 

After full deliberation, it was thought best to proceed with the 
erection of the building ; and the board instructed their building 
committee to employ a superintendent, and proceed to construct the 
building according to the plans and specifications of the architect. 

The committee employed Hon. N. M. Littlejohn as superintend- 
ent. The foundation was laid, and the basement story built before 
winter stopped the work. 

Much of the wood work was made ready during the winter; work 
upon the walls of the building was resumed in the spring, and, " 
with some delays for want of brick, the building was pushed rap- 
idly towards completion. 

The original plan provided for heating the building with hot-air 
furnaces. After a full investigation of the different methods of 
heating, the committee finally decided to heat by steam. The board 
approved the decision, and a Contract was made for that purpose. 

The contractor was behind time in his work, and the completion 
of the building was further delayed thereby. 

The committee had expected to have the building ready for the 
opening of a winter term in January last, but the delays for want 
of brick had already hindered the work, and this delay in heating 
the building before cold weather came on, had so much further de- 
layed the plastering and other "inside work as to render this im- 
practicable. 

But the work has been pressed steadily forward, and has reached 
it present condition. Twice has it become necessary for the board 
to make application to the legislature, for permission to use ad- 
ditional means from the income fund to complete the work. The 
legislature, acting for the state, and impressed with the urgent 



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9oe 

t 

neoesBity of an esrly opening of tlie sekool, has granted eaeh re- 
quest, and the bnilding is here before us ; not yet finished and 
polished in all its completeness and snrroundings, but ready to re- 
ceive its animated life. 

I have thus rapidly run over some of the leading incidents 
which have culminated in onr meeting here to-day. Imperfect and 
roughly sketched, they have no merit, unless brevity, no use, ex- 
cept to indicate the path we have traveled to reach this occasion. 

Of the school in all its fair proportioi:s, which shall spring up 
within these walls, I must not linger to speak. I trust some abler 
tongue will delight you with that theme. 

But what avails it f o erect this costly structure, laying deep and 
firm its foundation, so that frost and rain shall not move it — as 
firm as the everlasting hill which upholds it — to rear its walls with 
care and nice design, 'fashioning the rough and uncouth elements 
into forms of use and beauty, filling it with books and maps, and 
charts and apparatus, with all the ajipliances needed to furnish im- 
plements for the school within ? 

Of what avail to collect here the sons and daughters of the State, 
unless some skilled artificer shall be found to use these tools, and 
with them to fashion the living stones that shall go to make up that 
great temple of popular education, which is to gladden the eyes 
and satisfy the taste of the future ? 

To you, sir, whom the B )ard of Eegents of Normal Schools have 
selected as Principal to take charge of this Institution, and mould 
its opening career, and to the co>adjutors with your full approval 
called around you, the State confides this important trust. In the 
name of the Board of Regents of Normal Schools, I tender you this 
edifice, with all its oontainings and surroundings, that you may wel- 
come within its walls, thoso sons and daughters of the State, who 
here enroll themselves in the noble army of teachers — an army 
whose mission is peace, and whose battle-cry is progress. 

Not to the Board of Regents of Normal Schools alone are you 
responsible for faithfulness to this high trust, but to evory earnest 
young man or young woman who may come to you for inspiration 
and discipline in the high and holy mission of the teacher, and to 
every child whose spirit is to be quickened or deadened by the agen- 



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204 

oies whioli yon sball set in motion. The work of education requires 
infinite patience, and well it may, for it bears infinite results. 

To yon, and to each of your faculty, is opened a career of useful- 
ness, as illimitable as desire, as lofty as ambition, as satisfactory as 
the consciousness cf work well done. 

Most gladly, and without any misgivings wf^ confide to you this 
responsible trust, confident that hereafter, when inquest is made 
for the results of your labor, you can point to the primary schools 
of the State, renovnted, revivified and thoroughly imbued with the 
leaven of a better life, as the first fruits of this day's beginning. 

Be not weary in welldoing; for, no richer or riper fruit can age 
pluck from the fruitage of life, than the consciousness of lasting 
good accomplished in the present and for the future. 



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REPORT OF THE PRINCIPAL 

OF THE STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT WHITEWATER. 



Hon. A. J. Craig, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction : 

Sir : — In accordance with your request I send you herewith a 
report of the condition of the normal school under my charge. 
This school building was dedicated with appropriate exercises by 
the Board of Regents on the 21st of April, 1868, and the school 
was opened on the following day for work. 

The inside of the building was not yet completed and the object 
in opening a preliminary session at this time, was that the organi- 
zation of the school might shape itself more completely for the 
opening of the fall term. Thirty- five pupils were registered on the 
first day in the normal department, and one hundred and two in the 
training department. 

Notwithstanding the disadvantages caused by the unfinished state 
of the building, the work of the session was carried on successfully ; 
the number of normal pupils running up directly to forty-eight ; 
making the whole number in attendance during the first term one 
hundred and fifty. 

A class of earnest workers presented themselves among the first 
pupils of the school, giving to it a strength and character from 
which the faculty have had reason to draw much encouragement. 

The second term was opened the first day of September with a 
registration during the session of one hundred and five pupils in the 
normal department, thus showing a gain of over one hundred per 
cent, in the attendance of normal pupils the second term. Ninety- 
six pupils were registered in the training department, making the 
registration in all the departments two hundred and one. 



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206 
The following table will show the attendance in each department. 

First Term, 

Lad'p. Gent. Total. 

Normal department 28 20 48 

Academic department 16 27 42 

Misses. Lads. 

Intermediate department IS 10 28 

Primarj department 13 19 32 

Second Term. 

Lad*8. Gent. Total. 

Normal department 63 42 106 

Academic department 23 23 46 

Misses. Lads. 

Ill rermediate department 12 13 26 

Primary department ... 9 10 26 

LIBHARIIS. 

Since the opening of the school a text book library, containing 
fonr thousand five hundred volumes, and a well selected reference 
library containing two hundred and fifty volumes, have been secured 
for the use of the pupils. 

LITIRARr SOCIBTT. 

A literary society has been in active operation since the opening 
of the institution. Lectures have been given before it, and discus 
sions have been held, both public and private, together with such 
other exercises as is usual in such organisations. The society gives 
promise of much usefulness. 

APPABATUS. 

The Regents have purchased a well assorted apparatus, sufficient- 
ly extensive to illustrate the principles of Chemistry, Natural Phi- 
losophy, Astronomy and Physiology. Large additions will be made 
to the apparatus and the library during the coming year. 

OLIVER ARBT. 

Principal. 



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AI^TNUAL REPORT 

OF THK 

BOARD OF REGENTS 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN, 

FOR TBE YEAR ENDING PEPTEMBER 80, 1868. 



To Hia Excellency, Luoius Fairohild, 

Oovemor of Wisconsin : 

I have the honor, on behalf of the Eegents of the University of 
WisconBin, to submit to you the following annual report for the 
fiscal year ending September 80, 1868. It is with unfeigned 
pleasure and satisfaction that I make the announcement that the 
efforts of those to whom the management of the University has been 
confided have been crowned with success during the past year, that 
the present condition of the institution is highly favorable and its 
affiiirs and the results so far attained are satisfactory and full of 
promise for the future. This is mainly due to the ability, energy 
and incessant labors of President Chadbourne, to whom the Regents 
and the people of the State are under lasting obligations. He has 
had the interests of the institntion at heart in every one of its many 
and different departments, and he and hb corps of professors and 
inatruotors have labored aealously, ably and successfully in the dich 
charge of their duties. 



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208 
The Faculty and Instructors are now as follows : 

PAUL A. CHADBOURNE, M. D., LL.D., 
President and Professor of Mental and Moral Philosophy. % 

JOHN W. STERLING, LL.D., 
Professor of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy. 

JOHN B. PARKINSON, A. M., 
Professor of Mathematics. 

S. H. CARPENTER, A. M., 
Professor of Rhetoric and English Literature. 

WILLIAM P. ALLEN, A. M., 
Professor of Ancient Languages and History. 

JOHN B. PEULING, Ph. D., 
Professor of Modem Languages and Comparative Philology. 

Col. W. R. PEASE, U. 8. Army, 
Professor of Military Engineering and Tactics. 

W. W. DANIELL8, M. S., 
Professor of Agriculture. 

JOHN E. DAVIES, M. D., 
Professor of Chemistry and Natural History. 

ADDISON B. VERRILL, A. M., 
Professor of Comparative Anatomy and Entomology. 

Hon. L. S. DIXON, 

Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Wisconsin, Professor of Law. 

Hon. ORSAMUS COLE, 

Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of Wisconsin, Professor of Law. 

Hon. BYRON PAINE, 

Associate Justice oi the Supreme Court of Wisconsin, Professor of Law. 

J. H. CARPENTER, Esq., 

Dean of the Faculty and Professor of Law. 

WM. P. VILAS. LL.B.. 
Professor of Law. 

AMOS H. THOMPSON, A. B., 
Tutor. 

ISAAC S. LEAVITT, P. B., 
Instiuctdrin English Branches. 

Miss ELIZABETH EARLE, 
Preceptress. 

Miss CLARISSA L. WARE, 
Associate Preceptress. 

Miss FRANCES BROWN, 
Teacher of Music. 

Miss LOUISA BREWSTER, 
Teacher of Drawing and Painting. 



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209 



I.— THE COLLEGE OF ARTS. 

Candidates for admission to the College of Arts, are examined in 
English Grammar, Geography, Mental and Written Arithmetic, 
Plane and Solid Geometry, and Algebra to Quadratic Equations, 
and must be at least sixteen years of age. 

The following is the course of instruction in this department : 

FIRST YBAB. 

First Term, 

Mathbmatios Higher Algebra — ^Loomis. 

German. Otto's Conversation Grammar. 

Natural History. . Botany. 

History Roman Empire — Student's Gibbon. 

Elbotiye Studies . . Practical Botany and Agriculture, French 
and Latin. 

Second Term, 

Mathematics Algebra Completed — Loomis. 

Conic Sections. 

German Otto's Conversation Grammar. 

History Mediaeval — Student's Gibbon. 



Elective Studies. . History of useful Plants, Physical Geogra- 
phy, Climatology, French and Latin. 

Third Term, 

Mathematics Plane Trigonometry, Mensuration, Surveying 

and Navigation — Loomis. 

German. Select Prose and Poetry. 

Natural History. . Botanical Analysis — Gray's Manual. 
History Modern — Student's France. 



Elbotiye Studies. . Horticulture, French, Latin, 



Themes and Declamations weekly during the year. 
14— Sup. Pub. Ins. 



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210 




SECOND TBAB. 




First Term. 


Mathbmatios .... 


. Spherical Trigonometry — Loomis 




Analytioal Q-eometrj — LoomiB. 


Bhbtobio 


. Day. 


Ohbmistbt 


. YonmanB. 


Natubal Hibtobt. 


. Mineralogy — Dana. 


Human Anatomy.. 


. LeotureB. 



Elbutiyb Studibs. . Laboratory Practice, Qualitative AnalyMf 
Blowpipe AnalyM 

Second Term. 

Physiob Snell'B Olmsted began — Lectnres. 

Civil Polity Political Economy — Perry. 

Ghlmibtby Organic and applied. 

Natural Hibtoby. . Zoology begun — Agassis. 
HiSTOBT United States — ^EUot. 

Elbotiyb Studies . . Laboratory Practice, Quantitative AnalyM. 

Third Term. 

Physios Snell's Olmsted completed — ^Lectures. 

CiYiL Polity International Law, Oonstitution of the Uni- 
ted States, 
Natural Hibtoby. . Zoology completed. 
General Physiology. 
Hibtoby England — Student's Hnme. 



Elbotitb Studibb. . Differential and Integral GalonlnSy Natural 
History of Domestic Animals, BntiMnologj. 



Themes and DeolamatioM weekly during the year. 



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211 

THIRD TflAR. 

Fir$t Term. 

Astronomy Snell's Olmsted. 

Mental Philosophy. Haven. 
Eng. Literature. . . Shaw, begun. 

Bhetorio Bascom. 

Aesthetics Bascom. 

Eleotiyb Studies. . Examination of soils — Forestry. 

Second Term, 

Logic Whatelj* 

Moral Philosophy. Hopkins. 

Eng. Literature . . . Shaw, completed. 

Natural History . . Qeology and Mining. 

Elective Studies. . Modern Languages, Chemical Analysis, De- 
terminative Mineralogy. 

Third Term. 
Natural Theology. Chadbourne. 

Evidences Hopkins — Lectures. 

History Guizot's History of Civilization 

General Review. 

Elective Studies . . Reviews. 

Critical Essays, Declamations, and Forensic Disputations, weekly 
during the year. 

DEPARTMENT OF AORICULTURB. 

This department is a part of the College of Arts ; it has been 
put in practical operation since my last annual report, and the fol- 
lowing b the course of study therein : 



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FIRST TEAR. 

First Term. 

Botany. — Structural Botany, including microscopic examination of 
tissues and other minute structures. Physiological Botany, 
including the germination and growth of plants. Systematic 
Botany, or classification of plants, including a discussion of the 
general principles of classification in the different departments 
of Natural History. The limitation of species and origin of 
varieties, with exercises in Botanical Analysis. 

Second Term, 

Pbactigal Agbioultubb. — Location of farm. Division into fields. 
Arrangement and planning of farm buildings. Farm imple- 
ments. GJ-enernl principles of tillage. Principles of drainage. 
Laying out and construction of drains. Methods of seeding. 
Harvesting of crops. 

Physical Gboqbaphy and Climatology. — Dews, Frost, Fog, 
Clouds, Rain, Hail, Snows, Winds and local causes affecting 
clinate, as proximity to mountain chains, to forests, or to 
bodies of water. Effect produced by the removal of forests, or 
by planting screens of timber. Meteorological instruments ; 
their methods of use and advantages to the agriculturist. 

Third Term. 

Pbactioal Botany. — Botanical characteristics and geographical 
distribution of the natural orders, with their relative import- 
ance. The genera and species having agricultural value, those 
having commercial or medical value, those having ornamental 
value, and those which are noxious or detrimental — as weeds 
or poisonous plants. 

HoBTiouLTUBB. — Hot-bcds ; their construction and use. Methods 
of propagation of plants by layers, by cuttings, by budding, 
by grafting, &;c. Transplanting. Varieties of small fruits 
and best means of cultivating them. General management of 
nurseries. Production of dow varieties. Landscape gardening. 



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218 

BSOOND YSAB. 

First Term. 

Ghbmistby. — The forces, Heat, Light, Electricity and Magnetism. 
Chemical Affinity and the laws of chemical combination. The 
Elements, their history, properties, combinations and uses. 
Applications of Chemistry to the arts and manufactures. La- 
boratory practice will be begnn, as soon as the student has 
become sufficiently advanced, taking up the special reactions 
of the elements, and the laws of chemical decomposition and 
precipitation. 

Second Term. 
Zoology. — Principles of classification. Descriptive Zoology, com- 
prising the systematic arrangement of animals in aooordance 
with their natural affinities, into classes, orders, families, &o. 
Natural History of Domestic Animals. ' 

Obqanio Chbmistby. — Composition of organic bodies, and their 
special characteristics. Chemistry of germination, of nutri- 
tion, of vegetable growth, of decomposition, of fermentation, 
of saponification. 

Analytical Chemistby. Including general analysis, analysis of 
minerals, Blowpipe analysis, analysis of soi's, manures and 
ashes of plants. Volumetric analysis, and its applications to 
acidimetry and alkalimetry. 

Third Term. 

Pbactioal Aqbioultubb. — General principles of farm economy. 
Manures, animal, vegetable and mineral, their management and 
/mode of application. Preparation of the soil for particular 
crops Cultivation of crops. Management of grass lands. 
Improvement of soils by physical means, as Draining, Sub- 
soiling, &;c. Conducting experiments. Industrial Statistics. 

Zoology. — General Physiology, Comparative Anatomy, and Em- 
bryology. Entomology, including classification of Insects. 
Habits of noxions species and best means of checking their 
ravages. Habits of beneficial species 



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THIBD TBAR. 

Fir$t Term. 

FoRiSTBT. — Planting and management of Forest Trees, Soils 
adapted to their growth. Value of different kinds of trees for 
fuel, building and other purposes 

GBOLoaT.-^Dynamical and descriptiye. Origin of soils. Building 
Materials. Coal and Metals. 

Second Term. 

Agrioultural Chemistry — Composition of soils. The relations 
of air and moisture to vegetable growth. Connection of light, 
heat and electricity with growth of plants. Chemical changes 
attending vegetable growth. Chemistry of the various proces- 
ses of the farm, as plowing, fallowinipr, draining, &c. Prepara- 
tion, preservation and composting of manures. Artificial ma- 
nures. Methods of improving soils by chemical means, by 
mineral manures, by vegetable manure^}, by animal manures, 
Chemical ccmposition, of the various crops. Chemistry of 
the dairy. 

Third Term. 

Animal Husbandry. — Breeds of domestic animals, their character- 
istics, and adaptation to partif^ular purposes. Principles of 
stock breeding. Veterinary surgery and medicine. 

History of Agricultural Education. 

A grt^at deal of labor has been performed in this department dur- 
ing the pasi summer, especially upon the grounds purchased for the 
experimental farm. The stumps and stones have been removed, 
experiments have been made with the planting of corn and pota- 
toes, a vineyard has been commenced, an arbor-vitse hedge, a row 
of Norway spruce and 1,600 evergreens have been planted, drives 
and roads have been constructed, fences have been removed and put 
up, throwing the entire land in one enclosure ; land has been pre- 
pared for future crops and experiments, a large and substantial bam 
has been built, and a good farm-house for the superintendent is in 
process of erection. The land given to the State Horticultural 



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Society for horticultural experiments has been prepared for cultiva- 
tion and partly planted. This department being entirely new, I beg 
to refer, for more particular information to the annexed report of W. 
W. Daniells, M. S., Professor of Agriculture, kindly .prepared by 
him for this purpose. 

DEPARTMENT OP ENGINEERTNa & MILITARY TACTICS. 

This department forms also a part of the College of Arts, It 
has been put in full operation during the past year under the di- 
rection of the President of the University, and more particularly 
under that of OoL W. R. Pease, U. S. Army, Professor of Engin- 
eering and Military Taoticd, who has been assigned to that duty by 
the general government, and bas fulfilled the same with great ability 
and satisfaction to the Regents. An armory has been established 
and put in proper condition, and a uniform has been prescribed by 
the Regents. 

The following military exercises and course of study have been 
adopted : 

MILITARY SXBRGISBS. 

I. There shall be a drill in some one of the different arms of the 
8ervi3e, at least three times each week when the weather permits. 

II. Drills. The drills shall comprise practical instruction in 
the Schools of the Soldier, Company and Battalion, Field Artil- 
lery and dismounted Cavalry. 

in. Dress Parades. There shall be an evening Dress Parade 
of the Battalion at such times as may be deemed necessary for in- 
struction and exercise. 

lY. Undress Parades, Parades without arms shall be made at 
such times as may be found necessary. 

Y. Chuard Mounting. The ceremony of mounting and turning 
off guards will occur as often as may be deemed necessary for in- 
struction. Students will be instructed in the duties of Officer of 
the Day, Officer of the Quard and Sentinel. 

VI. Practical instruction in the Field, in laying out and con- 
Btructing Field Fortifications and other military works, will be given 
the class pursuing the study of Military Engineering. 



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OOUBSl OV 8TVDT AVD MILITABT XXXB0IS18. 

L The Oourse of Stndy will comprise Ciyil and Military En- 
gineering, Infantry, Cavalry, Field, Gbirriflon and Siege Artillery 
Tactics, Advanced Guard and Out Post &c.. Ordnance and Gun~ 
nery, Military Law and Practice of Courts Martial, and Army Reg" 
ulations. 

n. — Seniors. 

Pint Term 

Civil and Military Engineering, Practical instruction in the ^'chools 
of the soldier, Company and Battalion, and Field Artillery. 

Second Term. 
Civil and Military Engineering. 

Third Term. 

Civil and Military Engineering, Review of Studies of preceding 
terms. Practical instruction in the Schools of the Soldier, Com- 
pany and Battalion, and Dismounted Cavalry, 

III, — Juniors. 

First Term. 
Infantry Tactics. 

Practical instruction in tho School of the Soldier, Company and 
Battalion, and Field Artillery. 

Second Term. 
Cavalry, Field, Garrison and Siege Artillery Tactics, Ordnance and 

Gunnery. 
Practical instruction in the School of the Soldier. 

Third Term. 
Company, Battalion and Dismounted Cavalry. 
Military Law and Practice of Courts Martial, and Army Regula- 
tion. 

Practical instruction in the School of the Soldier. 

IV. Sophomores. 

First Term. 

Practical instruction in the School of the Soldier, Company and 
Battalion. 



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217 
Second Term. 
Practical instruction in the Sebool of the Soldier. 

Third Term. 

Practical instrnction in the School of the l^oldier, Oompany and 
Battalion, and Dismounted Cavalry. 

V. — Freshmen. 

First Term. 

Practical instruction in the School of the Soldier, Oompany and 
Battalion. 

Second Term. 
Practical instruction in the School of the Soldier. 

Third Term. 

Practical instruction in the School of the Soldier, Company and 
Battalion. 

While the military department is an important, necessary and 
eminently useful feature of the University, giving to our young 
men an opportunity to obtain a military education under an able 
and accomplished military instructor, I believe that some change 
of the organic law of the University will be necessary in regard to 
this branch of instruction. As the law now stands, '* all able-bodied 
male students of the University, in whatever college, shall receive 
instruction and discipline in military tactics.*^ This rigid rule 
may prove detrimental to the developement of the institution iu 
some of its departments. The Regents have already established a 
Law College, they have in contemplation the establishment of a 
Medical College, and may create other professional colleges. It is 
not probable that many young men, pursuing strictly professional 
studies only, would be willing to submit to the military training 
and instruction contemplated by this law, and many students might 
rather seek other institutions than be subjected to this military 
training. These professional colleges, while connected with the Uni- 
versity, may be in different parts of the State and might therefore 
require separate military instructors; and many instances may 
occur of young men who, without being members of any particular 



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218 

prefleribed covrfle at the UiUTersity, deaire to pnrBae speoial stndiea 
only for a limited period of time, and who may have neither time 
nor inelination to pnrsae these military studies. As the law stands, 
the Begents eannot exempt any able-bodied male students of the 
University from this military instruction and discipline. I would 
suggest therefore that the organic law be so changed as to place 
this subject of requiring military instruction and discipline at the 
University entirely in the hands of the Board of Regents, that, sub- 
ject to the requirements of the act of Congress concerning agricul- 
tural colleges, they may be enabled to adopt such regulations as 
oircumstances may seem to require. 



IL— THE COLLEGE OP LETTERS. 

Candidates for admission to the Freshman Class are examined in 
Oeography, Arithmetic and Algebra to Quadratic Equations, in 
English, Latin and Oreek Grammar; in Caosar, Virgil, Cicero's 
Orations and in three books of Xenophon's Anabasis, and must be 
at least fifteen years of age. The following is the course of instruc- 
tion in this department, which is intended to be equal to that of the 
best oolleges in the country. 

VBISHUAN GLASS. 

Firtt Term. 

Mathimatios Geometry begun — Loomis. 

Latin Livy — ^Lincoln. 

Gbbik Xenophon's Anabasis — Boise. 

Fbxnoh Otto's Conversation Grammar. 

LsOTUBes Laws of Health and Methods of Study. 

Second Term. 

Mathbmatios Geometry continued. 

Latin Cicero de Senectute and de Amioitia. 

Gbbbk Xenophon's Memorabilia — Robbins. 

Fbbnoh Otto's Conversation Grammar. 

HisTOBT Greece — Smith. 



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219 

Third Term. 

Mathimatiob Geometry completed. 

Latin Horace — Odes, 

Gbbbe Memorabilia continued, 

French Select Prose and Poetry. 

Antiquitibs Greek and Roman. 

History Eome — Liddell or Smith. 

Themes and Declamations during the year. Latin and Gredk 
Composition through the year. 

SOPHOMORB TBAR. 

First Term. 

Mathbmatitos Higher Algebra — Loomis. 

Latin Horace — Satires. 

Grbbe Homer — Iliad. 

German Otto's Oonversution Grammar. 

Natural History. . . Botany. 

History Roman Empire — Student's Gibbon. 

Second Term, 

Mathematios Algebra completed — Loomis. 

Conic Sections. 

Latin Horace — Epistles. 

Greek iEscbylus Prometlieus — Woolsey. 

German Otto's Conversation Grammar. 

History Medieral — Student's Gibbon. 

Third Term. 

Mathematics Plane Trigonometry, Mensuration, Surveying 

and Navigation — Loomis. 

Latin Tacitus — Histories. Tyler. 

Grbek Demosthenes — Olynthiacs and Philippics. 

Champlin. 

Gbrman Select Prose and Poetry. 

Natural History. . . Botanical Analysis — Gray's Manual. 
HiSTOR) Modern — Student's France. 



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220 

Themes and declamations weekly during the year. Latin com- 
position through the year. 

JUNIOR TBAB. 

Fir$t Term, 

Khbtorio Day. 

Mathbmatios Spherical Trigonometry — Loomis. 

Analytical Geometry . 

Ohbmistrt Tonman's and Leotnres. 

Natural Histort. . . Mineralogy — ^Dana. 
HuHAM Amatoht Lectures. 

Second Term, 

Physios Snell's Olmsted begun, with Lectures. 

CiTiL Polity Political £)conomy — Perry. 

Ohrmistry Organic and Applied. 

Natural History. . . Zoology begun — Agassis. 
History England -Student's Hume. 

Third Term. 

Physios SnelFs Olmstead completed, with Lectures. 

OiTiL Polity. ..... International Law, Constitution of U. S. 

Natural History. . . Zoology completed. 
General Physiology. 
History Ijuited States — Eliot. 

Blbotitb Calculus. 

Themes and Declamations weekly during the jear. 

SXNIOR YCAR. 

Fint Term, 

Astronomy Snell's Olmsted* 

Mbntal Philosophy. Haven. 
Eho. Litbraturb. .. Shaw, begun. 

Rhbtorio Basoom. 

Absthbtios Bascom. 



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221 

Second Term. 

Logic Whatelj. 

Moral PHiLOSopnT. . Hopkins. 

Enq. Literature. . Sbaw, oompleted. 

Natural History. . . (leology and Mining. 

Third Term. 
Natural Theology. Chadbourne. 

Eyidenoxs Hopkins' Lectures. 

History Guizot's History of Civilization. 

General Review. 



Critical Essays, Declamations and Disputationsweekly during the 
year. 

IIL PROFESSIONAL AND OTHER COLLEGES. 

THE LAW DEPARTMENT. 

This important department has been organized since the last an- 
nual report of the Regents and will probably soon present one of the 
most attractive and successful branches of the University. J. H. 
Carpenter, Esq , has been appointed Dean of the Faculty, and Wm. 
F. Vilas, LL. B., another of its professors, while the Judges of the 
Supreme court have kindly consented to accept professorships in this 
department and to lecture therein gratuitously when their other duties 
will permit. A better opportunity than this cannot be famished to 
the young men of the state, who desire to become members of the legal 
profession. Students may graduate in this department after com- 
pleting a year's course and passing the requisite examination. 

Tlie following is the prescribed course of study : 

First Term. 

Reeves' Domestic Relations. 
Parsons on Contracts. 
Bishop on Criminal Law. 
Story on Bailments. 
Edwards on Bills and Notes. 
Williams on Personal Property. 
Greenleaf on Evidence. 



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Second Term, 
Greenleaf on EvideDoe. 
Angell and Ames on Corpormtions. 
Story on Agency. 
Parsons on Partnership. 
Parsons on Mercantile Law. 
Ohitty on Pleading. 

Third Term. 
Chitty on Pleading. 
Washburn on real Property, 

Redfield's Edition of Story's Equity Jurisprudence. 
Story's Equity Pleadings. 
American Leading Oases. 
Story's Constitutional Law. 
Story's Conflict of Laws. 

THK f KMALS OOLLIOB. 

This was formerly known as the Normal Department. Its object 
is to furnish a thorough education for ladies. It has its own build- 
ing and public rooms, and a separate board of instruction, and is 
under the special direction of the Preceptress. The President of 
the University and the Professors give instruction in their several 
departments, and the students have the privilege cf attending 
University lectures, but the recitations and other exercises are dis- 
tinct from those in the other colleges. The following is the adopted 
course of study : 

FIRST TUB. 

First Term. 
Higher Arithmetic — Mental and Written. 
Grammar — Verbal and Sentential Analysis. 
Oeography and Map Drawing. 
General Exercises. 

Second Term. 
Arithmetic completed. 
Orammar — Verbal and Sentential Analysis. 
Oeography and Map Drawing. 
General Exercises. 



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Third Term. 
Elementary Algebra begun. 
Physical Geography. 
History United States. 
General Exercises. 
Reviews. 

SIOOND YEAR. 

Fir$t Term. 
Elementary Algebra completed. 
Analysis. 
Botany. 
History. 
Elbotiyb — French or Latin. 

Second Term. 
Plane Geometry. 
Physiology. 
History. 
General Exercises. 

Eleotiyx — French or Latin. 

Third Term, 

Solid Geometry and Plane Trigonometry. 

Rhetoric. 

History. 

Botanical Analysis. 

Reviews. 

Elxotiyb — French or Latin. 

THIBD YJEAB. 

Fint Term. 
Higher Algebra. 
Oritioiam and Eng. Literature, 
Zoology, 
General Exercises. 

ELBOTiyi — ^Latin or German. 



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224 

Second Term, 
Higher Algebra completed. 
Englisli Literature. 

Constitution and Science of Government. 
Political Economy. 

Elbotiyb — Latin or German. 

Third Term, 
Natural Philosophy. 
Mental Philosophy. 
Evidences. 
Reviews. 



Elbovivb — Latin or German. 

FOURTH TBAB. 

First Term. 

Spherical Trigonometry. 

Chemistry. 

Moral Philosophy. 

Second Term. 
Astronomy, 
Geology. 

Moral Philosophy. 
History of Civilization. 

Third Term. 
Aesthetics. 
Natural Theology. 
Essays and Reviews. 
Ancient and Modern Languages elective during the year. 

POST OBADUATB OOURSB. 

The object of this course is to secure a higher degree of scholar- 
ship in literature and science, than can be attained in our colleges 
under the ordinary class system. The studies are optional and are 
embraced in the following course of instruction : 



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Suction I. Natubal History. 
Botany. 
Mineraolgj. 
Geology. 
Mining. 

II. Chimistbt. 

Chemical Philosophy and Physios. 
Qnantilative and Qnantitative Analysis. 
Applied Chemistry. 

III. Mathematics and Physics. 
Pure Mathematics. 
Meohanios and Physics. 
Astronomy. 
Engineering. 

lY. Philosophy and History. 

History and International Law. 
Psychology and History of Philosophy. 
History and Criticism of English Literature. 

V. Philology. 

Latin and Greek Languages and Literatures. 
Comparative Philology. 
Modern European Languages. 

PRKPARATORY DRPARTMINT. 

It has been and will continue to be necessary to keep this depart- 
ment so long as the high schools in the State are not sufficiently de- 
veloped to furnish the necessary preparation for students at the 
University. The principal studies are English Grammar, Geogra- 
phy, Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry, Latin and Greek. The sole 
object of this department is to prepare students for the regular 
classes of the University, 

15 — Sup. Pub. Ins. 



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226 

NUMBBR OF STUDBNTS. 

There was during the past Collegiate year the following number 
of students in attendance upon the University : 

Students in College classes 66 

UniverBity students 64 

Students in Preparatory department 124 

i^tudenrs in Female College 140 

Total 894 

FINANCIAL CONDITION. 

1 beg to refer to the annexed annual report of the Secretary o* 
the Board of Regents for the receipts and disbursements of the 
different funds, and their respective resources appropriated for the 
support of the University. From that report it appears that the , 
total receipts of the University Fund Income during the past year 
were $27,658.38, and the total disbursements for expenses of that 
year were $26,648.61, while the estimated income of the ensuing 
year is $29,303.76. Considering the large and increasing demands 
now made upon the institution, its income is still far below that of 
many similar institutions in other states. 

HISOBLLANBOUS MATTBBS. 

The principal and most pressing need of the University is si ill 
felt to be (more pressingly even than last year because of the in- 
crease of students) an increase of room and of accommodations 
for students. The University must have another building. It is 
impossible to put up such a building from its own resources, and it 
has, therefore, to rely upon the generosity of the state to furnish 
the means. Without another building the University cannot ex- 
pand as it surely will with enlarged accommodations. The Presi- 
dent of the University, in his last report to the Regents, makes the 
following statement: " We have no proper laboratory^ no tele* 
Mcope, no oheervatoryy no room for public meetings, no building 
suitable/or the Female College" From their resources the Begents 
may supply some of these and other pressing wants in time, but 
they cannot erect a new building. For that they can only appeal 
to the state. 



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Under tho direction of President Chadbonrne a room has, for the 
present, been fitted up in the basement of the University building 
for students' work in practical chemistry, and another room is being 
prepared by him for metallurgy, which will have to answer the pur- 
pose until we have a new building and can fit up a proper laboratory. 

The University is cow fairly on the road to success ; with a little 
more encouragement and assistance from the people and the legis- 
lature, it will soon be a pride to the state. 

El WARD SALOMON, 
Preiident of the Board of Regents of the University of Wis, 



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APPENDIX. 



REPORT OF PROFESSOR W. W. MNIELLS. 



To THB Honorable Edward Salomon, 

Pres. of the Board of Regents of the University of Wis.: 

Sir : The following brief report of operations upon the Uniyer- 
sity farm daring the past summer is respectfully submitted : 

I received my appointment to the chair of Agricalture on tbe 
24th day of February last, when there were Uvither teams, buildings, 
nor tools of any kind upon the farm. None of the land had ever 
been in cultivation, and although a [ortion of the farm was par- 
tially cleared, much work was necessary to fit it for the plow. The 
Btumps, stones, and also the trees, except those left for ornament, 
have been remo\ed from all land that has been plowed. In all cases 
where it was practicable the stone have been drawn to the lake to 
jprevent farther washing away of the bank. 

Four acres of corn have been in cultivation. Experiments that 
•wore begun upon this crop in different methods of preparing the 
«eed, were necessarily abandoned, as the unusually heavy rains im- 
mediately after planting caused a portion of it to decay before 
germinating. 

Two acres of potatoes have also been in cultivation. A report 
of the experiments in the different methods of preparing the seed 
will be found below. This crop was chosen as an excellent one to 
subdue the sward, and the experiments were merely incidental to 
this process. 



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The plat of ground selected for a vineyard was plowed in June. 
A portion of it was sowed to corn for soiling purposes, and ^another 
portion to ruta-bagas. 

The northward slope, next the Jake, containing nearly ten acres, 
to be used as an apple orchard, is al««o plowed. 

That portion of the University grounds that had once been in 
cultivation as a garden, has been laid down to grass for a lawn. 
The worthless appletrees upon this piece have been removed. The 
remaining ones have been pruned and otherwise cared for. 

The work of clearing up the University grounds, has been con- 
tinued. The groves have been thinned where thinning was neces- 
sary, and the dead limbs removed from the remaining trees. The 
stumps and stone have been so far removed as to admit of the entire 
grounds being mowed, with the exception of that portion along the 
bank of the lake, which is left in its wild state for botanical purpo- 
ses. Two hundred evergreens, from three to six feet in height, have 
been set upon the grounds. Although the summer has been ex 
ceedingly dry, not more than six of these show any signs of dying. 
This may be attributed to the following method of treating them. 
The holes were dug of good size, before the trees were delivered, 
that the plants might be kept out of the ground as short a time as 
possible, and no trees were taken from the nursery, that had not a 
good supply of fibrous roots. The time of setting was the last 
week of April and the first of May. The earth in the hole was 
made to conform as nearly as possible to the under surface of the 
mass of roots. In setting, after thoroughly wetting the roots, a 
man held the tree in its place with one hand, and with the other 
placed the roots as nearly as possible in their natural position, while 
a second man shoveled the earth in, putting the richest soil next the 
roots. The trees were then firmly tied to stakes, and well mulched 
to a distance of three feet from the body. Those that needed it 
were mulched a second time at the beginning of the dry season. No 
care has since been given them, yet I have seldom seen evergreens 
do better the first season after planting. 

An arbor-vitao hedge has been planted between the stiles in front 
of the University. 

A row of Norway spruce, intended as a future protection against 



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Bouth and sonthwest winds, hu been planted on the south line of the 
fann, fanning west one hundred rods from the University grounds. 

There are in oultivation for future use fourteen hundred seedling 
evergreens of two years growth. These plants were donated to the 
University by Bobert Douglas, Esq., of Waukegan, Illinois. 

Drives have been constructed from the buildings to each of the 
front entrances. The danger of washing, in the gutters of the steep- 
er portions of these drives, has been obviated by seeding thickly to 
June grass. 

The avenue leading from the farm buildings to the University 
has been graded two rods in width, one-fourth of a mile. 

The fence between the farm and University grounds, and that 
about the President's house, have been removed, throwing the en- 
tire land into one enclosure. 

About fifteen tons of hay were cut upon ground that had never 
been in cultivation, and was so rough as to require the work to be 
done by hand. A few acres of this land have since been as' well pre- 
pared for mowing as is practicable, without first subjecting it to thor- 
ough tillage. 

A farm bam 50x60 feet, with 24 feet posts, is completed. This 
barn contains horse and cattle stables, a granary, a carriage and tool 
room, besides bays for hay and grain. The stone basement, eight 
feet in height, has a fine fruit and root cellar 30x36 feet, a manure 
cellar 20x60 feet, and an apartment 24x30 feet, to be used for the 
present as a sheep fold. 

A farm Bouse, 20x38 feet, with a wing 22x24 feet, to be finished 
the 1st of January, 1869, is in process of erection. 

Students who desire it are furnished with labor, whenever it is 
possible to do so, at a maximum price of 12 1-2 cents per hour. Dur- 
ing the summer and fall terms of the present year, work has been 
done by them to the amount of ovei three hundred dollars. 

The land given to the Wisconsin State Horticultural Society for 
the purpose of experimenting in horticulture has been prepared for 
cultivation. A portion only has been in use the past summer. They 
already have growing fruit trees and grapes of different kinds, var- 
ious varieties of small fruits and shrubbery, and a barberry hedge. 
A part cf the ground has also been sot with evergreens and decidu- 
ous trees of choice varieties. 



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. After reoeinng the appropriation of the land, the society isBued a 
eircnlar soliciting donations, which was sent to the leading nursery- 
men and hortiealtnrists of the country. Many yaluahle collections 
of seeds, plants and shrubbery, have been received in answer to this 
circular. 

The following is a list of the donors as furnished to the Wisconsin 
Farmer, by 0. S. Willey, Esqr, Secretary of the Society : 

Kinseley ^Gaines, Dayton, Ohio. 

Samuel £iJward, La Moil, IlliDoia. 

Chas. Andrew**, Marengo, Illinois. 

David Landreth, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

M. De VVolf, DelaVKD, Wisconsin 

J. C. Fliimb, Milton, Wisconsin. 

M. B. Lum, Sandusky, Ohio. 

Ingraham Gould, Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. 

Joseph Hobbins— President of the Society —Midison. 

W. W. Beebe, Dubuque, Iowa. 

Suel Foster, Muscatine, Iowa. 

Stickney & Baumbach, Wauwatosa, Wisconsin. 

G. J. Kellogg, Janesville, Wisconsin. 

R. 0. Thompson, Brookfield, Missouri. 

John Howie, Madison, Wisconsin. 

Plattman & Sprague, Erie, Pennsylvania. 

G. H. & J. H. Greenman, Hilton, Wii^consin. 

A. G. Tuttle, Baraboo, Wisconsin. 

O. S. Willey, Madison, Wisconsin. 

A. S. Fuller, Ridgewcod, New York. 

And one package from an unknown source. 

This enterprise seems to be flourishing, and bids fair to meet with 

the success it so justly deserves. 

KXPSRIMINTS WITH POTATOES. 

The ground, thirty-five rods in length, and nine in breadth, was 
divided longitudinally, into 8 parallel subdivisions of 5 rows each. 

Planted May 23, in rows three and one-half feet apart each way, 
three inches in depth, with seed prepared as follows : 



Subdi- 
▼is'n. 



Method of preparing seed. 



Bushs 
per 



No. 1 

No. 2 

No. S 

No. 4 

No. 5 

No. 6 

No. 7 

No. 8 



Seed whole, and of large size, one potatoe to a hill 

Seed of large size, cut into four pieces, three pieces in a hill, 

4 inches apart 

One small potatoe in a hill 

Small potatoes cut into thirds, three pieces to a hill, 4 inches 

apart 

One seed end of medium-sized potatoe to a hill 

Half a medium sized potatoe, without seed end, to a hill. . . 

The ftame as No. 2 

Single eyes, three in a hill 



20 

16 

8 



15 



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Planted on June grass sward, with clay sub-soil, plowed 4 1-2 iq- 
cbes in depth. 

June 11th, first leaves above ground. Showed general signs of 
coming up uniformly. 

June 20th, plants in sub-division No. 1, largest and most vigor- 
ous. Those in No. 8 small and most weakly. 

July 6th, No. 1 still most vigorous. Nos. 3 and 6 uezt in size. 
No. 8 weakest, plants short and spindling. The same relative sise 
was visible throughout the remainder of the season. 

At the time of digging, Oct, 14th to 17th, five plats, of fifty hills 
each, were taken from each subdivision in various parts of the field 
the potatoes weighed, and the mean taken as the average yield for 
that subdivision, giving the following results : 



Subdi. 




rield in Iba. on 


plat No. 




Total. 


yisiou. 














1 


2 


3 


4 


5 




No. 1 


115 


96i 


12.H 


102 


80i 


619i 


2 


llOi 


84 


90 


74 


92 


460i 


8 


108i 


99i 


92i 


86 


92 


478i 


4 


100 


lOOi 


96,. 


96 


S6 


478 


6 


87 


91 


98, r 


98 


84 


453i 


6 


118i 


123^ 


119 


104 


94 


659 


n 


124 


97i 


100 


94 


93 


608i 


8 


lOH 


56 


66i 


67 


66 


355 



Size. 



Bush- 
els per 
acre. 



Large . . 

.do... 

.do... 
Medium 
Large . . 

do... 
Medium 
Small. 



128 

110 
113 
113 
107 
132 
120 
84 



No. 6, one half a medium sized potato to a hill, gave a larger 
yield than No. 1 — large potatoes planted entire, showing the yield 
does not always depend upon the size or amount of the seed Seed 
endp alone, with the exception of single eyes, yield least. From this 
it may bo inferred that the eyes of seed ends do not produce as 
vigorous plants as those on the body of the potato. 

The appearance of the plants throughout the season, and the small 
yelds in No. 8, tends to prove that it is necessary to plant a portion 
of the potato besides the mere bad to produce vigrous plants and a 
good yield. 

Although the appearance of the plants in subdivision No. I, 
showed them to be the most thrifly of all, the yield did not corres- 
pond to this difference in the growth of the tops. Again, the tops 



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283 

of sabdivisioD No. 8, were largest of all, excepting Nos. 1 and 6. 
Tet No. 7 gave a large yield, and No. 4 equally as large, showing 
that the weight of tubers is not always in proportion to the size of the 
topfi. More experiments are necessary to establish any one of these 
points, but the evidence of these, bears in the directions here iudica* 
ted. 

The point of greatent interest in these experiments is the difference 
in the yield of two adjacent plats, where all the circumstances un- 
der which they were grown were apparently the same. 

Follow the line in the above table, opposite any one of the subdi- 
visions, and it will at once be seen that the yield of hardly any two 
of the plats corresponds. In subdivision No. 8, plat No. 2 yields 
but a trifle more than half as much as plat No. 1. Yet the method 
and time of planting were the same, the soil the same, so far as any 
one could judge, and the distance between them not more than forty 
feet. 

This shows that condunions cannot safely be drawn from a single 
series of experiments, and goes far to prove the necessity of care- 
fully testing the ground, before using it at all for experimental pur- 
poses. 

These potatoes were of the peach-blow variety. The method of 
cultivation was the same on all parts of the field. The soil upon 
which they grew had the appearance of being uniform, and no crop 
had ever before been raised upon the land. 

The cost of cultivating potatoes, is, I think, usually underrated. 
As the above crop affords an excellent opportunity for illustrating 
this, I give below its debit and credit accounts. 

Tt is to be remembered that every hour's work done upon the 

field, from the commencement of the plowing to the completion of 

the harvest, is charged at the current rates, where the hands and 

teams board themselves. Hands at $1.50 per day. Hand and 

team $8.50. 

DEBIT. 

To 20 bushels seed @ 76 cents fl5 

Breaking, harrowing, marking the ground and planting 28 7^ 

Cultivating and hoeing 17 67 

Picking beetles by hand 16 75 

Harvest! ng 18 70 

Total debit $91 01 



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284 

CREDIT. 
By 200 bnahelB, worth at time of harvoBiiog 80 Cents per bashel. . . . $160 00 
Profit $68 99 



All experiments with inseot destroying solutions proTed of no 
avail when used upon the potato beetle. 

White hellebore when used at the rate of a pound to one hundred 
hills, also had no visible effect. Hand picking proved to be the 
most available method of preventing their ravages. 

This process was followed up so persistently, that the insects did 
little or no damage to the crop. But it will be seen by reference to 
the above account, that it added largely to the cost of production. 

The yield though small, is believed to be more than an average 
for the year, in this vicinity. 

W. W. DANIELLS. 
Profe%ior of Agriculture. 



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REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 



Madison, Wis., November 1, 1868. 

Hon. Edward Salomon, 

PretideiU of the Reyents of the University of Wisconein : 

Sib : — ^I have the honor to sabmit the following statement of the 
Fands pertaining to the University, in my capacity as Secretary of 
the Regents, under the provisions of chapter 114 of the Qeneral 
Laws of 1866. 

Under the provisions of said chapter the proceeds of the Agricul- 
tural College grant of public lands were placed under the control of 
the University for the purpose of sustaining an agricultural and 
scientific department in connection with it. A separate account is 
kept with each fund, the productive capital of each being on the 80th 
day of September, 1867 and 1868, as follows: 



UNIVEBSITT VUND. 

1867. 1868. 

AmouDt due on certificates of sales $69,192 88 $68,84114 

Amount due on mortgages 6,892 00 6,092 00 

Certificates of indebtedness iOl ,000 00 101 ,000 00 

Dane county bonds 16,800 00 24,000 00 

Total productive fund $ 193,884 88 $ 199,488 14 

Showing an increase in the productive fund during the last year 
of $5,548.26. 



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AGBIOULTUBAL COLLEGE FUND. 

1867. 1868. 

Dues on certificates of sale |12,41Y 00 $14,488 40 

Dane county bonds 6,000 00 11,000 00 

Total $18,417 00 $25,488 40 

Showing an increase of the productive fund of $7,071.40. 

1867. 1868. 

Total principal of both funds $ 212,801 88 $ 224,921 54 

The amount and value of lands ramaining unsold at the close of 
the last fiscal year, as near as can be ascertained, is as follows : 

Aere8. Value. 

University fund 12,765 $31,885 00 

Agricultural college fund 219 ,737 274, 671 00 

Total 282,492 $ 306,656 00 

The changes in the first two items of the productive University 
fund, as stated above, have been produced as follows : 

Amount due on certificates of sale, Sept. 30, 1867 $69,192 88 

Decreased by forfeitures $1 , 868 74 

Decreased by payments 4 ,969 00 

$6,827 74 

$62,365 14 
Increase by new certificates of sale 5, 976 00 

Amount due on certificates of sale, Sept. 30, 1868 $68,841 16 

Amount due on mortgages, Sept. 30 1867 $6,892 00 

Decreased by forfeitures $S00 00 

Decreased by payments 500 00 

800 00 

Amount due on mortgages, Sept. 30, 1868 $6,09 2 00 

The change in the first item of the productive Agricultural Col- 
lege Fund, as state! above, has been produced as follows : 

Amount due on certificates of sale, Sept. SO, 1867 $12,417 00 

Deci-easc'l by forfeitures $2,884 60 

Decreased by payments Ill 00 

2,996 60 

$9,421 40 
Increased by new certificates of sale 6,067 00 

Amount due on certificates of sale, Sept 80, 1868 $14,488 40 



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237 

The receipts and diBburscmcntB for the last fiscal year have been 
as follows : 

UNIYEBBITT VUMD. 

Receipts. 

Sales of land $2,061 18 

Dues on certificates 4,959 00 

Loans, payments on mortgages 500 00 

Penalties on forfeitures 45 85 

Taxes 22 76 



Total receipts $7,588 74 

Dishunements. 

Invested in Dane coui.ty bonds $7,200 00 

Refundtd on account of over payments 72 16 



$7,588 74 $7,272 16 

Balance, September 80, 1867 1 , 181 56 

Balance, September 8U, 1868 1,498 14 

18,770 30 $8,770 30 



AOBICULTUBAL COLL£OE FUND. 

Receipts. 

Sales of lands $3, 592 00 

Dues on certificated Ill 00 

Penalties on forfeitures 7 64 



Total receipts $3,711 44 

Disbursements. 

Invested in Dane county bonds $5,000 00 

Refunded, on account of over payments 13 00 

$3,711 44 $5,018 00 

Balance, September 30, 1867 1,815 39 

Balance, September 30, 1868 518 83 

$5,526 83 $5,526 83 



UNIVBRBITT FUBD INCOME. 

Receipts. 

Interest, on principal due on lands $5,207 45 

Interest, on certificates of indebtedness 

Interest, on Dane county bonds 

Students, for tuition and room rent 

Students, for fuel 

Boarding department ... 

Appr'n from general fund, chapter 22, laws 1867. 

Total receipts $27,658 88 



7,070 00 


1,680 00 


5,903 80 


453 87 


40 00 


7,808 76 



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288 

Duhtarsementt. 

Salaries > $22 , 098 88 

Expenses of regents 665 SO 

Insurance 694 25 

Repairs 8,110 99 

Incidentals 2,35189 

Fuel 905 15 

Printing and advertising 405 95 

Library 852 69 

Furniture ^ 89 70 

Boarding department 845 95 

Room rent 44 88 

Philosophical apparatus 19 90 

Refunded for over-payment of interest 144 01 



$27,658 88 $81,129 49 

Balance, September 80, 1867 5,619 64 

Balance, September 80, 1868 2 ,148 43 

$88,277 92 $88,277 92 

The aooounts audited and paid from the income of the University 
fond, were, in detail as follows : 

Salaries of Preddent and Iruinietional force — 

P. A. Chadbourne, president $4,000 00 

Wm. F. Allen, professor 2,260 Oo 

J. P. Fuchs do 1,800 00 

J. W. Sterling do 2,260 00 

J.B.Parkinson... do 2.260 00 



E. S Oarr do 900 00 

T. N. Haskall do 2,210 88 

W. W. Daniells ....do 1,076 00 

J. B Feuling do 800 00 

J. H. Carpenter . . . .do 400 00 

W. F. Vilas do 100 00 

J. E. Davies. do 800 00 

A. H. Thompson, instructor 1 , 800 00 

R. E. Harmon do 1,000 00 

J. P. Leavitt do 60 00 

Miss E. Earle, preceptresH 900 00 

Miss G L. Ware instructress 750 00 

A E. Yerrell, course of lectures 263 00 



£xpente$ of RegmiM— 

R. B. Banderson 68 25 

Samuel Fallows. 45 75 

J. S. Bugh 70 00 

0. S. Hamilton 61 65 

A. L. Smith 68 90 

Ansnis Oameron 67 25 

J. 0. Cover 60 10 

B. R. Hinkley 6a 20 

E. Salomon 24 70 

P. 0. Thorpe 27 00 

Jno. G. McMynn 26 70 

H. D. Barron 68 80 

M. M. Dom, liyerv for regents 86 00 

Andrew Kentzler. .'. .do 8 00 



$22,098 88 



$665 to 



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289 



Ifuuranee — 

M. D , Miller agent 

Williams k Main ... .do 

Wm. H. Wyman do 

C. Ainsworth do 

S. 6. Benedict do 

Madison Mutual Insurance Go. 



Hepaira — 

James McDowell} carpenter work. 

Edgar Hunt do. 

W. P. Towers, painting 

Sharp & Co., Plastering 

W. Ramsay & Co., hardware 

Sexton & Dowling, lumber 

P. A. Ghadbourne, repairs 



JncidmtaU — 

Patrick Walsh, Janitor services 

Patrick Finerty do 

L. Flanagan do 

Hesp. and Ath. Societies, music at exhibition. . . . 

C. E. Vroman do 

S. Elauber & Go., carpets 

B. W. Suckow, binding book 

Pardee & Clark, merchandise 

J. F: Luhme, chemicals 

Pat. McConnoll,.. labor 

Michael Hawk do 

Martin Higgins do 

James Hays do 

P. P. Purcell do 

Pat Garen do 

L. Flanagan do 

Nicholas Peabody . . .do 

Nicholas Kelly do 

P. A. Ghadbourne, incidentals 

J. W. Sterling do 

Moseley & Bro., stationery 

N. B. Van Klyke, telegraphing, copying and ex ch. 

P. L. Spooner, legal services 

Samuel Bachman, cleaning arms 

T. G Smith, visitor 

J. G. Clark, do 

H. G Baker do 

N. B Gromton, blacksmithlng 

J. W. Sterling, bell ringing 

Patrick Walsh, cleaning rooms 



FueL 



Wm. R. Taylor, wood 

Thomas Casey, .... do 

Thomas Ferrell, chopping wood. 



$237 50 

126 00 

18Y 60 

43 Y6 

80 00 

20 60 



1694 26 



till 12 

282 60 

1,024 19 

82 96 

486 26 

422 03 

86 96 



480 00 
64 32 

181 90 
26 00 
26 00 

112 68 

1 00 

24 66 

164 45 
26 26 
43 76 
88 50 
18 60 

21 00 
37 65 
26 49 
24 60 

22 75 
500 14 
100 80 
114 22 

20 76 
50 00 
28 32 
16 66 
40 86 
46 OQ 
22 11 
16 00 
70 75 



$708 16 

188 76 

18 26 



$3,110 99 



12,861 89 



$905 15 



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240 

Printing and Advertising. 

Atwood & Rublee, priDting , 

Jermain & Brightman, advertising. . , 

Kichardson Bros do , 

I; V. Muntanye do , 

Sinclair & Co do 

Lyon & Paul do 

Knapp& Jones do 



$290 06 


88 00 


6 00 


45 00 


4 00 


20 40 


8 60 



8405 95 



lAbrary. 

G. 6. Putnam, maps and books |^2 11 

Moseley & Bro., books 61 75 

J. B. Parkinson, books 217 98 

P. A. Ghadbourne, Siiliman's jour. Dis. reb'n 9 50 

W. J. Park, binding 41 40 

Furniiure. 

J. M Haight $61 70 

Fisher & Reynolds 28 00 

Boarding Department, 

J. M. Haight, furniture $32 00 

John N. Jones, hardware 94 70 

W. P. Towers, painting 22 75 

S. Elauber & Co., merchandise 24 10 

A. Parker, forks and spoons 18 00 

J. W. Sterling, furniture 147 00 

W. Bamsay & Co , hardware .^ 7 40 

Eoom-rent. 

B. Marvin, rent of rooms for students 7 60 

John Orr do 7 50 

Laura V.Carr do 13 83 

John Mendusen do 16 50 



$352 69 



$89 70 



$345 95 



$44 83 



Philosophical Apparatus, 

J. W. Sterling meterological instruments $19 90 

Refunded for overpayment of interest 144 01 



Total disbursements $31,129 49 

The amount paid for salaries of several of the Professors and 
President includes the last quarter of the previous year, amounting 
to $4,485 >8. The actual amount paid for these salaries for the 
year ending Septemher 30, 1868, was ?17,613, instead of ?22,098 
88, as shown above. 

AGRIOULTURA.L COLLEGE FUND INCOME. 

RECEIPTS. 

Interest on principal due on lands $829 14 

Interest on Dane county bonds 988 15 



Total receipts $1,817 89 



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241 

DISBURSEMENTS. 
First National bank, interest on Dane county 

bonds, |42 88 

Refunded for over payment 66 

$1,817 89 148 88 

Balance, September 3.:>, 1867 1 ,090 08 

Balance, September 30, 1868 2,864 69 

12,807 97 $2,907 97 



EXPERIMENTAL FARM FUND. 

RECEIPTS. 

Dane County— Dane county bonds redemeed 

University Fund— Dane county bonds investment, 
Agricultural College Fund — Dane county bon('8, 

iuTestmeiit 

Daniel Reed, rent of house 

P. A. Chanbourne, building sold 

N. B. Van Slyke, rent from professor of University, 
lots sold 

Total receipts $17,696 00 



$6,000 00 
7,200 00 

6,000 00 

190 00 

30 00 

200 00 

76 00 



DISBURSEMENTS 

Buildings and farming utensils $3,478 18 

Labor and incidentals ^ 1,840 28 

Dane cornty bonds hypothecated . . , . ; 6 , 000 GO 

$17,696 00 $11,313 41 

Overpayment, September 80, 1867 1,920 92 

Balance, September 30, 1868 4,460 67 



$17,696 00 $17,696 00 



The following is a detailed statement of the aeccunts audited and. 
paid for the experimental farm fund during the last fiscal year : 

BUILDINQS AND FARMING UTENSILS. 

W. T. Fish, building barn $669 76 

A. R. Moxley, building barn 968 68 . . .*. 

George Gifford, painting barn 11100 

Thomas Allen, labor on barn 6618 •• 

Hamilton & Foster, oil for painting 62 90 

Thomas Dempsey, digging well 61 76 

W. T. Fish, excavating cellar 120 00 

W. T. Fish, cistern 67 00 

W. Ramsey & Go , farm tools 84 19 

B. R. Hinkley, two horses 944 20 

B. R. Hinkley agricultural implements 168 08 

Hill & Vaughn, field roller 108 20 - • • . 

Jones & Sumner, plow 86 00 • • • • 

Charles Hammer, harness 61 26 



1&— Sup. Pub. Ins. 



$8,47« 18^ 



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242 

LAfiOR AND IHCIDKNTALS. 

P. Connell labor $49 47 

M.Coffee do 86 76 

Thomas Farrell do 48 00 

B. Fitzpatrick....do 92 61 

L. FlauDagan do 24 98 

P. P. Purcell do 196 88 

T. Torgerson do 98 68 

Patrick Garen.... do 76 75 

Hager Larson do 61 17 

JamesHays do 79 44 

W. W. Daniels do 19 24 

Nicholas Kelley ... do 42 88 

Michael Leonard, .do 9 76 

J. L. Lewis do 125 00 

Nicholas Peabody. do 46 88 

John Gibbon, recording deeds 2 76 

Casper Thorman, plans for grounds 125 00 

P. A. Chadboumc, incidentals -. ' . 432 44 

T. D. Plumb, trees 125 60 

N. B. Gramtcn, blacksmithing 69 05 

L. P. Drake, surveying 3 00 

W. W. Daniells, expenses 48 70 

E. Horden, pump 15 80 

Sterens & Somers, seeds 16 81 

N. B. VanSIvke, paint 10 76 

$1,840 23 

Firet National Bank — Dane co. bonds hypothecated 6,000 00 



Total disbursements $11,813 41 

The available funds for the current year belonging to the Univer- 
sity Fund Income and the Agricultural Fund Income, may be 
estimated as fellows : 

Balance University Fund Income $2,148 48 

Balance Agricultural College Fund Income 2,864 69 

Interest on production fund 16,000 00 

Appropriation by State 7,308 76 

Tuition and rent 6 ,000 00 

Total $34,316 78 



Believing the foregoing statement to comprise aU the facts requir- 
.ed to be communicated at the present time, 1 am 

KespectfuUy your obedient servant, 

THOS. 8. ALLEN, 
Secretary of State and ex-officio Sec, of 
Regents of Univerttty. 



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SPECIAL REPORT OF PRESIDENT CHADBOURNE. 



Hon. A. J. Oraio, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction, 

SiH : I herewith hand to you a statistical report of the tFniver- 
sity of Wisconsin for the collegiate year ending June 24, 1868, and 
beg leave to refer you to the Report of Hon. Edward Salomon, 
President of the Board of Regents for 1868, for a fall statement of 
the financial affairs of the institution for the past year. 

As important additions were made to the Faculty of the Univer- 
sity at the last commencement as well as increased facilities pro- 
vided for giving instruction in the different departments of science, 
I avail myself of your permission to make a brief statement of the 
present condition of the University. 

The Board of Instruction in all the colleges and departments is 
for the present year as follows : 

(See Regents' Report, page 208.) 

The University as now organized, embraces the following Colleges 
and Departments : 

I. COLLEGE OF ARTS. 

In this College, the course of study consists of Modern Lan- 
guages, Literature and Natural Sciences, together with such other 
studies as are usually pursued in colleges, excepting the Ancient 
Languages. Neither Latin nor Greek is required for entrance or 
graduation, but they nay both be pursued to any extent as optional 
studies. 

II. DBPAftTMENT OV MILITARY TAOTIOS AND OIVIL ENGINURINO. 

This Department is a branch of the College of Arts for special 
instruction in Engineering, and also for the thorough study of Mili- 



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244 

ary Taotios by those who wish to qualify themselves for entering 
the army. The Department is in charge of General W. R. Pease, 
a graduate of West Point, detailed by the Secretary of War for 
this duty. All arms are furnished by the State. The armory is now 
complete. 

in. DEPABTMBNT OV AORICULTUBB. 

This branch of the College of Arts is now well organised under 
the special direction of Prof. W. W. Daniells, lately of the Michi- 
gan Agricultural College. The Uniyersity owns 235 acres of land 
for an experimental farm. The land is worked under the direction 
of the Professor of Agriculture. The Wisconsin State Ho^-tioul- 
tural Society is also conducting experiments on a portion of the 
land set apart by the Regents for this purpose. Valuable farm 
buildings have been erected the past summer. 

The course of study in this department may be completed in a 
single year by advanced students, or it may require three years for 
its completio)!, according to the time spent in the laboratory and in 
practical agriculture. 

Professor Daniells also has charge of the new Analytical Labora- 
tory, which now offers excellent advantages to students in agricul- 
ture and to others who wish to make practical chemistry a special 
study. 

IV. COLLEGE OF LETTFRS. 

The course of study in this College is intended to be the same as 
in the best colleges of the country, embracing Ancient and Modern 
Languages, Mathematics, Literature and Science. 

V. PRBPABATOBT DEPABTMBNT. 

In which young men are fitted for entering either the College of 
Letters or the College of Arts, and its Departments. 

YI. POST OBADUATB OOUBSB. 

Students who have graduated at either eollege of the University, 
or at any other college of equal rank, can remain in the University 
as resident graduates, and have the privilege of attending any lec- 
tures or other exercises of the under graduate course. They cltn 



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245 

also pur sue any branch of Literature or science ander the direction 
of the President and Faculty. If they deyote two whole years to 
study, they may, on examination and recommendation of the Facul- 
ty, be admitted to the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 

VII. UNIYSBSITT STUDENTS. 

Students who do not desire to enter either Oollege, may attend 
such lectures and recitations as they are prepared for in either Col- 
lege for such time as they m^y choose, but they are under the same 
regulations as to attendance and punctuality as those belonging to 
the College classes. 

Yin. DBPARTMENT OV LAW. 

This department is now fully organized, with a faculty consisting 
of the Judges of the Supreme Court of the State, and other gentle- 
men eminently qualified for their position. The peculiar advantages 
of Madison for a law school are unsurpassed, and every effort will 
be made to offer the best facilities possible to students. They can 
be admitted at any time, and be graduated after one year's study. 
Tuition, $20 for the first term and $1^. for each succeeding term. 

The first term has opened with a class of ten students, and there 
is every prospect that this department will soon become one of great 
importance and usefulness, 

IX. FEMALE COLLEGE. 

What was formerly the Normal Department, has been constituted, 
by the regents, a Female College, with its own building and public 
rooms and a separate board of instruction The building, and 
everything relating to the government of this college, is under the 
special direction of the preceptress. The president of the universi- 
ty and the professorS; give instruction in their several departments, 
and the students have the privilege of attending the university lec- 
tures, but all recitations and other exercises are entirely distinct 
from those in the other colleges. The course of study requires four 
years for its completion. 

To increase the efficiency of the above colleges and departments, 
great improvements are making in the laboratory for chemical analy- 



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246 

sis and researeh, and the reduotion and assay of metals. In addi< 
tion to the lectnres deliyered by the faculty, others will be secured 
from mcD engaged in horticulture and agriculture, as well as from 
those eminent in science. As the funds increase from the sale of 
lands, constant additions will be made to the boaad of instruction 
and to the means of teaching the sciences in all their applications 
to the arts. It is believed that the university is now ready to meet 
any demands that can be made upon it for instruction, and that it 
will be able to increase its facilities as new demands are made. 

The number of students in all the colleges and departments for 
the present term, is 318 ; for the corresponding term of last year, 
it was 236. There has been a very gratifying increase of numbers 
in the higher classes, but therj is still a great want of preparation 
on the part of the students who present themselves for examination. 
When the high schools increase in number and take higher rank, 
this defect will be remedied- A stream must have fountains to fill 
its channels, and no university advautages can supply the want of 
proper preparatory schools. The success of university education in 
this State must depend much upon the character of the men who 
have charge of the high schools. 

Very truly yours, 

P. A. CHADBOURNR 

Madison, Oct. 27, li368. 



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UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 

Annual Report 0/ the President of the University of Wisconsin, 
for the year ending August 31, 1868, 

1. Corporate name of the institution, Univerdity of Wisconsin. 

2. Name of tlie place whore the institution is located, Madison, Wisconsin. 
S. Year when the institution was founded, 184?. 

4. Names of members of Faculty and their salaries : 



Names. 



Departments of Instruction. 



Salaries. 



Paul A Chadbourne, Pros 

John W. Sterling 

Ezra S. Garr 

W.W. Daniells 

T. N.Haskell 

Wm. F. Allen 

John P. Fuchs 

John B. Parkinson 

R. E. Harmon 

A. H. Thompson 

Miss Elizabeth Earle 

Miss Clarissa L. Ware. . . . 



Mental and Moral Philosophy 

Nat. Philosophy and Astronomy. . . 
Chemistry and Natural History. . . . 

Agriculture 

Rhetoric and English Literature. . . 
Ancient Languages and History . . . 
Modern Languages and Literature , 

Mathemati cs 

Tutor 

Tutor 

Preceptress in Normal Department 
Associate Preceptress * " 



$8,000 00 
1,800 00 
1,800 00 
1,800 00 
1,800 00 
1,800 00 
1,800 00 
1 ,800 00 
1,000 00 
1,000 00 
700 "0 
600 \)0 



Male. Female. 



6. Total number who have graduated 

6. Number who graduated last commencemlnt . . 

7. Number of students in senior class 

8 do do. .. .junior class 

9 do do. . . .sophomore class ...... 

10 do do. . . .fr'ishman class 1. 

11. Number of Uniyersity students (select course. 

NORMAL DEPARTMENT. 



11 

9 
9 
16 
29 
18 
64 



25 



12. Number of students in senior class. 

18 do do. .. .middle class. 

14 do do. . . .junior class. 



8 

26 

106 



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248 
16. Number of acres of land owned by the institution 282,490 

16. Estimated cash value of land owned by the institution . . . $306,656 00 

17. Estimated cash value of buildings owned by the institution 104,889 47 

18. Amount of endowments and funds, except real estate 224,921 64 

19. iDcome for the current year from all sources, except tuition 1,867 17 

20. Amount received for tuition during the current year 5,000 00 

21. Bates of tuition in Isither colle;!e or department per annum, 

not including board $18 00 

22. One student admitted without payment of tuition from each assembly 

district in the atate. 

P. A. CHADBOURNB, 
President of the University of Wiscon$%n, 



BELOTT COLLEGE. 

Annual Report of the President of the Board of Trustees of 
Beloit College^ for the year ending August Zi, 1868. 

1. Corporate name of the institution. The Board of Trustees of Beloit College. 

2. Name of the place where the institution is located, Beloit. 
8. Year when institution was founded, 1847. 

4. Names of members of the faculty, with their respective balaries. 



Names. 



Departments of Instruction. 



I 



Salaries. 



Aaron L. Cbapin, D.D., Pr*t 
Rev. Jos. Emerson, A.M.. 
Jackson J. Bushnell, AM, 
Rev. Wm. Porter, A.M.. . . 
Rev. Jas. J. Blaisdell, A.M. 
Elijah P. Harris, Phi. D.. 
Rev. Jas. J. Blaisdell, A.M. 
John P. Fisk, A.M 



History and Civil Polity 

Greek Languages and Literature. . . . 
Mathematics and Natural Philosophy 

Latin Language and Literature 

Intellectual and Moral Philosophy. . . 

Chemistry and Natural Science I 

Rhetoric and English Literature. . . 
Principal of Nor. and Prep. Depart. 



$1,800 00 
1,600 00 
1,600 00 
1,600 00 
1,600 00 
1,600 00 
600 00 
1,500 00 




Female. 



6. Total number who have graduated 

6. Number who graduated at last commencement 

7. Number of Students in the Senior class 

8. Number of students in the Junior class 

9. Number of students in the Sophomore class 

10. Number of students in the Freshman class 

11. Number of students in the Preparatory Department. . 



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2,281 



12. Namber of acres of land owned by the iustitution — 

College site 16 

Other lands in Wisconsin 805 

In other States 1 , 460 

1 8. Estimated cash value of land owned by the institution — 

College site $10,000 

Other lands 9,000 

$19,000 00 

14. Estimated cash value of buildings owned by the iustitution. 40,000 00 

15. Amount of endowments and funds except real estate 118,600 00 

16. Amount of income for the current year from all sources ex- 

cept tuition .' 12,668 80 

17. Amount received for tuition durins the current year 8,962 50 

18. Rates of tuition In Collegiate department per annum, not 

including board 80 00 

19. Rates of tuition in Preparatory department, not iucluding 

board 20 00 

20. Amount paid on account of expenses of the institution, ex- 

clusive of building and repairs, during the year ending 

August 31, 1868 17,400 00 



Spring Term begins April 21, 1869, continues 12 weeks. 
Fall Term begins September 8, 1869, continues 16 weeks. 
Winter Term begins January 18, 18'/0, continues 12 weeks. 

A. L. CHAPIN, 
President of the Board of Trustees. 



CARROLL COLLEGE. 

Annual Report of the President of the Board of 7}mst€€S 
Carroll College, for the year ending August 91, 1868. 

1. Corporate name of institution, Carroll College. 

2. Name of place where the institution is located, Waukesha. 
8. Year when institution was founded, 1846. 

4. Names of members of the faculty with their respective salaries: 



•/ 



Names. 


Departments of Instruction. 


Salaries. 


W. L. Rankin 


Pros. — Langs, and Higher Math... 

Principal Female Department 

Assistant Pupil 


$965 91 


Hiss Kate C. Dorr 

Mr. Henry Cole 

Miss L. Savage 


400 00 
180 00 


Primary Department 


ISO 00 









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260 



6. Total namber who have graduated . , 

6.. Number who graduated at last commencement 

1. Number of students in the Senior Glass 

8. Number of students in the Junior Glass 

9. Number of students in the Sophomore Glass 

10. Number of students in the Freshman Glass 

11. Number of students in the Preparatory Department. . 



Male. 



19 
6 



89 



Female. 



69 



12. Number of acres of land owned by the institution . 



14 



18. Estimated cash value of land owned by the institution .... $2,800 00 
14. Estimated cash value of buildings owned by the institution $6,000 00 

16. Amount of endowments and funds except real estate 

16. Amount of income for the current year from all sources ex- 
cept tuition 

1*7. Amount received for tuition during the current year $1 ,962 88 

18. Rates of tuition in Gollegiate department per annum, not 

including board 40 00 ' 

19. Rates of tuition in Preparatory department per annum, not 

including board $26 to $86 

20. Amount paid on account of expenses of the institution, ex- 

clusive of building and repairs, during the year ending 

AugustSl. 1868 '. $1,962 88 

Spring Term, 1869, begins April 6, continues 12 weeks. 
Fall Term,'1869, begins August 80, continues 16 weeks. 
Winter Term, 1870, begins January 8, continues 12 weeks. 

WALTER L. RANKIN, 
Preiident of Board of Trusteer. 



GALE8VILLE UNIVERSITY. 

Annual Report of the President of the Board of Trustees of 
Galesville University for the year ending August 31, 1868. 

1. Gorporate name of the institution, Galesville University. 

2. Name of the place where the institution is located, Galesville, Wis. 
8. Tear when the institution was founded, 1859. 

4. Names of members of the faculty with their respective salaries. 



Names. 


Departments of Instruction. 


Salaries. 


Rev. H. Gilliland, (A. M.) 

Kiss H. £. Wicks 

Three other teachers are 


Mental and Moral Science 


$1,600 


Mathematics and N. Sci. and Lang's 


460 


employed, but with no sta- 
ted salaries— as book-keep- 
ing, music, and assistants. 



















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251 



5. Total namber who have graduated 

6. Number who graduated at last commencement .... 

7. *Number of students in the Senior Glass 

8. *Number of students in the Junior Glass 

9. *Number of students in the Sophomore Glass 

10. *Number of students in the Freshman Glass 

11 *Number of students in the Preparatory Department 



Male. 



Female. 



12. Number of acres of land owned by the institution. 



8000 



18. Estimated cash value of land pwned by the institution. . . . 

14. Estimated cash value of buildings owned by the institution 

15. Amount of endowments and funds except real estate 

Id. Amount of income for the current year from all sources 

except tuition 

17. Amount received for tuition during the current year 

IS. Rates of tuition in Gollegiate department per annum, not 

including board 

19. Rate8 of tuition in Preparatory department per annum, not 

including board * * " 

20. Amount paid on account of expenses of the institution, 

exclusive of building and repairs, during the year ending 
August 81, 1868 



112,000 

10,000 

8,000 

1,500 
1,000 

80 

6 & 8, av. 7 



|100,00 



H. GILLILAND, 
Preiident of Board of Truttees. 

* No regular classes In the Glasslcal course— some in Languages —106 in all, Gol. and 
Prep. 



LAWRENCE UNIVERSITY. 

Annual Report of the President of the Board of Trustees of 
Lawrence Uuiversity.fnr the year ending August 31, 1868. 

1. Gorporate name of the institution, Lawrence University of Wisconsin. 

2. Name of the place where the institution is located, Appleton. 
S. Year when the institution was founded, 1848. 

4. Names of members of the faculty with their respective salaries: 



Names. 


Departments of Instruc tion. 

• 


Salaries. 


Geo. M. Steele, D.D., Pres 
Hiram A. Jones, A. M. . . . 


Ethics and Givil Polity 


$1,200 


A.ncient Languages 


800 


Chas. N. Stowers, A. M . . . 


Mathematics 


800 


James Faye, A. M 

Albert Sohindelmcisser. . . 
Harriet 0. Knox, AM 

<-' — 


Ghemistrv and Phvsics 


800 


Modem Languages and Mus'c 

English Literature and Latin 


800 
600 



* Including incidentals and room rent. 



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252 



6 Total number who have graduated 

6. Number who graduated at last commence men tj 

7. Number of students in the senior class 

8. Number of students in the junior class 

9. Number of tjtudentfl in the sophomore class 

10. Number of students in the freshman class 

11. TJniTersity students 

12 Number of students in t)ie Preparatory Department 




Female. 



84 
6 
6 

*6 

8 

10 
65 



18. Number of acres of land owned by the institution, about 



1,000 



14. Estimated cash ralue of land owned by the institution — 

1. Institution grounds .' *25 ,000 00 

2. Other lands, about 8,000 00 

16. Estimated cash value of buildings owned by the institution. 75,000 00 

16. Amount of endowments and funds, except real estate 88,000 00 

17. Amount of income for the current year from all sources ex- 

cept tuition* 8,104 66 

18. Amount received for tuition du.ing the current year 8,600 uO 

19. Rates of tuition in collegiate department per annum, not 

including board 86 00 

20. Rates of tuition in Preparatory department, per annum, not 

including board 27 00 

21. Amount paid on current expenses of the institution, exclu- 

sive of building and repairs, during the year ending '-% 

August 8lst, 1868 6,756 95 

Spring Term, (1869,) begins March 17, continues . . weeks. 
Fall Term, (1869,) begins Sept. 1, continues .. weeks. 
Winter Term, (1869, begins Dec. 8, continues . . weeks. 

GEO. M. STEELE, 
President of Board of Trustees, 



MILTON COLLEGE. 

Annual Report of the Presideni of the Board of Trustees of the 
MiUon College, for the year ending August 81, 1868. 

1. Corporate name of the institution, The Milton College. 

2. Name of the place where the institution is located, Milton, Rock Co. 

8. Tear wben the institution was fonnded, as an academy (1844); as a col- 
lege (1867). 



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258 

4. N&mes of members of the facultj with their respective salaries: 



Names. 



Departments of Instruction. 



Salaries. 



Rev. W. C. Whitford, A.M 
Edward ScariPg, A. M. . . . 
AlbertWh tford, A.M.... 

N. C. Twining, A. B 

J. D. Bond, 

Miss A. M. Fenner 

HissH. F. Bailey 

Mrs E. Utter 

Mrs. R. H. Whitford . . . . 



Katural, Mental and Moral Sciences 

Latin and French Languages 

Greek Lan. and Higher Mathematics 
Pure Math, and Com. Instruction. . . 

Penmanship 

English Language and Literature. . . 

German Language 

Instrumental and Vocal Music , 

Penciling and Painting , 



II 



,000 00 
800 00 
800 00 
700 00 
150 00 
400 00 
800 00 
600 00 
860 00 





Male. 


Female. 


fi Total namber who have graduated 


42 


ss 


6. Number who graduated at last commencement 


I 


7. Number uf ptudeuts in the Senior class 






8. Number of students in the Junior class 


2 

18 

86 

189 


8 
12 


9. Number of students in the Sophomore class 


10. Number of students in the Freshman class 

11. Number of students iu the Preparatory department. . . 


20 
105 



12. Number of acres of land owned by the institutioN. 



128 



18. Estimated cash vab'C of land owned by the institution. . . . |4,000 00 
14. Estimated cash value of buildings owned by the institution, 81 ,000 00 
16. Amount of endowments and funds except real ef<tate 7,600 00 

16. Amount of income for the current year from all sources ex- 

cept tuition 816 91 

17. Amount received for tuition durine the current year 4,281 96 

18. Bates of tuition in Collegiate department per annum, not 

including board 27 to 88 

19. Rates of tuition in Preparatory department per annum, not 

including board 81 to 27 

20. Amount paid on account of expenses of the institution, ex 

elusive of building and repairs, during the year ending 

August 81, 1868 4,608 00 

Spring Term (1869), begins March 81 ; continues 18 weeks. 
Fall Term, (1869), begins August 26; continues 18 weeks. 
Winter Term ('69-'70), begins December 15; continues 14 weeks. 

WM. C. WHITFORD, 
^ Prendent of Board of Truitees. 



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MILWAUKEE FEMALE COLLEGE. 

Anntial Report of the P.eBtderU of the Board of Tru8tee$ of the 
Milwaukee Female College, for the year ending August 31, 
1868. 

1- Corporate name of the institation, Milwaakee Female College. 

2. Name of the place where the iDStitotion is located, Milwaukee, Wis. 

8. Tear when the institution was founded, incorporated 1851, organized in 

1848. 
4. Names of members of the faculty with their respective salaries: 



Names. 



Department of Instruction. 



Salaries. 



Mary Mortimer 

Helen M. Phillips... 
Harah W. Bigelow. . . 

Phebe L. Cull 

Phebe A Alcott 

Catherine P. Ashmnn 
Eliz. M. W^hburn.. 
Caroline Mortimer. . 

M. A. P. Dietz 

Wilhelm Becker 



Moral and Mental Science 

Mathematics and Natural Science.. 

Geography and History 

English Language, &c 

Latin 

Primary School 

Painting and Drawing 

Piano 

French 

German 



11,000 00 
800 00 
650 09 
675 00 
600 00 
675 00 

In.ofdept. 

...do... . 



.do. 
.do. 



Male. 



Female . 



6. Total number who have graduated 

6. Number wiio graduated at last commencement. 

Number of students in the Senior class 

Number of students in the Junior class 

Number of Students in the Sophomore elass.. . 

Number of students in the Freshman class 



7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. Number of studt^uts in the Preparatory department. 



69 
5 
8 

10 

17 

27 

121 



12. Number of acres of land owned by the institution, 8^ city 

lots, 60x127 feet each. 

13. Estimated cash value of land owned by the institution .... |16,000 00 

14. Estimated cash value of buildings owned by the institution 16,000 00 

15. Amount of endowments and funds except real estate 

16. Amount of income for the current year from all sources ex- 

cept tuition 600 00 

17. Amount received for tuition during the current year 6,600 00 

18. Rates of tuition in Collegiate department per annum, not 

including board fO 00 

19. Rates of tuition in Preparatory department per annum, not 

including board 42 00 

20. Amount paid on account of expenses of the institution, ex- 

clusive of building and repairs, during the year ending 

August 81, 1868 1,600 00 

21. Salary to assistants, vocal music, &c 400 00 



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265 

Spring and Summer Term, (1869), begins February 8 ; c'lntinnes 20 weeks. 
Fall and Winter Term, (1869), begins i^eptember 8; continn-s 20 weeks. 
Spring and Sammer Term, (1870), begins February 9 ; continues 20 weeks. 

ALPHA C. MAY, 
Pre$ident of Board of Tfu$tees» 



PRAIRIE DU CHIEN COLLECJE. 

Annual Keport of the President of the Board of Trustees of the 
Prairie du Chien College^ for the year ending AugrutSl, 1868. 

1. Corporate name of the institution, Prairie du Chien College. 

2. Name of the place where the institution is located, Prairie du Chien, 

Crawford county, Wisconsin. 

3. Year when the institution was founded, 1866 

4. Names of the members of the Faculty und their salaries: 



Names. 



Departments of Instruction. 



Salaries. 



J. T. Lovewell. B. A 
John Lovewell, B. A 

Miss E. Curtiss 

Mrs. H. A. Miller. . . 
Miss Mary Mason . . . . 
Miss Goodr.ch 



Principal , 

Classical and Higher Mathematics . 

English Department 

Principal of Primary Department. 

Teacher of M usic 

Teacher of Drawing and Painting , 



Male. 



Female. 



5. Total number who have graduated , 

6. Number who graduated at last commencement 

'7. Number of btudcnts in the senior class "] 

8 do do junior class 

9 do do sophomore class. . , 

10 do do freshman class 

11 do do preparatory department 



• I 



About 



100 in all 



12. Number of acres of land owned by the institution. 



12. Estimated cash value of lands owned by the institution 

14. Estimated eash value of buildings owned by the institution 

with grounds |46 ,000 00 

16. Amount of endowments and fVinds, except real estate 

16. Amount of income for the current year from all sources, 

except tuition 

17. Amount received for tuition during the current yi^ar. . . .$2,600 to 8,000 

18. Kates of tuition in collegiate department per annum, not 

including board 80 00 



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256 



19. Rates of taition in preparatory department per annum, not 

including board $24 now i 

80. Amount paid ou account of expenses of the institution, ex- 
clusive of building and repairs, during the rear ending 
August 81, 1868 .* 



Spring term (1869) begins • 



continues 12 weeks. 



Fall term (1869) begins Sept. 14, continues 16 weeks. 
Winter term (1870) begins Jan. 4, continues 18 weeks. 

The institution having been given up to the sole manager.icnt of the prin- 
cipal, and he leaving before the expiration of the second term, no official re- 
port was made to the Board of Trustees, hence my inability to make a full 
report. 

E. W. PBLTON, 
President Board of Trtutee$. 

Praieix du OmKN, Oct. 20, 1868, 
A. J. Craio, Esq., 

SupefintenderU Public Irutmetum: 

Dear Sib:— In reply to your request of September 80, I send the inclosed 
imperfect report of our embryo college, the best I could do under the cir- 
cumstances, and have been somewhat delayed in making this by my personal 
business. There were only two of the three terms of the current year that 
we had any principal or teachers previous to August 81, 1868. The institu- 
tion is again opened under Professor Perry, as principal, assisted by compe- 
tent teachers, in accordance with the prospectus herewith forwarded, and 
we hope to make it a success. 

Respectfully yours, 

E. W. PELTON. 



BAGINE COLLEGE. 

An ual Report of the President of the Board of Truateea of Racine 
College^ for the year ending August 81, 1868. 

1. Corporate name of institution, Racine College. 

2. Name of the place where the institution is locattd, Racine. 
8. Tear when the institution was founded, 1862. 

4. Names of members of the faculty with their respective salaries: 



Names. 


Departments of Instruction. 


Salaries. 


Rev J. De Eoven. D.D. . . 


Warden 


♦11,000 
1,800 


Rev. H. Wheeler. D.D. . . . 


Mathematics 


Rev. 0. W. Dean. A.M. . . . 


Greek and Latin 


1,800 


Rev. A. Folk. Ph. D 


German and History 


1,600 


Rev.O. J.Haoken, Bac.Mus. 


Music 


1,200 







* And board. 



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6. Total number who iMTe graduated 

(^ Number who graduated at last commencement 

7. Number of students in the Senior Glass 

8. Number of students in the Junior Glass 

9. Number of students in the Sophomore Glass 

10. Number of students in the Freshman Glass 

11. Number of students in the Scientific Glass 

12. Number of students in the Preparatory Department. 




Female. 



20. 
21. 



18. Number of acres of land owned by the institution , 

14. Estimated cash ralue of land owned by the institution. . . . . 
16. Estimated cash value of buildings owned by the institution . , 

16. Amount of endowments and funds ezoept real estate , 

17. Amount of income for the current year from all sources 

except tuition • • • • 

1 8. Amount received for tuition during the current year 

19. Rates of tuition in Gollegiate department per annum, 
including board 

Rates of tuition in Preparatory department per annum, 
including board 

Amount paid on account of expenses of the institution, ez~ 
clnsive of building and repairs, during the yearenJing 
August 31, 1868 



|400 00 
400 00 



REV. J, DE KOVEN, 
Prendent of Board of Tnutees. 



RIPON COLLEGE. 

Annual Report of the Pretident of the Board of Trustees of Ripon 
College, for the year ending August 31, 1868. 

1. Corporate name of the institution, Ripon GoUege. 

2. Name of the place where Che institution is located, Ripon. 
8. Tear when the institution was founded, (as a college) 1868 

4. Names of members of the faculty with their respective salaries : 



Names. 


Departments of Instruction. 


Salaries. 


Rev. Wm. E. Merriman, . . 
B. H. MerrcU 


Mental and Moral Science 

Greek 


1800 
750 


T. Wilder 

W. M. BrlstoU 


Mathematics and Natural Philosophy. 
Latin 


700 
700 


J. M. Gerry 


Rhetoric 


700 


O. 0. Duffie 


LansruaiEes 


400 


And three regular female 
teachers 


*"""*"o'""o^''* •• •••••••••••••••••••• 











17 — Su*^ J?U1. IMS. 



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6. Total namber who have graduated 

6. Namber who graduated at last commencement 

7. Namber of students in the Senior class 

8 do do.... Junior class 

9 do do. . . .Sophomore class , 

10 do do. . . .Freshman class 

11. Number of students in the Preparatory Department, 
and in optional studies 206 



F emale. 




12. Number of acres of land owned by the institution, besides 
college grounds 



820 



18. Estimated cash ralue of land owned by the institution, site 

excepted 1700 00 

14. Estimated cash Talue of buildings owned by the institution 

with site 60,000 00 

16. Amount of endowments and funds except real estate 6,000 00 

16. Amount of income for the current year from all sources ex- 

cept tuition 400 00 

17. Amount received for tuition during the current year 4,000 00 

18. Rates of tuition in Collegiate department, not including 

board . 24 00 

19. Rates of tuition in Preparatory department, not including 

board 21 00 

20. Amount paid on account of expenses of the institution, ex- 

clusive of building and repairs, during the year ending 

August 81, 1868 , 

Spring Term, 1869, begins April 19, continues 12 weeks. 
Fall Term, 1869, begins Sept. 16, continues 14 weeks. 
Winter Term, 1870, begins Jan. 6, continues 18 weeks. 

W. E. MEBRIMAN, 
Pre$ident of the Board of Truitee$, 



WISCONSIN FEMALE COLLEGE. 

JlnntMl Rq^ort of the Preiident of the Board of Trutteee of the 
Wtieomin Female College^ for the year ending August 81, 1868. 

1. Oorporate name of the institution. The Wisconsin Female College. 
S. Name of the place where the institution is located. Fox Lake. 
8. Tear when the institution was founded, on its present basis, 1868. 



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259 

4. Names of members of the faculty with their respective salaries: 



Names 



Departments of Instruction. 



Salaries. 



Mary L Crowell . . . 
Maria L. Stevens . . . 

Sarah C. Home 

Annie P. Sewell . . . . 
Lucinda S Hulbert. 
Emma J. Kelly 



Principal. 



Music . 



1800 00 
200 00 
200 00 
200 00 
200 00 



Male. 



Female. 



5. Total number who have graduated 

6. Number who graduated at last commeucenicnt 

7. Number of students in the Senior Glass 

8. Number of students in the Junior Class . . 

9. Number of students in the Sophomore Class 

10. Number of students in the Freshman Class 

11. Nunber of students in the Preparatory Departnrent. 



•78 



12 Number of acres of land owned by the institution . 



About 4 



18 
14. 
15. 
10. 



Estimated cash value of land owned by the institution |2,000 00 

Estimated cash value of buildings owned by the institution . . SO ,000 00 

Amount of endowments and funds except real estate 

Amount of income for the current year from all sources 

except tuition ! 

17. Amount received for tuition during the current year 

18. Rates of tuitton in Collegiate department per annum, not 

including board . ; |26 00 

19. Rateb of tuition in Preparatory department per annum, not 

including board 26 00 

20. Amount paid on account of expenses of the institution, 

exclusive of building and repairs, during the year 

ending August 81, 1868 



The teachers are boarded in the Seminary, and the salaries are in addition 
to board. 

As to the entire income of the institution, I presume it is nearly the same 
as the previous year, but I have not the exact data. 

Spring Term, (1869) begins April 15, continues 15 weeks. 
Fall Term, (1869) begins September 9, continues 12 weeks. 
Winter Term, (1870) begins January 6, continues 18 weeks. 

JASON DOWNBK, 
Prendeni of Board of Truiteei. 



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ACADEMIES AND SEMINARIES. 



ALBION ACADEMY. 

Annual Report of the Pretident of the Board of Trustees of 
Albion Academy and Normal Institute for the year ending 
Aufftut 31, 186e. 

1. Corporate name of the inetitution, Albion Academy and Normal Institute. 
2 Name of the place where the institution is located, Albion, Dane Co., Wis. 

3. Tear when the institution was founded, 1854 

4. Names of members of the faculty with their respective salaries: 



Names. 


Departments of Instruction. 


Salaries. 


A. R. Cornwall, A. M 


Latin and Metaphysics 


11,000 

1,000 

600 

760 


R B. Anderson, A. M 

Thos. Kumlien, A. M 

Josiah Bt-ardfily, A. M.... 
MissL. R. Hobart, L. P... 
I. C. Willard, B. P 


Greek and Modern Languages 

Natural History and Science 

Mathematics 


Preceptress Euglish Branches 

Elocution and Vocal Music 


850 


Aticio F. Wells 


Instrumental Music 











Female. 




6. Total number who have graduted 

6. Number who graduated at last commencement 

T. Number of students in the Senior Class 

8. Number of students in the Junior Class 

9. Number of students in the Sophomore Class 

10. Number of students in the Freshman Class 

11. Number of ssudents in the Preparatory Department 



12. Number of acres of land owned by the institution. 



18. Estimated cash ralue of land owned by the institution. . . . 
14. Estimated cash value of buildings owned by the institution 
16. Amount of endowments and funds except real estate 



170 

$8,800 

86,000 

8,760 



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16. Amount of income for the current year from all Bourcee 

except tuition 1,260 

1*1, Amount received for tuition during the current year 3,480 

18. Rates of tuition in Collegiate department per annum, not 

including board ; 18, 21, & 24 

19. Rates of tuition in Preparatory department per annum, not 

including board 

20. Amount paid on account of expenses of the institurion, 

exclusive of building and repairs, during the vear ending 

August 81, 1868 .* 4,740 

Spring Term (1869) begins last Tuesday in March, continuing 18^- weeks. 
Fall Term (1869) begins last Tuesday in August, continuing 18i weeks. 
Winter Term (*69-'70) begins Tuesday nearest Dec 10, continuing 18^ weeks. 

0. R. HEAD, 
President of Board of Trustees. 



EVAN8VILLE SEMINARY. 

Annual Report of the President of the Board of Trttstees of 
Evanwille Seminary, for the year ending Augmt 31,1 868. 

1. Oorporate name of the institution, Evansville Seminary. 

2 Name of the place where the raetitution is located, BvansvUle, Rock Co. 

8. Tear when the institutiou was founded, 1866. 

4. Names of members of the faculty, with their respective salaries : 



Names. 



Departments of Instruction. 



Salaries. 



J. D. Hammond, A.M. 

R. W. Seaman 

B. C. Jacobs, A.B 

Mrs. J. D. Hammond. 
Miss Eva M. Mills. . . . 
Miss M. A. Hoisington 



Principal 

Mathematics 

German and Music 

Preceptress. 

Latin and Higher EnglUh. . 
Common English Branches. 



Male. Female. 



6 Total number who have graduated 

6. Number who graduated at lust commencement 

7. Number of students in the Senior class 

8. Namber of students in the Junior class 

9. Number of students in the Sophomore class , 

10. Number of students in the Freshman class 

11. Number of students in the Preparatory department. 



98 



118 



12. Number of acres of land owned by the institution. . .8 6-10 

18. Estimated cash value of land owned by the institution. . . . $1,000 00 
14. Estimated cash value of buildings owned by the institution 8,000 00 



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15. Amount of endowments and funds except real estate 

16. Amonnt of income for the current year from all sources ex- 

cept tuition 125 00 

17. Amount received for tuition during the current year 2,276 00 

18. R*te8 of tuition in Collegiate department per annum, not 

including board 

19. Rates of tuition in Preparatory department per annum, not 

including board ^ . . . . 21 00 

20. Amount paid on account of expenses of the institution, ex- 

clusive of building and repairs, during the year ending 

August 81, 1868 2,400 00 

DANIEL JOHNSON, 
President of Board of Truttee$, 

EVANSVILLB SXMINABT, EVAITSVILLE, Wis., Oct. 9, 1868. 

Hon. A. J. Craig, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction^ State of Wieeowiin. 

Dear Sir: Evansville Seminary has not been as prosperous this season as 
its oflScers had desired. Several cauaes contributed to that efifect, among 
which its financial embarrassment was the most weighty. This institution 
has been laboring under financial difficulties since its foundation, and it was 
feared for a time it would have to succumb under its heavy burden. This 
season an earnest and pressing appeal was made by the Board of Trustees to 
the friends of the institution and it proved a success. All claims were re- 
moved and provisions made to erect another building for seminary purposes. 
The institution is now undergoing repair<t and is to be newly refitted, in order 
to make it a^ inviting and attractive as any in the State. With the increased 
facilities, added to our other advantages, we trust to report next year a 
complete success. 

Yours, very truly, 

DANIEL JOHNSON, 
President of Board of Trustees. 



GERMAN AND ENGLISH ACADEMY. 

Annttal Report of the President of the Board of Trustees of the 
Oeiman and English Academy, of Milwaukee, for the year end- 
ing August 81, 1868. 

1. Corporate name of the institution, the German and English Academy, 

(Milwaukee Schul Verein.) 

2. Name of the place where the school is located, Milwaukee. 
8. Year when the institution was founded. 



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4. Names of memben of the faculty, with their respectire salaries : 



Names. 



Departments of Instraction. 



Salaries. 



William Schieif . . . , 
H. Herbert 

F. Geilfuss 

John J. Davis. .. ., 
R. F. Schelling... 
Jalia M. Davis.... 
Minerva L. Everts 
Mrs. M. Eaeseler . . 
H. Eremper 



Languages, Oeography and History. . 
German languages, Nat. History and 

Penmanship 

German Ian., Arithmetic, History. . 

Mathematics and Nat. Sciences 

Arithmetic, compoait'n, translatiou. 
Composition, reading and deolamat'n 
Ene. Ian., composition and geography 

Indastry 

Drawing 



11,000 00 

900 00 
800 00 
1,000 00 
SOO 00 
600 00 
600 00 
180 00 
120 00 



Male. Female. 



6. Total number who have graduated 

6. Number who graduated at last commencement 

7. Nnmber of students in the senior class . . . . 

8. Number of students in junior class 

9. Nnmber of students in the sophomore class 

10. Number of students in the freshman class 

11. Number of students in the preparatory department. . 



16 
21 



26 



44 

60 



11 
24 



12. Number of acres of land owned by the institution.'. 



18. Estimated cash value of land owned by the institution $8,000 00 

14. Estimated caih Talne cf buildings owned by the institution. 16,000 00 
16. Amount of endowments and funds, except real estate 

16. Amount of income for the current year from all sources ez- 

ctipt tuition 1 , 866 66 

17. Amount received for tuition during the current year 8,662 16 

18. Rates of tuition in collegiate department per annum, not 

Including board 42 00 

19. Rates of tuition in preparatory department per annum, not 

including board 24 to 80 

20. Amount paid on account of expenses of the institution, ex- 

clusive of building and repairs, during the year ending 

August 81, 1868 9,984 66 

MORITZ 80H0EFFLER, 
President of the Board of Tnutees, 



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JEFFERSON LIBERAL INSTITUTE. 

J$mual Report of the Preiident of the Board of Trustees of the 
Jefferson Liberal Institute for the year ending August^ 81, 
1868. 

1. Corporate name of the institution, Jefferson Liberal lustttute. 

2. Name of the place whete institution is located, Jefferson. 
S. Tear when institution was founded, A. D. 1866. 

4. Names of members of the faculty with their respectire salaries : 



Names. 



Departments of Instruction. 



Salaries. 



Elmore, Ohase A. B. 

Mrs. E. Chase 

Miss £. M. Beckwith 

Mr. J. L. Harsh 

HissNttjHorton... 
Prof. Aug. Reiver.. 



Nat. Science and Anct Languages. 
French, Drawing, &c., and Geog. . . 

Higher English 

Common English 

Music 

German 



"s 


Male. 


Female. 


6. Total number who have graduated 






6. Number who graduated at last commencement 






'7. Number of studeoits in the Senior Glass 






8- Number of stndents in the Junior Class 






9. Number of students in the Sophomore Class 






10. Number of students in the Freshman Class- 

11 Number of students in the Preparatory Department.. 
12. Number of students in the Higher and Common Eng- 
lish Department • 


2 

9 

61 


8 

10 

46 







18. Number of acres of land owned by the institution. 



14. Estimated cash value of land owned by the institution 86,600 00 

16. Estimated cash value of buildings owned by the institution. . 26,000 00 

16. Amount of endowments and funds except real estate 

17. Amount of income for the current year from all sources except 

tuition * * * * 

18. Amouni received for tuition during the currant year 1,200 00 

19. Rates of tuition iu' Collegiate department per annum, not in- 

cluding board 27 00 

20 Rates of tuition in Preparatory department per annum, not in- 
cluding board 17 00 

21. Amount paid on account of expenses of ihe institution, ex- 
clusive of building and repairs, during the year ending 
August 81, 1868 1,200 00 

J. W. OSTRANDBR, 
President of Board of Trustees. 



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KILBOURN INSTITTTB. 

Annual R^ort of the Preiiden of the Board of Truttea o^ Kilr 
howm Institute for the year ending Auguit 81, 18(58. 

1. Corporate name of institntioD, Kilbourn Ihst'tute. 

2. Name of theplace where the instittitioii is located, Kilbourn City, Colum- 

bia county. 
8. Year when the institution was founded, 1866. 
4. Names of members of the faculty with their respective salaries: 



Names. 



Department of Instruction. 



Salaries. 



G. A.Bucks 

Mrs. Anna M. Bucks 



•Principal . 
Assistant. 



Male. 



Female. 



6. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 



Total number who have graduated 

Number who graduated at last coinmenoement. . . . 

Number of students in the Senior class 

Number of students in the Junior class 

Number of students in the Sophomore class 

Number of students in the Freshman class 

Ncmber of students in the Preparatory department. 



The books and records of the Institute were all burned 
with the building last January, and the teachers being 
gone, I cannot make out an accurate account of the 
number of students nor their standing in classes. 

12. Number of acres of land owned by the institution 6 

18. Estimated cash value of land owned by the institution |600 00 

1 4. Estimated cash value of buildings owned by the institution 

The buildina:, when completed, will cost about 6 ,000 00 

15. Amount of endowments and funds except real estate 

16. Amount of income for the current year from all sources ex- 

cept tuition 

Insurance 18,000 ; other sources |50 8,060 00 

17. Amount received for tuition during the current year 

18. Rates of tuition in Collegiate department per annum, not 

including board 

10. Rates of tuition in Preparauory department per annum, not 

including board 

20. Amount paid on account of expenses of the institution, ex- 
clusive of building and repairs, during the year ending 
August 81, 1888 

DAVID STILLWELL. 
Preeident of Board of Tnuteee. 

*The whole Income or nominal salary of fOOO dollars a year. 



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KiLBOiTBR OxTT, September 8th. 
Mr. Cbaio, 

DxAB Sib : I am anable to make a report of the affaire of Kilboom Ineti- 
tnte. Our building was burned the 80th of January last, and all the records 
of the same. Jn the latter part of July we commenced to rebuild a smaller 
building o brick, 84x90, two stories, which we do not expect to have com- 
pletedfor occupied for school this winter, for want of sufficient means to 
finish it. 

Yours respectfully, 

DAVID STILLWKLL, 
Prendent of Board of Tnatees. 



PATCH GROVE ACADEMY. 

Annual Report of the President of the Board of Tnuteee of Patch 
Orove Academy for the year ending Augtut 31, 1868. 

1. Corporate name of the institution, Patch Grove Academy. 

2. Name of the place where the institution is located, Patch Grove. 
8. Year when the institution was founded, 1865. 

4. Names of members of the Faculty and their respective salaries : 



Names. 


Departments of Instruction. 


Salaries. 


W. B. Clarke, A. M 

C. R. Newcomb 


Higher English and Classics 

Music 


1115 p. m. 


Mrs. £. J. M. Newcomb. . . 


Common English 


450 p. yr. 







Male. Female. 



6. Total number who have graduated 

6. Number who graduated at last commencement . . . . , 

7. Number of students in the senior class 

8 do do .junior class 

9 do do sophomore class 

10 do do freshman class 

11 do do preparatory department 



20 
40 



40 
80 



12. Number of acres of land owned by the institution. 



If 



18. Estimated cash value of land owned by the institution. . . . |80 00 

14. Estimated cash value of buildings owned by the institution 8,000 00 

16. Amount of endowments and funds, except real estate 

16. Amount of income for the current year from all sources, 

except tuition 

11, Amount received for tution during the current year 1 ,800 00 



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18. Bates of tuition in collegiate department per annnm, not 

including board 

19. Rates of tuition in preparatory department per annum, not 

including board 

iO. Amount paid on account of tlie expenses of the institution, 
exclusive of building &nd repairs, during the year end- 
ing August 81, 1868 

Spring term (1869) begins May 4, continues 9 weeks. 
Fall term (1869) begins Sept. 7, continues 12 weeks. 
'Winter term (1869-70) begins Dec. 7, continues 16 weeks. 

W. HUMPHREY, 
Freiident Board of Truiteei. 



80 00 
20 00 

100 00 



ROCHESTER INSTITUTE. 

Annual Report of the President of the Board of Trustees of 
Rochester Institute^ for the year ending August 31, 1868. 

1. Corporate name of the institution, Rochester Institute. 

2. Name of the place where the institution is located, Rochester, Racine Co. 
8. Year when the institution was founded, 1867. 

4. Names of members of the faculty with their respective salaries : 



Names. 



Departments of Instruction. 



Salaries. 



ev. 6. S. Bradley 

Mrs. AnnaW. Bradley. 
Miss Mary £. Curtis... 
Miss Nellie Newell . . . . 



Principal 

Principal Female Department 

Assistant 

Teacher of Music 



$800 
400 
816 
800 



6. Total number who have graduated 

6. Number who graduated at last commencement 

7. Number of students in the Senior Class 

8. Number of students in the Junior Class 

9. Number of students in the Sophomore Class 

10. Number of students in the Freshman Class 

11. Number of students in the Preparatory Department. . 



Male. 



60 



Female. 



75 



12. Number of acres of land owned by the institution. 



H 



18. £s i mated cash value of land owned by the institution. ... $ 400 
14. Estimated cash value of buildings owned by the institution, 8,000 
16. Amount of endowments and funds except real estate 



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16. Amount of income tor the cturvent year from all aoaroes 

except taition 200 

17. Amount reoeired for tuition during the current year 1 ,700 

18 Bates of tuition in Collegiate department per annum, not 

including board 

19. Rsea of tuition in Preparatory department per annum, not 

including board 16 60 

20. Amount paid on account of expenseH of the institution, 

excliisiye of building and repairs, during the year ending 

August 81, 1868 1,815 

Spring Term (1869) begins March 28, continuing 12 weeks. 
Fall Term <l869)ibegln8 September 12, continuing 12 weeks. 
Winter Term (1870) begins January 4, continuing 12 weeks. 

J. H. UTTER, 
PreiidetU of Board of Trustees. 



INDORSING CERTIFICATES. 



The following opinion of the Attorney General is published for the benefit 
of teachers and county superintendents, who wish information in regard to 
the legality of the practice of indorsing certificates : 

Office or Attobnet General, 

Madison, Jan. 8, 1869. 
Hon. A. J. Craig, 

Supenntendent of Public Jngtruethn^ Maditofit Wis : 

Dear Sir : — Under date of 22d ultimo you ask official opinion upon the 
following question : 

<*Doe8 the indorsement by a county superintendent of schools of a teach- 
er's certificate given by the superintendent of another county, render such 
certificate valid for the county where the superintendent so indorsing it 
resides ?" 

In reply, I have to pay to you that in the opinion of this office such indorse- 
ment is not authorized by law, and is not such a compliance with the statu- 
tory provisions upon the subject, as to render the certificate valid for the 
county where the indorser resides. 

Section 92 of the school code provides that ** Every county superintendent 
shall have power, and it shall be his duty (among other things), to examine 
and license teachers, and to annul certificates, as hereinafter provided.*' 

Section 98 provides that *' It shall be the duty of county superintendents 
of schools in each county, to divide his county into inspection districts, to 
be bounded,*' &c., and to hold in each inspection district at least two meet- 
ings in each jear, for tlie examination and licensing of teachers, thirty days' 
notice ol such meeting to be given,** &c. ♦ ♦ ** The examination of teach- 
en thtu held shall be pubiie^ and shall be conducted by written and oral questions and 
omswers. They shall be tmi/ormfor the county in which they are held^ and no cer- 
TiFiOATB OF QUALIFICATION SHALL BE GIVEN, esKept in occordoncs With ths provis- 
ions of law respecting teachers^ certificates,^* 



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269 

Section 49 provides'that upon proof that an applicant for a teacher's certifi- 
cate was unavoidably abtent from the jnMie examinaUony the superintendent 
may giTO a private examination tkouffk ike certificate gvHn in sueh eases is tmlyof 
very limited duraiioH. It remains in force ** until the next regular meeting 
for examination of teachers in the inspection district in which such teacher 
is engaged in teaching," and when that meeting comes the teacher must be 
publidy examined in accordance with law. 

It is very evident from the language employed in section 08, above quoted, 
that the legislature considered the examination of Uaehers as of (he first vrnpor- 
tanee, and that they deemed !** a public examination conducted upon written and 
oral questions and ansioers as the one best adapted to the end in view. It is 
also evident that^they intended that certificales of quaHftea^jon should not be 
mere matters ofform^ to be obtained by any one who thought proper to make 
a request therefor. Such a certificate iBevidenceof qualification, and no superin- 
tendent can honestly make one unless he knotoa what he certifies to be true- 
that is — the qualification of the person to teach; and the legislature has pro- 
vided a mode of ascertaining tha^ fact, and it is obviously the best mode, 
and it must be followed as provided — by examination, &c., by the person who is 
to certify the result thereof. The provisions of section 94 show too, how 
much significance was attached by the legislature to the public and thorough 
examination indicated in section 93. For it is fair to presume that the 
private examination contemplated in that section. (94), would be •conducted by 
the superintendent as strictly as would any other, and yet the certificate 
given upon such private examination docs not obviate the necessity, under 
the |]aw, of the regular publ e (xaminationy and lasts only until the time for 
such regular examination arives. Jn no case is any certificate authorised to 
be given, ** except in accordance toith the provisiona of law respecting teasers* 
ceNffieates," Now, what are those provisionsf Section 100 provides that: 
** Every applicant for a situation as a teacher in any of the common schools 
of this state, shall be examined by the county superintendant of schools of 
his county, in regard to moral character, learning and ability to teach, and if 
found qualified, shall receive a certificate as hereinafter provided. 

Section 101 establishes three grades of certificates, Ist, 2d and Sd. 
**Each certificate shall show the branches of study in which the holder has 
been examined, also the relative attainment of the applicant in each. 

Section 102 provides that every applicant for a certificate of the 8d 
grade shall be examined in certain designated branches, &c. 

Section 108 provides that applicants for Certificates of the 2d ^rade 
shall be examined in certain branchcp, and if found qualified shall receive a 
certificate which shall entitle the holder to teach in any town in the County in 
which he is examined. 

Section 106 provides that applicants for certificates of the 1st grade shall 
a^so be examined in certain additional branches, and tliat ^^ifjound qualified, 
shall receive a certificate, which shall enftle the holder to teach in any town^ in 
the County in which he is examined^ dsc. It will be observed that where parties 
receive 1st and 2d grade certificates, they are by the terms of the law only 
entitled by such certificate, '* to teach in any town in the County in which they 
ate examined. The effect of the certificate is expressly limited to the County 
in which he ia exam^ned^ and the bolder of such certificate is not entiUed there- 
by to teach in any other County, This construction is greatly strengthened 
by the last clause of section 107, viz: **and when a district is composed of 
parts of two or more counties the Clerk of said district shall not have power 
to contract with a teacher unless inch teacher rhall have a certificate of 
qualification signed by the Superiniendeni of the County in which the school 
house is sUuatedf ttc,** This language clearly implies that each Superintendent 
was expected and intended to sign the certificate of teachers within hia 
jurisdiction, and that it was to be of no avail beyond that jurisdiction. And 
if it be true that a certificate by one Superintendent Is not of any effect in 
the district or County of another Superintendent, it is not easy to see how 



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270 

the exanunoHon, which it representB, can be of any greater effect in that 
district. 

The laDgnage of the eeotions quoted would seem to settle the question pre- 
sented. The duty of each superintendent, as to examination of applicants 
for certificates of qualifications, seems clearly and accurately defined. The 
object sought to be accomplished by the law is plain and of the utmost im- 
portance. It was thought that by a strict observance of the provisions of the 
law, efficient and accomplished laborers in the cause of common school edu- 
cation, in this state, could and would be secured. This is of vital im- 
portance to the success of our system. IncapahU teachers are capable of doing 
irreparable injury, and it is impossible, without great care on the part of 
County Super! r Undents, to keep the corps of instructory free from such. 
The framera of the law seem to have kept in view the end to be accomplished, 
and, as an important meanM to that end, have carefully defined the duty of 
examiners. i£ack county superintendent has Me individual duty to perform 
in this regard, and it surely was not intended that the duty of one superin- 
tendent should be pe performed by the superintendent of another county. 
The duty is such, under the law, that it cannot be shifted. No superintend- 
ent is authorized, as before remarked, to give a certificate without the exam- 
ination indicated by tho law. When a certificate is given, the person sign- 
ing it certifies (hat he hoe examined the teacher in accordance vnth Jaw, and has 
found him capable of teaching in the grade named. When a superintendent 
endorses the certificate of another he attempts to do what the law does not 
do— to give efiect to a certificate beyond the jurisdiction of the superintend- 
ent signing the same. If his endorsement can be held in any sense as a 
eerUfieate, it is simply a certificate that eome one else has performed the duty 
which he is, by law, required to perform himself. This is clearly not what 
the law requires, nor is it emdvalent to the certijicate which is reg^ired by law. If 
the legislature had intended that the certificate of one superintendent might 
be adopted (hy endorsement) by another, it would have so provided. 

Such a practice would inevitably violate the rule of uniformity as to standard 
of attainments. Each superintendent is authorized to fix, under the advice 
and direction of the State Superintendent, for his county, the standard of 
attainments in each branch of study which must be reached by each applicant 
.before receiving a certificate of either grade. This standard is different in 
different counties, and the certificate of one superintendent is frequently 
based upon a different standard than that of another fur the same grade. 
Now, the public and private examinations in each district are to be con- 
ducted with reference to the standard adopted and established in and for that 
district. If a certificate of one superintendent is held to obviate the neces- 
sity of examination in the district of another, the uniformity of standard 
would be frequently violated, and injustice would be done to those teachers 
examined at the public and private examinations. In order to preserve uni- 
formity of standard it seems necessary that each superintendent should ex- 
amine in accordance with law every person who applies for a certificate in his 
district 

It may be and is said that this practice of endorsement saves expense and 
trouble, and^that where a teacher has a certificate showing an examination 
in another county, it does not seem necessary to have a new one. These are 
considerations which might be, perhaps, properly addressed to the law- 
making power in favor of a modification of the law upon the suliject, but are 
DO warrant for departing from the law as it now stands. 
Very truly yonrs, 

JOHN 0. SPOONER, 

Aid. AUorn^ Gmmral^ 



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APPENDIX. 



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TABLE No. I. 



APPORTIONMENT OP SCHOOL FUND INCOME FOR 1888. 



Connties and Towns. 



No. of 


Apportion- 


Children 


ment. 


146 


$70 08 


28 


18 44 


194 


98 12 


88 


42 24 


169 


76 32 


SI 


17 76 


168 


78 24 


128 


69 04 


106 


60 88 


827 


166 96 


46 


21 60 


89 


42 72 


108 


49 44 


68 


26 44 


186 


66 28 


807 


147 86 


80 


88 40 


2,184 


11,048 82 


82 


139 86 


129 


$61 92 


257 


1128 86 


152 


72 96 


869 


172 82 


166 


74 40 


760 


864 80 


188 


87 84 


60 


28 80 


1,420 


681 60 


468 


224 64 


842 


164 16 


102 


48 96 


879 


181 92 


804 


146 92 


260 


120 00 



ADAMS- 

Adams 

Big Flats 

Dell Prairie 

Easton 

Jackson 

Leola 

Lincoln 

Monroe 

New Chester 

New Haven 

Preston 

Quincy 

Richfield 

Rome 

Springville 

Strong's Prairie 

White Creek 

Total 

ASHLAND- 

La Pointe 

BAYMELD— 

Bajfield 

BROWN— 

Bellevne 

Depere 

Depere village 

Eaton 

Fort Howard 

Olcnmore 

Green Bay 

Green Bay city 

Holland 

Howard 

Humboldt 

Lawrence 

Morrison 

New Denmark 

1 — ^App. Sup. Pub. Inb. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Tabli No. I. — ApporliowmetU of School Fund Ineomo—iioxitinuei, 



Counties and Towns* 



No. of 
Children 



Apportion' 
ment. 



Bbowh— concluded- 

Pittsfield 

Preble 

Bockland , 

Scott 

Snauioo 

Wrighttftown . . 



Total. 



BUFFALO— 

Alma , 

Belvidere. .. 
Buffalo City. . 
Baffalo . . . . , 

Canton , 

Cross 

Eagle Hiils. . 
Oilman ton . . 

Glencoe 

HaKTille .... 
Modeua .... 

Naples 

Nelson 

Waamandee . 



ToUl 



BURNE1T— 

Orantsbvfg . . . . 

CALUMBT- 

Brillion 

Brothertowa . . . 
Oharlestown . . . 

Chilton 

Harrison 

New Holstein . 

Rantoul 

Stockbridge . . 
WoodTiUe 



Total 



CHIPPEWA— 

Anson 

Bloomer... . 
Chippewa Falb. 

Eagle Point 

La Fayette 

fligel 

Wheaton 



Total. 



88 
280 
278 
661 

m 

426 



180 84 
110 40 
188 44 
284 48 
8t 78 
204 48 



6,846 



18,884 08 



244 
18f 

74 
827 

80 
227 
107 
166 
248 
129 
104 
160 
188 
829 



$117 12 
90 72 
86 62 

166 96 
88 40 

108 96 
61 88 
74 40 

119 62 
61 92 
49 92 
72 00 
68 24 

167 92 



2,602 



81,200 96 



78 



$87 44 



181 
696 
896 
499 
481 
821 
229 
729 
828 



$88 89 
286 80 
190 08 
289 62 
280 88 
298 08 
109 92 
849 92 
166 04 



4.064 



81,946 92 



86 
216 
402 
861 
186 

48 
178 



$18 80 

108 20 

192 98 

168 48 

88 80 

20 84 

88 04 



1,404 



1878 92 



Digitized by 



Google 



8 
Tabli No. I — Apportionment of School Fund /neome— continued. 



Counties and Towns. 



CLARK-. 

Levis 

Loyal 

Lynn 

Mentor 

Pine Valley 

Weston 

Total 

COLUMBIA— 

Arlington 

Caledonia 

Columbus 

Courtlaud 

Dekorra 

Fort Winnebago. 
Fountain Prairie 

Hampden 

Leeds 

Lewiston 

Lodi 

Lowell 

Marcellon 

Newport 

Otsego 

Pacific 

Portage City. . .. 

Randolph 

Scott 

Springvale 

West Point 

Wyoceiia 

Total 

CRAWFORD - 

Clayton 

Eastman 

Freeman 

Haney 

Lynzville 

Marietta 

Prairie du Chien 

Scott 

Seneca 

Union 

Utica 

Wauzeka 

Total 



No. of 


Apportion- 


Children 


ment 


42 


$20 16 


82 


16 86 


62 


29 76 


47 


22 66 


188 


90 24 


44 


21 12 


416 


$199 20 


816 


$161 68 


444 


^n 12 


912 


487 76 


669 


278 12 


667 


272 16 


231 


110 88 


474 


227 62 


360 


172 80 


418 


200 64 


882 


188 86 


870 


278 60 


889 


162 72 


879 


181 92 


677 


276 96 


616 


296 68 


86 


40 80 


1,477 


708 96 


426 


204 48 


866 


176 68 


887 


161 76 


841 


168 68 


408 


196 84 


10,694 


16,086 12 


670 


1278 60 


401 


192 48 


422 


202 66 


171 


82 08 


60 


28 60 


196 


98 60 


1,271 


610 08 


276 


182 00 


878 


179 04 


182 


68 86 


881 


182 88 


868 


169 44 


4,604 


12,209 92 



Digitized by 



Google 



i 



Tabli No. I — Apportionment of School Fund Income— ^ouiinueA. 



Coanties and Towns. 



No. of 


Apportion- 


Children 


ment. 


449 


1216 62 


487 


288 76 


826 


156 48 


408 


196.84 


450 


216 00 


486 


288 28 


465 


228 20 


686 


804^80 


558 


266 44 


660 


268 80 


421 


202 08 


441 


211 68 


726 


848 48 


618 


246 24 


550 


264 00 


877 


180 96 


8,559 


1,708 82 


689 


806 72 


547 


262 66 


573 


276 04 


486 


209 28 


555 


266 40 


410 


196 80 


891 


187 68 


280 


184 40 


246 


118 08 


461 


221 28 


500 


240 00 


582 


255 86 


548 


268 04 


492 


286 16 


459 


220 82 


388 


188 84 


446 


214 08 


896 


190 08 


445 


218 60 


20,145 


19,669 60 


657 


$816 86 


697 


286 56 


1,844 


646 12 


889 


186 72 


481 


206 88 


877 


180 96 


614 


204 72 


619 


297 12 


669 


273 12 


702 


886 96 


760 


360 00 



DANE— 

Albion 

Berry , 

Black Earth 

Blooming OroTe. 
BloeMoands.. .. 

Bristol 

Bnrke 

Christiana 

Cottage Grove.. 
Cross Plains.. .. 

Dane 

Deerfield 

Dunkirk 

Dunn ..; 

Fitchburg 

Madison 

Madison, citj ... 

Mazomanie 

Medina , 

Middieton , 

Montrose , 

Oregon 

Perry 

Pleasant Spiings 

Primrose 

Roxbury 

Rutland 

Springdale 

Springfield 

Sun Prairie 

Vermont 

Verona 

Vienna 

Westport 

"Windsor 

York 

Total 

DODGE— 

Ashippun 

Beaver Dam. ... 
Beaver Dam City 

Burnett 

Calamus 

Chester 

Glyman 

Elba 

Emmett 

Fox Lake 

Herman 



Digitized by 



Google 



Tabli No. 1^ Apportionment of School Fund Income — oontinaed. 



Counties and Towns. 


No. of 
children. 


Apportion- 
ment. 


BooGK—continued — 

Habbard 


1,202 
639 
685 
644 
706 
940 
707 
662 
827 
616 
862 
669 
265 
469 
868 


$676 96 


Hustisford 


806 72 


Lebanon 


828 80 


Leroy 


261 12 


Lomira 


888 40 


Lowell 


461 20 


Oak GroTe 


889 86 


Portland 


264 96 


Rabicon .... 


896 96 


Shields 


247 68 


Theresa 


412 76 


Trenton . . ". 


278 12 


Waupan village. S. W 


127 20 


Westford 


220 82 


WlUiamstown 


409 44 






Total 


17,874 


18,889 62 


DOOR- 

Bailey*s Harbor 


61 


129 28 


BruBsells 




Chambers Island ; 






Clay Banks 


82 

60 

68 

27 

119 

25 

128 

104 

195 


16 86 


Egg Harbor 


24 00 


Forestville 


80 24 


Gardner 


12 96 


Gibraltar 


67 12 


Liberty Grove 


12 00 


Nasewaupee ... 


61 44 


Sevastapol ... .... 


49 92 


Sturgeon Bay 


98 60 


Union 




Washineton 


122 


68 66 






Total 


926 


1444 48 


DOUGLASS— 

Superior 


208 


197 44 


DUNN— 

Dunn ... ..••••• •••.••.•••.•»•.. 


826 

279 
20 
24 
69 

862 
66 
72 

264 


$166 48 


Eau Galle 


188 92 


Elk Mound 


9 60 


Grant ... 


11 62 


Lucas 


28 82 


M enomonie ....^t ........•** 


168 96 


New Haven •«.. 


81 20 


Peru 


84 56 


Red Cedar 


126 72 



Digitized by 



Google 



Tabli No. I—Appbrtiofmeni of School Fund /ncowe— oontintied. 


Oounties and Towni. 


No. of 
Children 


Apportion- 
ment. 


Dumi— continued- 
Rock Creek 


64 
246 
108 


26 9% 


Spring Brook 


117 60 


Weston 


49 44 






Total 


1,868 


$894 24 


lAU CLAIRE— 

Bridee Creek 


246 
180 
666 
199 
174 
146 
250 
84 
486 


1118 08 


BroDBwick 


'62 40 


Eau Claire 


271 68 


Lincoln 


96 52 


North Eau Claire 


88 62 


Oak Grove 


70 08 


Otter Creek 


120 00 


Pleasant Valley 


40 82 


West Eau Claire 


288 28 






Total 


2,281 


$1,094 88 


FOND DU LAC— 

Alto 


668 

762 
674 
654 
694 
692 
664 
446 
417 
5,213 
670 
440 
688 
647 
651 
499 
627 
417 
814 
585 
458 
601 
493 
867 


1265 44 


Ashford 


860 96 


Auburn 


246 72 


Bjron 


266 92 


Oalomet 


838 12 


Eden 


284 16 


Eldorado 


818 72 


Empire 


214 08 


Fond du Lac 


200 16 


Fond du Lac, city 


2,602 24 


Forest 


278 60 


Friendship 


211 20 


Lamartine 


268 24 


Marshfild 


810 56 


Metomen 


812 48 


Oakfiield 


289 62 


Osceola 


2li2 96 


Bipon 


200 16 


Ripon, city 


890 72 


Rosendale 


280 80 


Sprlngd ale 


219 84 


Taycheedah 


826 88 


Waupun 


286 64 


Waupun<i Tillage 


176 16 






Total 


18,086 


8,681 28 


ORANT— 

Beetown . ., 


715 

484 
204 
666 


848 20 


Bloomington 


208 82 


Blue River 


97 92 


Boscobel 


271 68 



Digitized by 



Google 



Tabli No. 1. — Aj^iMrHanment of School Fund ineom«—- oontinaed. 



CoantieB and Towns. 



No. chil- 
dren. 



Apportion- 
ment. 



O&AHT— continued. 

Cafitsville 

Clifton 

Ellenboro 

Fennimore 

Gien Haven. . . . 

Harrison 

Hazel Green... 
Hickory Grove. 
Jamestown . . . . 

Lancaster 

Liberty 

Lima 

Little Grant... 

Marion 

MillTille 

Hoant Hope... 
Mnscoda. ...... 

Paris 

Patch Grove . . . 

I'latteville 

Potosi 

Smelser 

Waterloo 

Watterstown .. 

Wingville 

Woodman 

Wyaluaing 



Total. 



OBEEN— 

Adams 

Albany 

Brooklyn 

Oadiz 

Glarno 

Decatur 

Exeter 

Jefferaon 

Jordan 

Monroe 

Mt. Pleasant. . 
New Glarus. . . 
Spring Grove. 

Sylvester 

Washington . . 
York 



465 
372 
286 
687 
899 
396 
1021 
264 
491 
484 
830 
898 
811 
296 
113 
800 
282 
829 
881 
1292 
1204 
622 
816 
199 
886 
207 
810 



18,859 



292 
478 
445 
544 
654 
820 
884 
611 
892 
1378 
546 
846 
477 
426 
852 
295 



$228 20 
178 66 
187 28 
829 76 
191 52 

190 08 
490 08 
126 72 
235 68 
232 82 
158 40 

191 04 
149 28 
142 08 

64 24 
144 00 
185 86 

157 92 

158 88 
620 16 
577 92 
260 56 
151 20 

95 52 
161 28 

99 86 
148 80 



16,652 82 



$140 16 
229 44 
218 60 

261 12 
265 92 
898 60 
184 82 
298 28 
188 16 
659 04 

262 08 
165 60 
228 96 
204 48 
168 96 
141 60 



Total 



8,884 



14,000 00 



Digitized by 



Google 



Tablb N, 1. — Apportionment of School Fund /ncome— continued. 



Counties and Towna. 



No. chil 
dren. 



Apportion- 
ment. 



GREEN LAKE— 

Berlin 

Berlin citj 

Brooklyn 

DaytoD 

Green Lake 

Kingston 

Kingston Tillage.. 

Mackford 

Hancbester 

Markesan village. 

Marquette 

Princeton 

St. Marie 

Seneca 



Total. 



IOWA— 

Arena 

Clyde 

Dodgeville 

Highland 

Linden 

Mifflin 

Mineral Point 

Mineral Point city. 

Moscow 

Pulaski 

Ridgeway 

Waldwicbr 

Wyoming 



Total. 



JACKSON— 

Albion 

Alma 

Hixton . . . . 

Irvine 

Manchester . 
Melrose . . . . 
Northfield . . 
Springfield . 



Total. 



JEFFERSON- 

Aztiilan 

Cold Spring. 

Concord 

Farming on . 
Hebron 



860 
988 
42« 
296 
012 
286 
182 
861 
481 
128 
812 
627 
247 
161 



$172 80 
447 84 
204 48 
141 60 
246 76 
118 28 

68 86 
178 28 
206 88 

61 44 
149 76 
800 96 
118 66 

77 28 



6,161 



$2,477 28 



687 
272 

1609 

1274 
898 
687 
640 

1224 
819 
600 

1029 
864 
262 



$829 76 
180 66 
772 82 
611 62 
428 64 
267 76 
307 20 
687 62 
16S 12 
240 00 
498 92 
174 72 
126 76 



9,610 



$4,612 80 



604 
614 
812 
846 

90 
262 

47 
237 



$241 92 
246 72 
149 76 
166 60 

48 20 
120 96 

22 66 
118 76 



2,801 



$1,104 48 



466 
808 
620 
1102 
600 



$218 40 
147 84 
297 60 
628 96 
240 00 



Digitized by 



Google 



9 



Tablm No I.—Apporttonment of School Fund Jncome— oontinned. 



CountieB aod Towns. 



No. of 
Children 



JirvRSSON — concladed- 

Ixonia 

Jefferson 

Eoshkonong 

Lake Mills 

Milfopd 

Oakland 

Palmyra 

Sallivan 

Sumner 

Waterloo 

Waterloo, village. 

Watertoirn 

Watertown city . . 

Total 

JUNEAU— 

Armenia 

Clearfield 

Fountain 

Germantown .... 

Eildare 

Lemonweir 

Liudina 

Lisbon 

Lyndon 

Marion 

Mttoston 

Necedah 

Orange 

Plymouth 

Seven Mile Creek 

Summit 

Wonewoo 

Total 

KENOSHA— 

Brighton 

Bristol 

Kenosha city 

Paris 

Pleasant Prairie. . 

Randall 

Salem 

Bomers 

Wheatland 

Total 



ApportioDr- 
ment. 



8 



«78 
,690 
,086 
640 
699 
890 
612 
688 
186 
610 
286 
968 
,792 



14,882 



100 
87 
214 
180 
814 
889 
889 
606 
214 
182 
848 
809 
69 
272 
817 
870 
828 



4.477 



481 
406 
1,688 
428 
662 
190 
666 
662 
874 



6,126 



$828 04 
768 20 
496 80 
259 20 
287 62 
187 20 
298 76 
827 84 
88 80 
244 80 
186 80 
467 44 
1,820 16 



$7,119 86 



$48 00 

17 76 
102 72 

86 40 
160 72 
186 72 
186 72 
290 40 
102 72 

68 86 
164 64 
148 82 

88 12 
180 66 
162 16 
129 60 
166 04 



$2,148 96 



$280 88 
194 40 
769 84 
208 04 
264 96 
91 20 
266 88 
269 76 
179 62 



$2,4604$ 



Digitized by 



Google 



10 



Tabli No L—Jpportitmmeni of School Fund ii 


ficome— ^ 


Bontinned. 


GountieB and Towna. 


No. of 
Children 


Apportioi^ 
ment. 


KEWAUNEE- 

Ahnepce 


606 
419 
167 
247 
677 
89 
126 
186 
401 


$242 88 


Carlton 


201 12 


Gaflco 


80 16 


Franklin 


118 66 


Kewauneo 


276 96 


Lincoln 


18 72 


Hontpelier 


60 48 


Pierce 


89 28 


Bed River 


192 48 






Total 


2,668 


$1,280 64 


LA CROSSE- 

Bangor 


843 
818 
898 
897 
261 
870 
183 
804 
1,978 
491 
154 
289 


$164 64 


Burns 


162 64 


Campbell 


191 04 


Farmington 


190 66 


Greenfield 


120 48 


Hamilton 


417 60 


Holland 


87 84 


Jackson 


145 92 


La Crosse city 


947 04 


Onalaska 


285 68 


Shelby 


78 92 


"Washington 


188 72 






Total 


6,971 


$2,866 08 


LA FAYETTE— 

Aigyle 


469 
886 
919 

1,214 
681 
459 
586 
458 
196 
712 

1,208 
887 
177 
485 
628 


$226 12 


Belmont 


186 28 


Benton 


441 12 


Center 


682 72 


Elk GroTe 


278 88 


Fayette 


220 82 


Gratiot 


281 28 


Kendall 


219 84 


Monticello 


94 08 


New Dieffines 


841 76 


Shnllsburg 


678 84 


Wayne 


186 76 


White Oak Springs 


84 96 


WiUow Springs 


208 80 


Wiota 


801 44 






Total 


8,816 


$4,281 20 


MANITOWOC— 

Oato 


770 
606 
651 
608 


$869 60 


Oentreyille 


290 88 


Cooperstown • 


812 48 


Eaton 


248 84 



Digitized by 



Google 



11 

Tabu No. I — Apportiammeia of School Fui»dIneoma — oontiiuied. 



Counties and Towna. 


No. of 
Children 


Apportion- 
ment. 


MAHiTowoO'COBclnded — 

Franklin 


706 
623 
-798 
684 

1,976 
661 
487 
622 
664 
788 
164 
692 
188 

1,086 


$888 40 


Gibson 


299 04 


Kossuth 


880 64 


Liberty 


280 82 


If anitowoc 


948 00 


Manitowoc Rapids 


812 48 


Mnnle Grove ..«..**...*..•«.••«..........*.'>•-- 


809 76 


Meeme . t. *,•••...•■..*••••.•*•••«•. .•.Tt^-**^* 


298 66 


llishicott 


818 92 


Kewton 


876 84 


Rockland. • 


78 72 


Schleswig •... 


284 16 


Two Greeks 


90 24 


Two Rivers 


621 28 






Total 


12,892 


$6,948 16 


MARATHON— 

Berlin '. 


196 

46 

87 

126 

117 

78 

66 

184 

296 

68 


94 08 


Knowlton • 


22 08 


Maine 


41 76 


Marathon 


60 00 


Mosi nee 


66 16 


Sutton 


86 04 


Texas 


26 88 


Wausau 


88 82 


Wausau village 


142 08 


Weston 


26 48 






Total 


1,288 


$691 84 


MARQUETTE— 

Buffalo 


806 
lfl7 
218 
186 
146 
866 
187 
166 
248 
192 
227 
186 
89 
214 


146 68 


Crystal Lake 


84 66 


Douglas 

Harris 


104 64 
98 28 


Hecan 


70 08 


Montello 


170 40 


Moundville 


89 76 


Neshkoro 


79 68 


Newton 


116 64 


Oxford 


92 16 


Packwaukee. ••• 


108 06 


Shields 


89 28 


SDrinefield 


42 72 


Westfield 


102 72 






Total 


2,912 


$1,897 76 









Digitized by 



Google 



12 



Tablb No. I — Apportionment of Hchool Fund Income — oontinned. 


Oounties and towns. 


No. of 
Ghildrec 


A.pportion- 
ment. 


MILWAUKEE— 

Fran klin 


721 

792 

866 

787 

1,281 

22,186 

1,076 

1,191 


$846 08 
880 16 


Granville 


Greenfield 


410 88 


Lake 


863 76 


Milwaukee 


614 88 


Milwaukee city 


10,624 80 
616 62 


Oak Creek 


Wauwatosa* 


671 68 






Total 


28,787 


$18,817 76 




MONROE - 

Adrian 


238 
200 
129 
172 
171 
277 
178 
402 
266 
226 
176 
241 
267 
264 
1,286 
626 
166 
267 


114 24 


Anselo 


96 00 


Clifton 


61 92 


Glendale 


82 66 


Greenfield 


82 08 


Jefferson 


182 96 


LaFayette 


88 04 


Leon 


192 96 


Lincoln 


127 20 


Little Falls 


108 00 


Oakdale 


84 00 


Portland 


116 68 


Bidgeville 


128 16 


Sheldon 


121 92 


Sparta 


692 80 


Tomah 


262 48 


Wellington ^ . ... 


79 20 


Wilton 


128 16 






Total 


6,882 


$2,688 86 




OCONTO— 

Little Suamico 


82 
228 
207 
464 
129 
826 
167 


$89 86 
109 44 


Marinette 


Oconto 


99 86 


Oconto village 


217 92 


Pensaukee 


61 92 


Peshtigo ... . 


1KA 4ft 


Stiles ....'.*.'..'/. .!!.'! 


76 86 






Total 


1,688 


$769 84 




OUTAGAMIE- 

Annleton citv 


1,220 

46 

119 

199 


$686 60 


Black Creek 


21 60 


Bovina, 


67 12 


Buchanan 


96 62 



* $66.68 was returned to the State Treasury as over apportionment to this town. 



Digitized by 



Google 



18 



Tablb No. I — Apportionment of School ISmd Income — oontinaed. 


Counties and towns. 


No. of 
children. 


Apportion- 
ment. 


OuTAOAMiE — continued. 

Center 


$887 
884 
264 
4o2 
688 
592 
400 
478 
118 
19S 
153 
46 


$161 76 
184 82 


Dale 


Ellington 


126 72 
216 96 
279 84 


Freedom 


Grand Chute 


Greenyille 


284 16 


Hortonia 


192 00 


Eaukauna 


990 4A 


Liberty 


64 24 
96 04 


Uaple Creek 


Osborn 


78 44 


Seymour 


22 08 




Total 


$6,583 


12,679 84 


OZAUKEE— 

Belgium 


$1 ,008 

1,085 

819 

780 

1,856 

1,182 

812 


! 

$481 44 
620 80 


Cedarburg 


Fredonia 


898 12 
874 40 


Grafton , 


Mequon 


660 88 


Port Washington 


»i48 85 


Saukville 


SRO 7A 






Total 


$6,987 


$8,868 76 




PEPIN— 

Albany 


$60 
264 
60 
148 
296 
ISO 
220 
178 


$28 80 

126 72 

24 00 


Durand 


Frankfort 


Lima 


68 64 


Pepin 


142 08 


Stockholm ; 


62 40 


Waterville 


106 60 


Waubeek 


83 04 






Total i 


$1,886 


$641 28 






PIERCE— 

Clifton 


$216 

96 

229 

128 

101 

44 

897 

268 

66 

888 

877 

88 

80 


$108 68 
46 08 


Diamond Bluflf 


Ellsworth 


109 92 


ElPaso 


69 04 


Hartland 


48 48 


Isabelle 


21 12 


Martell 


190 66 


Oak Groye 


128 84 


Pleasant Valley 


81 68 


Prescott 


188 84 


River Falls . .. 


180 96 


Rock Elm 


18 24 


Salem 


88 40 



Digitized by 



Google 



14 
Tabli No. I — Apportionnment of School Fmnd Income— -Wiiitmnei. 



Counties and towns. 


No. of 
children. 


App ot ion- 
ment. 


Pnscx — continued. 

Trenton 


$110 


$52 80 


Trimbelltj 




Union , 


82 


16 86 






Total! 


$2,650 


$1,224 00 


POLK- 

Alden 


$68 
22 

168 

168 
62 

154 
22 


$82 64 


Black Brook 


10 56 


Falls 8t. Croix 

Farmington 


80 64 
78 24 


Lincoln 


29 76 


Osceola 


78 92 


Sterling 


10 66 






Total 


$659 


$316 82 


PCRTAGE- 

Almond 


$247 
846 
189 
201 

88 

55 
105 
170 

62 
270 
188 
884 
277 

26 
666 
183 


$118 66 


Amherst 


166 08 


Belmont 


90 72 


Buena Vista 


96 48 


Eau Pleine 


89 84 


Grant 


26 40 


Hull 


60 40 


Lanark 


81 60 


Linwood 


2H 76 


New Hope 


129 60 


Pine Groye 


66 24 


Plover 


184 82 


Sharon 


182 96 


Steyens' Point • ' . * . 


12 00 


Steyens' Point city 


819 68 


Stockton ..!!!!!! 


87 84 






Total 


$3,401 


$1,682 48 


RACINE- 

Burlington 


$871 
1,008 
410 
970 
417 
8,262 
569 
816 
687 
428 


$418 08 


Caledonia 


483 84 


Doyer , , 


196 80 


Mt. Pleasant 


466 60 


Norway 


200 12 


Baoine city. 


1,660 96 


Raymond 


278 la 
161 20 


Rochester 


Waterford 


257 76 


Torkyille 


206 64 






Total 


$8,777 


$4,212 96 









Digitized by 



Google 



15 



Tablb No. I — Apportionment of School Fund Income'-^ontinu^' 



GouniieB and towoB. 



RICHLAND— 

Aken 

Bloom 

Buena Yista . 

DavtOQ 

Eagle 

Forest 

Henrietta . . . 

Ithaca 

MarBhall 

Orion 

Richland 

Ricbwood ... 
Rockbridge . . 

Sylvan 

Westford.... 
Willow 



Total 



BOCK— 

Avon 

Beloit 

Beloit, city. . . . 

Bradford 

Ceiiter 

Clinton 

Fulton 

Harmony 

Janesville 

Janesville, city. 

Johnstown 

La Prairie 

Lima 

Magnolia 

Hilton 

Newark 

Plymouth 

Porter 

Rock 

Spring Valley.. 

Turtle 

Union 



Total 



ST.OROIX— 

Gylon 

SauGalle.. 
Emerald . . , 

Erin 

Hammond . 
Hudflon. . • . 



No. of 

Children 



Apportion- 
ment. 



269 
418 
437 
248 
417 
886 
816 
607 
878 
294 
696 
622 
868 
298 
267 
264 



6.964 



846 
819 

1,668 
886 
889 
624 
688 
402 
849 

8,028 
477 
816 
487 
898 
679 
484 
571 
490 
498 
468 
484 
718 



14,097 



127 
120 



842 
870 
188 



$129 12 
198 24 
209 76 
119 04 
200 16 
185 28 
161 68 
248 86 
179 04 
141 12 
286 60 
260 66 
174 24 
140 64 
128 86 
126 72 



$2,867 92 



$165 60 
168 12 
762 64 
186 28 
186 72 
299 62 
880 24 
192 96 
167 62 
1,468 44 
228 96 
161 20 
288 76 
191 04 
826 92 
282 82 
274 08 
286 20 
286 64 
217 44 
208 82 
844 64 



$6,76666 



60 96 
67 60 



164 16 

129 60 

66 84 



Digitized by 



Google 



16 



Tablb No. I-^ApportionmefU of School Fund Jncome— continued. 



Coanties and Towiib. 



No. of 
Ohildren 



St. Croix — continued — 

Hudson, city 

Einnikinnic 

Pleasant Valley . . . 

Richmond 

Ruih River 

Saint Joseph 

Somerset 

Springfield^ 

Star Prairie 

Troy 

Warren 

Total 

SAUK— 

Baraboo 

Bear Greek 

Dellona 

Excelsior 

Fairfield 

Franlilin 

Freedom 

Greenfield 

Honey Creek 

Ironton 

Layalle 

Iferrimao 

New Buffalo 

Prairie du Sac 

Reedsburg 

Spring Green 

Sumpter 

Troy 

Washington 

Westfield 

Winfield 

Woodland 

' Total 

SHAWANO— 

Belle Plaine 

Hartland 

Pella 

Richmond 

Shaweno 

Waukechon 

Total 



Apportion- 
ment. 



628 
140 
2U 
219 
179 

96 
166 

69 
112 
228 
106 



8,128 



1,006 
214 
162 
824 
298 
812 
290 
809 
464 
466 
298 
276 
883 
729 
487 
465 
272 
866 
896 
274 
307 
888 



8,886 



99 
74 
184 
69 
68 
14 



488 



$299 04 

67 20 

102 72 

106 12 

86 92 

46 60 

74 88 

28 82 

6 76 

109 44 

60 88 



$1,501 44 



$482 40 

116 68 

77 76 

166 82 

148 04 

149 76 
189 20 
148 82 
222 72 
218 40 
140 64 
182 48 
169 84 
849 92 
288 76 
218 40 
180 66 
176 68 
189 60 
l.Xl 62 
147 86 
162 24 



$4,024 80 



47 62 
86 62 
64 82 
28 82 
26 44 
6 72 



$207 84 



Digitized by 



Google 



17 



' Tabli I — Apportionmeni of School Fund /ncome.^-oontinned. 



Counties and Towns. 



No. of I Apportion- 
obildren ment. 



SHEBOYGAN— 

Greenbash 

Herman 

Holland 

Lima 

Lyndon 

Mitchell 

Mosel 

Plymouth 

Rhine 

Russell 

Sheboygan 

Sheboygan, city 

Sheboygan Falls 

Sheboygan Falls, village. 

Scott 

Shennan 

Wilson 



Total. 



TREMPEALEAU— 

Arcadia 

Burnside 

Caledonia 

Ettrick 

Gale 

Hale 

Lincoln 

Preston 

Sumner 

Trempealeau. .. 



Total. 



VERNON— 

Bergen 

Christiana . . , 

Clinton , 

Coon 

Franklin 

Forest 

Genoa.' 

Greenwood . . 
Hamburg . . , . 
Harmony .... 
Hillsborough. 

Jefferson 

Kiekapoo.... 

Liberty 

Stark 

Sterling 

Union 

2— App. 



686 
803 

1,071 
812 
606 
478 
899 
910 
718 
191 
667 

1.780 
863 
462 
603 
628 
686 



$328 80 
386 44 
614 08 
389 76 
290 40 
227 04 
191 62 
436 80 
344 64 
91 68 
272 16 
864 40 
409 44 
221 76 
289 44 
263 44 
266 80 



11,996 



$5,7o7 60 



297 
78 
193 
391 
427 
30 
143 
184 
149 
651 



142 66 
86 04 
92 64 

187 68 

204 96 
14 40 
68 64 
88 32 
71 62 

312 48 



2,638 



$1,218 24 



8up. Pub. Inb. 



192 
450 
277 
247 
401 
221 
169 
192 
248 
228 
804 
419 
391 
142 
201 
808 
164 



92 16 
216 00 
182 96 

118 66 
192 48 
106 08 

81 12 
92 16 

119 04 
109 44 
146r92 
201 12 
187 68 

68 1 
96 48 
146 44 
78 72 



Digitized by 



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18 



TABti J-^AppofHdnmmi of Sehool Ftmd Jkeome^-wfatim^i, 



OoantieB and Towns. 



YiRKON^continued. 

Viroqua 

"Webster 

"Wheatland 

Whitestown . . . . 



Total. 



Walworth- 

Bloomfield 

Parien 

Delavan. ....4. 
East Troy...*... 

Elkhorn 

Geneva 

"La Fayette.... 
La Grange . . . . 

Linn • 

Lyons 

Bichmond 

Sharon 

Spring Prairie. 
Sugar Creeek. . 

Troy 

Walworth 

Whitewater . . . 



Total 



WASHINGTON— 

Addison 

Barton 

Erin 

Farmington . . . 
Germantown . . 

Hartford 

Jackson 

KewaskuQi . . . . 

Polk 

Hichfield 

Trenton 

Wayne 

West Bend. . . 



Total. 



WAtTKBSHA- 
Brookffeld. 
Delafield.. . 

Eagle 

Genesee. . . . 

Lisbon 

Ifenomontto. 



No. of 

children 



Apportion-; 
ment. 



678 

219 

209 



5,884 



411 
B68 
9(W 
806 
899 
885 
888 
616 
826 
888 
848 
674 
602 
866 
481 
461 
,468 



9,601 



908 
526 

628 
770 
920 



636 
,028 
740- 
777 
760 
880 



10,866 



900 
672 
428 
492 
646 
882 



f826 44 
109 92 
106 12 
100 32 



92,824 S2 



$197 2S 
267 84 
486 86 
290 40 
191 62 
480 00 
176 64 
247 68 

166 00 
162 24 

167 04 
828 62 
240 96 
176 20 
206 88 
216 48 
704 64 



14,660 48 



I486 84 
2^2 48 
801 44 
869 60 
441 60 
680 88 
401 28 
267 28 
498 44 
866 20 
872 96 
864 80 
898 40 



$4,97620 



$482 00 
274 66 
206 44 
286 16 
262 08 
488 86 



Digitized by 



Google 



10 





Ooimties aod Towns.. 


No of 
children. 


Apportion, 
ment. 


Waukmha— continuod. 

Merton 


692 
496 
697 
716 

1,066 
889 
614 
898 
426 

1,216 


$284 16 
287 60 
286 66 
848 20 
611 68 
186 72 
294 72 
191 04 
204 48 
688 20 


•Mukwaoago 


Vaf'kego 


New Berlin .';...' 


04;onomawoc 


Ottawa 


Pewankee 


Summit 


Vemon 


Waukesha 




Total 


10,827 


14,966 96 




WAUPACA— 

Bear Creek 


101 
182 
825 

27 
292 
204 

26 
226 


148 48 

87 86 


Caledonia 


Dayton , 


166 00 


Dupout 


12 96 
140 16 


Fafmington 


Fremont ' 1 


97 92 


Helvetia 


12 48 
108 48 


lola , 


Larabee 




Lebanon 




218 

886 
184 

61 
684 
276 
240 
420 

18 
680 
447 


102 24 


Lind : 


184 80 


Little Wolf 


88 82 


Katteson 


'29 28 


Mukwa 


266 82 


Royalton 


182 00- 


St. Lawrence 


1-16 20 


Scandinavia 


201 60 


Union 


6 24 


Waupaca 


802 40 


Weyauwega , 


214 6 9 


Tola! 


4,786 


12,296 80- 


WAUSHARA— 

Aurora ,, 


876 
882 
126 
116 

62 
148 
298 
218 
288 
218 
849 
176 
164 

86 


180 00 

188 86 

60 48 

66 68 

24 96 

68 64 

140 64 

104 64 

111 84 

102 24 

167 62 

84 00 

78 72 

80 80^ 


Bloomfield 


Goloma 


Dakota 


Deerfleld • 


Hancock 


Leon 


Marion^ 


Mi. Morris, 


Oasis. *'!!!!;!! 


Plainfield '/.'.'. 


Poysippi 


Richford 


Rose 



Digitized by 



Google 



ao 



Tablb I — ApporHonmmU of School Fund /fieom«— ^sontinned. 



Counties aod Towns. 



No. of 


Apportion- 


children. 


ment. 


228 


$109 44 


184 


88 82 


281 


110 88 


216 


108 68 


8,788 


II ,816 84 


848 


1167 04 


871 


178 08 


499 


289 62 


1,099 


627 62 


1,142 


648 16 


410 


196 80 


404 


198 92 


976 


468 00 


278 


181 04 


8,906 


1,874 40 


889 


162 72 


861 


408 48 


648 


268 04 


879 


181 92 


624 


261 A 


698 


287 04 


187 


66 76 


12,802 


$6,144 96 


282 


186 86 


488 


281 84 


161 


72 48 


106 


50 88 


82 


89 86 


72 


84 66 


1,176 


664 48 



Wavsrara — coatinned. 

SaxTille 

Spring wster 

Warren 

Wautoma 

Total 

WINNEBAGO— 

Algoma 

Black Wolf. 

Clayton 

Menasha 

Neenah 

Nekimi 

Nepeuskin 

Omro 

Oshkosh 

Osfakosh, citj 

Poygan 

Rushford 

Utica 

Vlnland 

Winchester 

Winneconne 

Wolf RiTor 

Total 

WOOD— 

Centralia 

Grand Rapids. 

Rudolph. 

Saratoga 

Seneca 

Sigel 

Total 



Digitized by 



Google 



21 



Table No. I.—REOAPITULATION BY COUNTIES. 



Counties. 



No of 
Gbildreu 



Apportion 
meat. 



Adams 

Ashland 

Bayfield 

Brown 

Buifalo 

Burnett 

Oalumet 

Ohippewa . . . . 

Oolumbia. ... 

Crawford 

Dane 

Bodge 

Boor 

Douglas . . . • . 

Dunn 

£aa Claire.... 
Fond du Lac . 

Grant 

Green 

Green Lake . . . 

Iowa 

Jackson 

Jefferson. ... 

Juneau 

Kenosha 

Kewaunee . . . , 
La Crosse . . . < 
La Fayette . . . 
Manitowoc . . . 
Marathon . . . . 
Marquette . . . 
Milwaukee . . . 

Monroe 

Oconto 

Outagamie . . 
Ozaukee . . . . 

Pepin , 

Pierce 

Polk 

Portage ..... 

Racine , 

Richland 

Rock 

8t Croix...* 

Sauk 

Shawano .... 
Sheboygan . . , 



2,184 

82 

129 

6,946 

2,602 

78 

4,064 

1,404 

416 

10,694 
4,604 

20,146 

17,874 

926 

208 

1,868 

2,281 

18,086 

18,869 
8,834 
6,161 
9,610 
2,801 

14,882 
4,477 
6,126 
2,668 
8,971 
8,816 

12,892 
1,288 
2,912 

28,787 
6,882 
1,688 
6,688 
6,987 
1,886 
2,660 
669 
8,401 
8,777 
6,964 

14,097 

8,128 

8,886 

488 

11,996 



$1,048 82 

89 86 

61 92 

8,884 08 

1.200 96 

87 44 

1,946 92 

678 92 

199 20 

6,086 12 

2,209 92 

9,669 60 

8,889 62 

444 48 

97 44 

894 24 

1,094 88 

8.681 28 
6,662 82 
4,000 82 
2,477 28 
4,612 80 
1,104 48 
7,119 86 
2,148 96 
2,460 48 

1.280 64 

2.866 08 

4.281 20 
6,948 16 

691 84 

1,897 76 

18,817 76 

2,688 86 

769 84 
2,679 84 
8,868 76 

641 28 
1,224 00 

816 82 

1.682 48 
4,212 96 

2.867 92 

6.766 66 
1,601 44 
4,024 80 

207 84 

6.767 60 



Digitized by 



Google 



82 



Tablb No. L-^ICecapihdaHon hy (7oiin^f6«— continaed. 



Counties. 



No. of 
Children 



Apportion- 
ment 



Trempealeau 

Vernon 

Walworth .. 
Washington 
Waukesha. . 
Waupaca. . . 
Waushara .. 
Winnebago. . 
Wood 

Totol .. 



2,638 

6.884 

9,601 

10,866 

10,827 

4,786 

8,788 

12,802 

1,176 



^1,218 24 
2,824 82 
4.660 48 
4,976 20 
4,966 96 
2.296 80 
l,8l(j 84 
6,144 9« 
664 48 



861,769 



178,644 8S 



■'\ 



Digitized by 



Google 






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Digitized by 



Google 



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g 




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163 



> iC •« '"i* 



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TABLE NO. THL 



OERTIFIOATES 


• 








MALR TEACUKK8. 


FEMALE TEACKBBS. 




Coanties. 


1st OB. 


2d GR. 


dd OR. 


Ist OB. 


2d OR. 


3d OR. 


Total. 






1 


9 


1 




51 


62 


AaVilonfl 






ABOianu .»• • 












1 
84 
45 
8 
66 
41 
19 

1«6 
96 

122 

140 
82 

169 

81 

6 

78 

89 

152 

187 

125 
85 

154 
41 

177 
89 
78 
86 
48 

124 


1 




1 


1 
6 


5 
82 

1 
26 
10 

8 
18 
88 
55 
26 
47 
60 
14 

8 
22 

5 
85 
60 
29 
27 
60 

6 
84 
24 
22 
14 

6 
84 






41 








82 


Tliit>n A^f 








4 












91 




1 








62 


niark 






22 










2 
3 
2 
8 


166 


CrAwford 


6 


4 
2 


142 


Darip Ist Dis .... 


181 


Drhp 9d D*m 




1€9 




2 


1 
8 


132 


Tifidirt^ 2d Diflt 




2 


229 






45 






1 

'"'2' 
11 
6 

1 
2 
2 






9 




1 






101 


"Kan rift'rP . ..... 


""2* 

1 

5 


1 
18 

9 

1 
10 

4 


47 


Fond du Lac 


2 
6 
8 
6 


271 


Grant 


259 


Greet! 


169 


Green Lake 


185 




220 






46 


Jefferson 


6 
3 

1 


2 
6 
8 




8 
9 

7 


278 


Juneau 

Kenoaha 


181 
106 




50 












49 


T.a ffl vpttP . ... 


4 


6 






168 










Marathon 




2 

1 
1 
1 


25 

7- 
20 
14 
22 

8 
28 
48 

6 
29 

6 




4 
1 
3 

1 


28 
71 
86 
21 
184 
22 
85 
82 
27 
44 
16 


64 


Marauette 




80 


Milwaukee Ist Dist. . . 




60 


Milwaukee 2d Dist 




87 
156 


Oconto 


1 


■'■'2' 
6 




2 

1 


88 


Ontaffamie 


lis 


Ozaukee 


2 


87 


Pepin . . .... 






88 


Pierce 




8 
2 


2 


8 

1 


81 


Polk 




25 



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165 



Tablb No. 


vm- 


-Ckrtifieates — concluded. 






^ 


MALB 


TSACKBHS. 


FEMALE TEACUEHS. 




Counties. 


lat OR 


2d GB. 


3d OB. 


iSt OR. 


2d QR. 


8d OB. 


Total. 


Portage 

Racine 


2 


1 

2 




9 


2 


2 


62 
48 
76 
77 
94 
49 
196 

'ioT* 

65 
90 
98 
61 

151 
65 

115 
60 
18 


68 
60 


Richland 

Bock, let Dist 


2 
2 
1 


57 
86 
28 
18 
56 

2 
18 
18 
25 
35 
78 
49 

8 
82 

8 

9 




4 

I 

4 

7 

11 


189 
122 


Rock, 2d Dist 


122 


Saint Croix 


71 


Sauk 


8 


i" 


268 


Shawano 


18 


Shebovfiran 






126 


Trempealeau 










78 


Vernon 










116 


Walworth 


8 
2 

1 
2 


1 

5 
8 

4 

1 


2 


7 


147 


Waahlnffton 


141 


Waukesha 


...... 


8 

6 

11 

4 


212 


Waupaca 


80 


Waushara 


168 


Winnebago 

Wood 


1 
1 


69 
28 










Totals 


66 


1 ^^ 


1478 


19 


165 


4851 


6198 











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TABLE No. IX. 



TEACHERS' INSTITUTES-1868. 



Counties. 



Adams 

Crawford . . . . 

Dane, 2d dist. 

Door 

Eau Claire.. . 



Iowa 



Jefferson. 
Kenosha . 



Oconto 

Outagamie . . . 

Ozaukee 

Pepin 

Polk 

Richland 

Rock, 1st dist. 

Rock, 2d dist. 

St. Croix 

Sauk 



Sheboygan . . . 
Trempealeau . 
Walworth .. .. 
Washington . . 
Waukesha . . . 
Waupaca .... 

Waushara 

Wood , 



Where held. 



Plainville . 
Seneca . . . 

Madison . . 



Sturgeon Bay . . . 
Eau Claire and) 
Augusta ) 

Mineral Point. . 

Concord and ) 

Waterloo f 

Pleasant Pralne. 

Peshtigo, 

Oconto f 

Pensaukee 

Appleton 

Pt. Washington. 

D.irand 

Farmingt'n Ctr'r 
Rich and Centre 

Janesyille 

Jauesville and ) 

Clinton j" 

Hudson 

Baraboo 



It rraine 

;o. ) 

and V 
kee . . .) 



By whom con- 
ducted 



A. J. Cra'g 

C. W. Clinton. 
0. 0. Stearns ) 
N.E.Golthwaitj 
Geo. H. DemoQOD 

W. H. Lockwood 

J. G. McMynn^ 
0. H. Allen, 

D. G. Purnian, 
Sam'l Parks J 

Geo. W. Bird . 

R. Graham.... 



Juo. Fairchild. 



Jno. Stephens. . 
■P. K. Gannon. . . 
A. J. Cheney. . . 
R. H. Clark . . . . 
G. D. Stevens.. 
J. G. McMynn.. 



Spring Green.. 

Plymouth 

Trempealeau . . 
Delavan 



Waukenha . . . , 

Waupaca 

Wautoma 

Grand Rapids. . 



A H. Weld . . . 
R. B. Crandall 
A. J Craig, 
R. B Crandall, 
J. H. Terry, " 
J. £. Thomas. . 

S. S. Luce 

J. G. McMvnn. 



J. G. McMynn. 
S. D. Gaylord . 
J. G. McMynn. 
G. F. Witter. . . 



29 
28 
18 
60 
50 
150 
130 
40 

42 

40 



42 
122 



When held. 



12V 
135 
62 
22 



April 15, 1868. 
April 26-28, 1868. 

Dec. 6-7, 1867. 

October 15, 1867. 

April, 1868. 

Oct. 7-11, 1867. 

Oct 28-29, 1867. 
Oct. 21-22, 1867. 
Oct. 1-19, 1867. 

May, 1868. 

October, 1867. 
October, 1867. 
May 26-29, 1868. 
Jan. 16-18, 1868. 
Oit. 28, ^ov. 1,»67 
Nov. 2-4, 1867. 
Nov 12, 1867. 
June 17, 1868. 
October. 

April 20-26, 1868. 

Apr. 27, May 1, *68 

Mar. 81, Apr. 1, '68. 
Sept. 24-26, 1867. 
January, 1868. 



March 23-27, 1868. 
April 27-30. 1868 
April 20-24, 1868. 
March 16-22, 1868. 



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DICTIONARIES. 



Statement showing the counttei, towns and districts which have 
been supplied with Dictionaries during the year ending Dec. 
10, 1868. 




Brown 

Buffalo 

Burnett 

Calumet 

Chippewa .... 
Clark 

COLUMBL^ 

Crawford 

Dane 

Dodge . 

Door 

Dunn 

Fond du Lao.... 
Grant 

Green 

Iowa 



Green Bay City 

Morrison.* 

New Denmark 

Preble 

Modena , 

Montana 

Waumuudee 

Grantsburg 

Brillion and Rantoul 

Rantoul 

Stockbridge 

Chippewa Falls 

Eagle Point 

Loyal 

Arlington 

Lewiston 

Portage City 

£astman '. 

Haney and Scott 

Dunkirk. 

Madidon, city 

Lowell 

Liberty Grove 

Sturgeon Bay 

Eau Galle 

Menomonie 

Red Cedar and Elk Mound. . . 

Auburn 

Fond da Lac 

Fond du Lac, city. 

Reetown 

Glen Haven and Bloomington. 
Patch Grove and Bloomington 

Waterloo 

York and New Glarus. 

Dodgeville 

Mineral Point, city 



1, 4 deps 
5 
6 
8 
2 
2 
6, 8 

1, 2 
1 

2, 4 
5 

1, 4 deps 

6 

4 

2 

1 

4 deps 

12 

12 

8 

4 deps 

2, H dep 



, F dep 
4 
2 
2 

12 

1 

11 deps 

8 

1 

10 

1 

8 

6 

8 deps 



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168 



Dittributiom of DtetionarieM—WMimaeA. 



Counties. 


Towns. 


No. of 
Districts 


No. of 
Copies. 


Jacksoh 


Albion 


5 

1, 2 deps 

5 deps 

5, 2 deps 

8 
9 
1 
2 
I2,8depfl 



6. 6 deps 

3 

8 

4 
1 
6 

49 8Cb*]B 

6 
6 
2 
6 
4 
5 
9 
8ders 
1, h.dept 
2 

1, 2 deps 

1 
8 
1 
4 

Ist ward 
4 

8, h.dept 
8 

2, 4th D. 

10 
2, int. d. 

8 

2 

6 

4 

2, 2 deps 

4 

8, 2 deps 

4, 4 deps 

5 

2 

6 




Jkffbbson 


Lake Mills, Aztalan and Milfbrd 

Watertown, city 




JUNKAU •• 


Lisbon • 






Necedah 






Wonewoc • 




KXKOSHA 


Bristol 




La Crossb 


Washington 




La Fatetti 


Center 






Kendall 






Shallsbarg 




MAlNITOWOC 


Two Rivers 




Uarathon 


Berlin 






Stettin 






Texas 




Mabquetr 


Shields 




MlLWAUKXl - . . . 


Milwaukee city 


49 




Wanwatosa 




Monroe 


Adrian 






Clifton 






Greenfield 






Little Falls 






Jefferson 






Wilton and Tomah 




Oconto 


Oconto, village 

Port Washington 




Ozaukee 




Pepih 


Canton 






Pepin 




Pierce ........ 


Oak Grove 






Salem 




Polk 


Black Brook 




Portage 


Eau Pleine 






Stevens* Point, city 




Richland 


Bloom 






Buena Vista 






Marshall 






Richland 






Rockbridge and Henrietta 




Rock 


Clinton 






Harmony 






Plymouth 






Porter and Center 




Saint Croix 


Richmond 






Troy and Kinnickinnick 




gi^UK 


Reedsburg 




Shawano, i - - « . 


Waukecheon 




Shebotoan 


Plymouth 






Sheboygan, city 




TRKlfPSAUEAU .... 


Caledonia and Trerooealeau 






Hale 




Vernon 


^Christiana and Coon 





* Joint with Portland, Monroe Co. 



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169 
Diitrihutian of 2H' cH'onartM^onoluded, 



OouDtiea. 



Towns. 



No. of 
Districts 



No. of 
copies. 



Walworth 
Waufaoa . 

WiNNXBAOO 

Wood . . . . , 



Darien 

Elkhorn 

Geneva 

Oaldonia 

Caledonia and Win Chester* 

lola 

Lind and Daytonf 

Omro 

Grand Bapids 



7, 2 deps 
1, 2 deps 
1, 2 deps 
6 
6 
4,6 
12 
6, 2 deps 
l,2ddep 



1^8 



* In Winnebago comity. 

t Joint with SazertUe, Waushara connty. 



STATEMENT showing the Dittricts to which Dictionaries hav e 
been $old during the year ending December 10, 1868. 



Counties 


Towns. 


No of 
Districts. 


No. of 
Copies. 


Dahb 


Barke 


10 






Verona 




DODOK 


Trenton 




Gbawt 


Liberty 






Marion 




Gbekn 


Mount Pleasant 




Iowa 


Ridgeway 




Sauk 


Freedom 




Walworth 


La Grange 




WlM2fKBAGO ..... 


Nepeuflkin %. . 














10 



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INDEX. 



Page Rep. PageApp. 

Academies 44, 260 

Agricultural College Fund 19 

income of. ,,..... 20 

report of professor of 228 ^ 

Apportionment of school moneys 12, 48 1, 21 

Beloit city, report of superintendent of 12Y 

Berlin city, report of superintendent of 129 

Certificates of teachers 89, 122, 159 164, 268 

Children, number over 4 and under 20 years of age. ... 4, 6, 11 28, 68 

number attending public schools 4, 5, 11 28, 68 

number attending schools of all kinds 6 

number school houses will accommodate 6 108, 149 

City superintendents, convention of 26, 154 

reports of 127 

Colleges 44, 248 

Convention of city and county superintendents 25, 164 

County superintendency.26, 47, 78, 89, 94, 114, 159, 166, 178 

County superintendents, convention of 26, 164 

County superintendents, list for 1869 126 

Cournes of study in Normal schools 180, 188 

Dictionaries, Webster's, distribution of 24 167 

Expenditures for school purposes 10, 12 166 

of board of regents of Normal Schools 186 

Experimental Farm Fund, State University. 20 

Feeble minded children, education of. 168, 172 

Fond du Lac, city, report of superintedent of 182 



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172 

PageBep. PageApp. 

Genuati in the pablic schools 101, 162 

Graded schools 7, 11 66,105 

Hudson city, report of superintendent of 183 

Income of school fund 12, 15, 48 

university fund 16 

normal school fund 18 

agricdtaral college fund 20 

Institutes 24, 155, 167, 172 

Janesville city, report of superintendent of. 185 

La Crosse city, report of superintendent of 189 

Libraries. 66, 106 

Madison city, report of superintendent of 140 

Management of school fund, plan of 50 

Milwaukee city, report of superintendent of 141 

Month of sohool, number of days to constitute 47 

Needed leginlation 46 

Normal school fund 17 

income of. 18 

Normal schools, 41, 164, 173, 177 

terms of admission to 198 

Office work, travel, etc., of state superintendent 45 

Oshkosh city, report of supeHntendent of 145 

Platteville normal school 41, 88, 180 

report of principal of. 196 

Receipts of moneys for school purposes 10, 11 162 

Reports of City Superintendents^ 

Beloit 127 

Berlin 129 



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173 

Pftge Rep. Page App. 
Reports of City Superintendents— (continued.) 

Fond du Lac 182 

Hudson 188 

Janesville 185 

La Crosse 189 

Madison 140 

Milwaukee 141 

Oshkosh 146 

Sheboj£an 149 

Reports of County Superintendents — 

Brown 61 

Buffalo 61 

Burnett 62 

Chippewa 62 

Columbia 66 

Dane— 1st dist 66 

Dane— 2d dist 78 

Dodge — western disc 77 

Door 78 

Dunn 79 

Eau Claire 79 

Green 80 

Jackson ', 81 

Juneau 84 

La Fayette 88 

Manitowoc • 89 

Marathon 90 

Milwaukee— 1st dist 90 

Marquette 96 

Outagamie 99 

Ozaukee 99 

Richland 102 

St. Croix 103 

Sheboygan 108 

Trempealeau 110 

Walworth 112 

Washington 116 

Waukesha 117 

Waushara 120 

Winnebago 120 

Report of the board of regents of State University 207 

Report of board of examiners for Platteyille Normal School. . 197 



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174 

Page Rep. PagcApp. 
Report of president of board of regents of Normal Schools. . . 177 

Report of president of State University 248 

Report of principal of Platte ville Normal School 197 

Report of principal of Whitewater Normal School 206 

Report of professor of agriculture of State University 228 



School districts, number of 4 

School fund, how produced 18 28 63 

amount of IS 

transactions in 14 

management of 60 

income 16 

Schoolhouses 9, 10, 12 108,149 

out-buildings of 70, 81 108,149 

Schools, average number of days maintained 6 28 68 

graded, number of 7, 11 66,106 

private 6, 162 108,149 

State teachers' association 26 , 161 

certificates 89 

State University 48, 167, 168, 207 

Statistics, summary of 11 

State superintendent, work of 46 

Teachers, number required 7, 11 66,106 

number employed 7, H 66,106 

examination of 166 

private examination of 121 

qualifications of 1 68 

wages of 7, 8, 11 66, 106 

Teachers' certificates 89, 122, 169 163, 268 

institutes 24, 165, 167, 172 166 

wages 6 66,106 

Terms of admission to State Normal Schools 198 

Terms of school 157 

Textbooks 21 108,149-68 

Town teachers' associations 67, 116 

Township system of school government, 80, 78, 91, 108, 106, 114 
166, 165. 

University fund 16 

income of 16 



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175 

Page Rep. PageApp. 

Webster's dictionary 24 167 

Whitewater normal school 42, 188 

opening address at dedication of. . . 199, 

report of principal of 206 

Wisconsin teachers' association, annual session of 26, 161 

executive session of 171 



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